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This page contains every turn made so far for Realms of Orbis V1. If you want to see the direct sequel, click here.

Turn 1: 0 to 500 FAM

Civilization 5 OST - Menu Theme05:18

Civilization 5 OST - Menu Theme

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn1PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 1

RealmsofOrbisTurn1DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 1

RealmsofOrbisTurn1CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 1

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47275660&viewfull=1#post47275660


Turn quote: The introductory blurb.

Events of the years 0 to 500 First Age of Man (FAM):

-The warm Wennuan period is coming to an end, with some arid, colder conditions returning. It is the warmest and wettest the world has been in many years, with much of the land covered by dense forests. Most people live in small communities of semi-permanent housing, taking the opportunity to frequently migrate. Pottery usage is common, along with simple woven textiles. In recent years, farming humans have begun restricting forests and planting a variety of crops, especially in alluvial river valleys.

-The most complex societies are located in the major river valleys. The people there practice intensive agriculture, live in stone or mudbrick houses, and have basic forms of hierarchical social organisation and craft specialization. Many petty chiefs rule over small villages and towns. Even in areas where copper smelting is practiced, there is little to no commerce. Most economic activity is restricted to individual settlements, and most goods travel around in the form of gifts or tributes. Existing technical specialists are entirely dependent on their attached community, often beholden to the chief. Despite this, there are signs of increasing political sophistication, with some ruling elites holding several settlements simultaneously.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence

-A tribe of dwarves, split off from their home many years ago, ended up migrating to the islands south of Jiuan. The descendants of these dwarfs, called Dvegr, now have darker skin, as well as less facial hair (instead of full-blown beards, these dwarfs are normally seen with sideburns, goatees, imperial soul patches and stashburns). In the Year 0, a great Dvegrn leader called Allvaldr united these dwarfs, founding the settlement of Miklagard and the rule of Dvergfit.

-The Dvegrn beliefs are formalized in the form of Verolin, which is chosen as the state religion. The symbol of the faith is a cross with three horizontal crossbeams. It is a polytheistic religion, with a sizeable pantheon of gods. The head god is Ocil, the birth-giver, creator of all that exists, as well as god of law, order, and justice. His brothers are Punor, god of lightning and thunder, Veldon, god of the sea, storm and water and Flin, god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. Ocil was married to Siera, goddess of marriage, love, beauty, sexuality and birth and Veldon was married to Artemedes, goddess of summer, the forests and hills.

-Many believe that Ocil, using his power as the creator, made life easier for everyone. However, allowing his brother to use his powers only once, Flin became god of the dead and ruler of the underworld, angering Ocil. Flin then got married to Siera's sister, Era, goddess of lust and greed, as she hated Siera for getting married to Ocil.

-The planet was a beautiful world, before Flin angered Ocil, resulting in a great war between the two, which lead to Flin summoning a great flood to stop Ocil from entering his realm and trapping him in the underworld. According to the legends, the planet had lost much of its land due to the flood, leading to the ancestral home of the Dvegr, the legendary Rybakov Mountain and its neighboring mountains, to be lost, with the top becoming the islands south of the middle of Jiuan.

-Around this time, the Dvegr begin building first seaworthy boats. Made of rough-hewn logs with a simple sail made from matted reeds, they began striking out from their island for the first time. They largely practiced fishing and gift-exchange trading. A cohort of warriors are sworn to protect the budding Dvegr community. Over time, their role becomes almost religious.

SkagosanFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence

-Known as 'Stoneborn' Dwarves by foreigners and 'Skagosi' by themselves, these Dwarves developed from a tribe inhabiting the mountains of northwest Jiuan. The Stoneborn have a strong oral tradition, through which it is believed that the tribe gradually splintered and migrated away, Supposedly, one king in particular, called "Dvegr", brought his clan south into parts unknown. They worship gods that are believed to dwell deep underground, called 'the Deep Ones'. Their worship takes place in underground chapels, and becoming a deep priest is seen as an honour for most Stoneborn. Most Skagosi have to choose a patron god to worship first and foremost, and their power is channeled through carved runestones that can be used for magical purposes.

-Around the time, the Skagosi dwarves began to grind and polish stone for tools instead of using flint. A useful innovation, for it allows them to make a great variety of reliable and strong tools using cheap and readily available materials, with the design resembling those of the Xiaomai culture. This period also marks the advent of the Neolithic.

-The Skagosi formalize a warrior class, armed with polished stone axes. Bloodthirsty and adventurous, they expand throughout their mountain homeland. Deeply religious, and are said to use magic in their battles. The mountains become commonly known as “The Skagrosan Mountains” after their exploits.

-The Skagosi developed a position of spiritual authority around this time. Upon death of the previous leader, all of the most wealthy Skagosi convene in Krellgr (a sacred ground with huts) to feast and fight. At the end, they elect the most worthy to lead them.

-In Krellgr, the first signs of settled life appear at this time. The Skagosi began mining tunnels, settling caves and building shrines. Besides the multiple tribes they displace in violent conflicts, they have little contact with other peoples, save for polished stone tools trade with the Xiaomai.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand
Capital: Unconquerable
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-From the hills of the Nigasand peninsula, come the most dreaded creatures of all, the orcs. Disturbed by the encroaching human farming villages, they descended upon them and slaughtered many, driving away the rest. Primitive beasts they may be, they have largely adopted most human innovations such as agriculture and polished stone tools. At the end of the period, they also learned to fish from human captives. They entertain themselves by organizing fights in a sandy pit called an “arena”.

-Calling themselves the “Undefeated” (more commonly known as the Orcs of Nigasand), they expanded throughout the peninsula, looting many villages and driving out the humans. They often coated their flint spears and daggers in poisons, and are well known for their lack of mercy. Interaction with humans meant a complete change of lifestyle, as the orcs began the transition to an agricultural society.

-Their primary settlement (Unconquerable) developed a network of outlying villages that supply it with wheat, which is baked into a kind of flatbread. They also provide labour, their first project being a 2m high wall around the capital. Nigasandian chief declared the peninsula to be a safe haven for orcs, and many of the orcs in northern Notos migrate there, especially when humans of the far south began bloody retaliatory attacks.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Berlinia
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-King
Race: Human
Economy: Palace economy

-Irminonia was the first state to come out of the Aeris culture. Comprised of several riverside towns, the Irminians were ruled over by a god-king. The reign of the first king is recorded in clay tablets inscribed with pictures and symbols – the first written words. On them, they detail his exploits in life, such as uniting the clans and introducing many new institutions.

-One of these new institutions involved the first professional soldiers. They used stone and copper for weaponry, and carried bows as well. They were trained upon coming of age and sworn to protect the god-king and his interests. Three other great men were appointed as advisors, and the records say they were responsible for many new improvements.

-These improvements included the clearing of public pathways, irrigation projects, the planting of olive groves, the building of corrals for livestock, and improved food storage. The Irminians are fairly prosperous, with a varied diet. Tribute is sent to the palace in Berlinia, from where it is redistributed outwards. All specialists, ranging from priests, to scribes, to copper workers, all lived in Berlinia. There is some trade between Berlinia and other great towns.

Turn 2: 500 to 1000 FAM

Chopin Nocturne No 4 in F, Op 15 No 1, Sandor Falvay04:03

Chopin Nocturne No 4 in F, Op 15 No 1, Sandor Falvay

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn2PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 2

RealmsofOrbisTurn2DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 2

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47287720&viewfull=1#post47287720

Events of the years 500 to 1000 First Age of Man (FAM):

-The colder and more arid Ganleng period begins. Colder by half a degree, it marks the return of some glaciers, forcing many villages to relocate. In one instance, a shaman sacrificed a goat in front of a glacier, halting its advance. Elsewhere, prolonged droughts begin. The Flovis cities go through a crisis, and many of them collapse or fall in conflict, while the Kota culture begins to transition. Some of the forests of Oycumen begin to recede to reveal plains, perfect for the first horse riders. These horse riders live by the rivers and plains of west Jiuan, and bury their dead under large mounds of dirt.

-Large stone temples are rapidly built in the Flovis cities just before their sudden collapse, followed by a century of abandonment and then resettlement. The new cities are now keeping written records have begun smelting bronze, and now have powerful kings. The Kota culture is forced to adapt likewise, as the grassy plains they depend on for pasture dry out. One of the Flovis city kings manages to unite his people towards the end of the period to found “Swarerde”.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The Dvegr have been steadily intensifying food gathering for some time, and have started to look after lentil bushes. They finally take the last step of sowing the seeds, making them into farmers. High in protein and resistant to drought, it’s perfect for the Dvegr and for this time. They store the lentils in pits, and supplement their diet with taro, which they also start to cultivate.

-Lentil farming and professional fishing cause a population increase and allow the dwarves to build more fishing villages. Simple rock walls are built to protect villages from one another (intertribal raids are common), and other dwarves are starting to colonize nearby islands. Trade and specialization is still at a basic level, but is showing signs of change.

-As Allvaldr's descendent, Alvadniðr, rules the kingdom, many begin to wonder how they might ap-pease the gods. Alvadniðr tells everyone that he shall sacrifice himself to the gods, and he will have his son, Prestrú, sacrifice him. The sacrifice happens in the 507th year of the First Age of Man, as the now-72 year old Alvadniðr is killed on an altar. The next day, Prestrú is crowned king. At the time of his crowning, it is said that the rain stopped falling and divine light shined upon Prestrú. Many be-lieved they have appeased the gods for the next 1000 years.

-A collection of oral epic poems appears around this time, speaking of the tribe that migrated to the legendary Rybakov Mountain and its neighboring mountains,its misadventures and its leader, a bas-tard king called Dauforn. Usually these epic poems are declared with an accompaniment of a kind of early harp, played while held vertically between one's knees, with one's left hand fingers on the strings, while the strings are never pressed against the neck of the instrument, giving a harmonic and unique sound, despite the instrument's weak nature.

SkagosanFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence

-Around this time, the Skrall begin building their first boats. Essentially mats of reeds tied together, the Skrall use them to float up and down rivers, and often tie them together to make temporary bridges. Stronger ones are used by fishermen, contributing an important source of protein to the diet.

-As the dwarves continue expanding violently, their warriors take on even bigger roles within their society. They carve magical symbols into their flesh, train from birth, and wear thick clothes with bone and wood sewn into them for armour. These skirmishes take place in the south along the river.

-The priests are exasperated after spending many years trying to contact the deep ones. They chant and carve symbols on the stones, and seemingly go mad. But their work pays off when they see the veins of brown and green rippling in the stone. They hear a whisper of “dig” resonate throughout the room, and feel the ground rumble.

-Despite their violent expansion, the dwarves are still only loosely tied together. Fishing has helped sustain their growing numbers, while religion helps tie them together. They do contact many other dwarves and peoples, and even get their hands on small brown daggers and beads. They bend easily, and their secret eludes the Skrall.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand
Capital: Unconquerable
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The violent orcs have found another awful way to kill. After observing humans using bows, it didn’t take long to replicate them. Although the orcs lack discipline, they can at least point a bow in the general direction of the enemy. As time passes on, their leaders stress the importance of shooting, and so they eventually gain wider adoption. Their human foes are forced to begin wearing armour.

-Flovis cities start to collapse from the effects of climate change,and the orcs see this as an op-portunity to push the war further south. They ransack many of the unfortified towns, enslave captives, and loot what they can carry. It is a violent end to the Flovis cities, and it takes many years for them to recover. When they do, it is under autocratic kings who command armies large enough to hold back the orcs.

-These orcs go through changes of their own: they become more organized, with shamans now being appointed by the biggest and fiercest orc to help him rule. They declare that enslavement of an orc is wrong, but humans are fair game. A massive slave market is opened in the capital, where slaves are given away in return for plunder. They farm for the orcs, bringing much of their knowledge with them. As it becomes drier, they start planting crops such as peas and beans to supplement the diet.

-As the orcish society develops, so does their religion. Rage means to fight. That the bigger, madder, and stronger, the better. With low inhibitions and few skills beyond fighting, these orcs love to pillage, loot, and rape. The shamans say that all humans should become slaves to the orc, and while some do, that’s still quite the monumental task.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Berlinia
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-King
Race: Human
Economy: Palace economy

-The copper smelters in the palace of Berlinia discover how to work arsenic and tin into copper to produce a harder and stronger metal. Called bronze, it is costly and highly prized, as it doesn’t need constant sharpening or reinforcement. Also, copper and bronze ingots are used to measure the value of goods, and reliably store it.

-The God-Kings of the period began encouraging the dissemination of knowledge. As time passes on, scribes immortalize the benevolence of their god-kings by writing epic tales about them literally bringing the light of knowledge to the masses. By the end of this period, he is seen as a god incarnate who can control the heavens.

-Other, wider economic shifts begin to take shape. In response to the drying and cooling climate, farmers have been intensifying agricultural production in smaller areas of irrigated land. This of course puts more power into the hands of the god-king, who controls irrigation works. Vines and barley are grown for the use of wine and beer, which are prized as tribute, as the effects they have on one’s head are believed to be magical.

-Livestock is also being increasingly favoured as the climate shifts. With drier weather and delib-erate deforestation, clear expanses of land are freed up for pasture. Horses (whose population has been increasing in recent years) are kept for their milk alongside cattle. The Irminians have also begun expanding southwards, often taking over abandoned settlements. Conflict is also frequent.

GorlanFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Karoshi
State Religion: Lu’tya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-Around this time, population pressures and the dissemination of agricultural techniques leads to many goblins on the outskirts of the Olla culture to migrate to a coastal archipelago. They bring many innovations with them, and successfully displace the hunter-gatherers who originally lived there. Agriculture and polished stone are two such inventions, along with crude ploughs they use to break up the sandy soil of the islands.

-The goblins are poorly disciplined, and unlike their orc cousins, lack the physical strength to mitigate it. They attempt to raid the Aeris farming settlements, but lose many in the process. They only manage to steal what they can immediately carry, and are later driven off when the humans organise warbands for defence. The goblins barter with the Olla culture peoples on a limited scale, as they too hate the Aeris culture.

-The humans later return in revenge, raiding goblin settlements and enslaving many. The goblins are forced to respond by bricking up their doors and climbing into their home by ladders. When danger comes, they pull up the ladder. Being made of mud of course, humans often just batter down the walls. Later, the goblins successfully establish warbands of their own and strengthen defensive works with wooden stockades.

-The Goblins of Gor'lan worship a moon goddess known as Lu'tya and the sun god Yurikai. Lu'tya who they believe to be the mother of all goblins, oddly enough the goddess is not believed to be a goblin but rather a beautiful elvish woman who had laid with an orc, their offspring being the Goblins, the orc soon left Lu'tya to raise her children alone, she eventually moved with her children to the modern day island of Karosh, the largest island in the Gor'lan archipelago. There she raised the gob-lins and taught them what she could of elvish magic, however only so much can be learned and very few would come to prosper as magic users. However her first born son Yurikai, known as the Great Goblin who was the most adept magic users of all of Lu'tya's children. When she passed on it is be-lieved that she became the moon in the sky and that she ruled over the night. Yurikai would go on to lead the Goblins of Gor'lan to conquer and raid the surrounding islands founding the original Kingdom of Gor'lan, however on his death bed he told his children and the other goblins that they could not be ruled by one great goblin alone and that they would need to work together in governance in order for them to survive and Gor'lan to prosper. After his reign ended, 500 years according to the goblins, he evaporated as his mother did and he became the sun and ruler of the day. Heeding his words the goblins soon came together and agreed to elect a great goblin who would in turn reign for ten years under the sun and moon, The meeting held to decide who would become the Great Goblin is known as the Kaloot, or great council, where goblin tribal leaders come together and eventually crown one the Great Goblin.

-In each village there are generally two temples, one devoted to Lu'tya, the mother of Goblins, And one devoted to Yurikai, the Protector of the Goblins. Those who adhear and worship in the temples of Lu'tya generally pray for fertility, child bearing, and good harvest. Known as the giver of life and fertility her temples are usually home to tremendous orgies as well as birthing pits, the Priestess are known to walk around nude with different markings covering their bodies and are also known to dance around in odd fashion claiming to be receiving visions from the Mother. In the temples of Yurikai however pleasures are admonished and many follow what is known as Yaltrok, or the Path of Yurikai, where many goblins go to attempt to master the art of magic, but seeing as magic does not come naturally to goblins very few are successful. Those who follow Yaltrok take vows of silence until their training is complete and are not allowed to visit their loved ones as the only one they need to speak to is Yurikai.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-In the lush jungles of Notos, live a plethora of colourful peoples. Already ancient, they have not yet advanced like their cousins to the far northwest. That has begun to change with the rise of the Aclerians, a people who recently discovered the benefit of rearing emasculated boars and cattle. They begin to expand under the direction of a “Chief”.

-These chiefs mean business, as they tend to be the best warriors and hunters in the clan. Roughly once a decade, a great hunt is called to determine who shall be the next to lead them. Those who kill particularly impressive creatures (such as the dreaded deinotherium) automatically win, although the usual rules stipulate that whoever brings back the most animal skins wins.

-The reasons for their recent expansion are possibly linked to the ongoing climatic changes. As the world cools and dries, large expanses of grassland have become slightly more common. While a similar change several million years prior was responsible for something else, this time it brings pastoral lifestyles to the land.

Turn 3: 1000 to 1500 FAM

Dvorak - Serenade for strings, Op. 22, II06:56

Dvorak - Serenade for strings, Op. 22, II. Tempo di valse (with score)

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn3PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 3

RealmsofOrbisTurn3DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 3

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47311633&viewfull=1#post47311633


Turn quote: The Bronze Age was such a third-place era.

Events of the years 1000 to 1500 First Age of Man (FAM):

-Despite drought, famine, and war, civilization continues its slow, lumbering progress. The neolithic leap, a period of a few centuries, happens in this time. It is marked by the explosive and sudden expansion of many neolithic and copper using societies and their invasion of other, less organised peoples. New polities pop up like mushrooms in all three continents, and the golden age of bronze is now truly underway. Tribes on the plains already adopted the horse. Now they have the sword too. They begin to move.

-The world population grows by 7 million as farming spreads throughout Oycumen and Jiuan, with the original cores developing writing and bronze working. As the original core kingdoms grow, they become more organized politically. The first true empires appear, led by divine monarchs who rule powerful city-states. Despite their absolutism, the growth of populations means they have to appoint bureaucrats and regional governors to help them rule.

-The forests continue to thin, while pasture dries out. Although slowing down, it has resulted in the end of the Kota culture, which has now been driven into the river valleys and forced to become subjects of the city states and monarchies there. One group in western Jiuan has started to expand rapidly, swarming down the plains towards Oycumen. Neolithic technologies have spread rapidly over both continents, forcing the elves to adopt them themselves to better compete with the farmers.

-Many inventions and discoveries appear with the onset of Bronze Age. These include metalworking, writing, wheels, standardized pottery, silver use, swords, early chariots, new looms, and papyrus. The Qingtong people have also discovered the valuable properties of “cottonsilk”. They find that by boiling the buds, they release smooth fibres perfect for making into cloth. Picking out the seeds is a painful job, for the plants have barbed stalks, but the end product is highly prized.

-The Swarerde Empire unifies the Flovis river valley for the first time. They build huge monuments to their King of Kings, and develop a sophisticated culture and society. Their writing system has also developed, having reduced the number of characters used to write from 2000 down to just 300. The orcs are a major driver behind centralizing power in the hands of this King of Kings. If he was unable to stop them,, it would be hard for him to stay in power. Upriver of this nascent Empire live the Mukta Lota, a people with swarthy skin living under chieftains who own tin and gold deposits.

-The world population is 21 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The Dvergit find it hard to carry food around with them. They get around this problem by fashioning bowls and pots out of clay before leaving them to dry out in the sun (and later baking them in primitive ovens). These utensils, as well as recently invented baskets, are useful for carrying all sorts of things around.

-On a tiny island to the west, a group of Dvegr banded together and built a temple dedicated to Flin. They later develop into a cult, believing that Ocil's banishment into the underworld was just. The island is later named Flinsay after the cult, while the major island is named Miklay.

-The Dvegr continue to colonize the Rybakov archipelago and contact other peoples. They eventually discover people who farm, much like them, but grow their crops in flooded fields. What’s more, they use polished stone tools, and wear clothes woven from linen. Some of these innovations start coming back with the traders and colonists.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-The Skagosi continue to dig deeper into the mountains, spurred on by the priests. They grow ever more desperate, even sacrificing sheep. Eventually, it pays off when they strike a seam rich in nearly pure copper. The ecstatic dwarves begin to refine and work the metal, using recently acquired knowledge. The priests carry out their rites once more, and hear the command “dig”.

-The Skagosi have so much copper they don’t know what to do with it. They decide to trade it away to the peoples north and west of them, who in return teach them how to farm. The Qingtong are especially keen to obtain the metal, as they have recently invented bronze and need a lot of raw material for it.

-The dwarves also begin to arm themselves in the same manner as the Qingtong warriors. They organise themselves into bands, each band responsible for defending a particular area (underground or a town). These bands are also responsible for administering justice, and making sure the peace is kept.

-The independent dwarves of the mountains are brought under control of the King, who establishes a prototypical court in Krellgr. With stone temples and houses, it looks rather impressive (to tribesmen in the hills that are). They submit to the authority of Krellgr and adopt the farming lifestyle. They also visit the storehouses there, which are all owned by the King. He has a monopoly on the copper mine, and by extension is in control of most trade.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand
Capital: Unconquerable
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The orcs, although fierce and powerful, are no match for the Swarerde and their King of Kings. However, they continue to copy and steal their inventions. During this period the Orcs become aware that bronze is different to copper, and later replicate the same metalworking techniques used to make bronze weaponry. Unfortunately, supplies of the metal are limited to say the least.

-The orcs also become slightly more organised at this time. Shamans are now using a technique of meditation and chanting to help rile up the orcs before battle. Their magical chants are said to give the orcs energy and the ability to withstand pain. The orcs follow up with raiding Swarerde settlements in hit and run attacks, at least until the humans there start building proper walls.

-Human retaliation is common, especially on the poorly defended orc towns. Wood and earth stockades are built throughout the land separating the orcs from the humans, the narrow gap being of considerable strategic value. Wooden totems are raised in celebration of victories, until eventually many orc towns are overflowing with them.

-Arenas continue to be a primary source of entertainment, and as orcs (or at least the people they steal from) become slightly more sophisticated, so too do the arenas. They grow in size, and are transferred to special buildings (orcs used to fight in the middle of towns, causing too much of a commotion). They also proudly decapitate their enemies, and send the heads to human villages and towns to make a very clear message.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Berlinia
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Palace economy

-Due to the increasing importance of moving bulk goods on land, Irminians come up with an important invention. Oxen-driven wheeled carts, while slow and cumbersome, mark an important advance nonetheless.

-Around this time, the Irminians begin an aggressive southward expansion. Armed with bronze and flint, they also ride in ox carts and keep groups of archers close by (told to shoot at the legs). Despite their violent means, they believe they have benevolent intentions.

-After taking a major city to the south, the God-King declares that it and it’s inhabitants are now his subjects and under his protection. Furthermore, they will be given considerable autonomy in return for their loyalty and tribute. He changes his title too, saying that he is now an “Emperor”. Although this isn’t new to Notos, this is the first time a true Empire has appeared in Oycumen.

-The Imperial army adopts a most innovative armor design. With increasing bronze availability, the Emperor can afford to have armour made for his soldier’s legs and chests. He also introduces the shield, and other aspects of armour and weaponry that almost function like a uniform. Of course, with all these being expensive, he needs to extract ever more tribute.

-After dreaming of a stone which is as black as night, yet burns brightly, the Emperor builds many new temples in his reign. He sends men to look for this stone, and in the meantime busies himself with organising the construction of more irrigation works and granaries.

GorlanFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Karoshi
State Religion: Lu’tya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The Karoshi continue to grow in number and adopt the innovations of those on the mainland of Oycumen. One of these recent discoveries is to do with a strange green rock in their home islands. By pounding it to dust and heating it up, they can make copper. Thus, they enter the chalcolithic.

-As time passes on, the Karoshi find more ways to strengthen their defences. Mudbrick houses give way to ones made of rock and clay, built by masons with copper chisels. They begin to adopt long spears and pieces of wood for shields, while also promoting the best soldiers to positions of leadership. Younger goblins are left to defend their home towns.

-Farming habits also change. The Karoshi are eager to find tasty new plants to grow, and during these centuries they find peas, beans, lentils, and most importantly cowpeas. All are agreeable and go down well. Soil seems to be more fertile than usual too, so they can afford to stay in one place longer, and have a more varied diet.

-As Gilgamesh grows, the Karoshi clear a large square in the middle of the town, which becomes a place to trade petty goods. Meanwhile, walls are built to protect the town from outside forces. The last of the Olla people settle in small numbers with the goblins and trade with them. Of course, town planning and military organisation requires authority. Shamans and certain families begin to fill the role, and take an increasingly bigger part in the collection and redistribution of resources.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-Warlike and savage, the Aclerians are constantly seeking more territory and loot. They have a useful new weapon to help them: the bow. Although weak and with a short range, it has given these people an edge in war and hunting. The losers in these conflicts tend to be dismembered and have their scalps taken as trophies. Cannibalism is also common.

-However, the Aclerians are not all about bloodshed. Who they don’t kill, they trade with. At this stage, most trade involves swapping livestock, trinkets, and other assorted small goods. Since they lack the wheel or animals to ride, and do not stay in one place for long, storing wealth is usually difficult.

-With growing numbers and increasing sophistication, the clan formalizes a position second to the chief to the chief, the shaman. The process to become one is not the easiest, as part of the initiation involves having your eyes gouged out. It is seen as a sacrifice for knowledge, and he commits many things to memory. They name the mountain ranges they live between Ewothines (west) and Loyenia (east). The shaman warns that evil spirits live beyond them.

Turn 4: 1500 to 2000 FAM

Carlos Gomes - "Il Guarany" overture (abertura de "O Guarani")08:40

Carlos Gomes - "Il Guarany" overture (abertura de "O Guarani")

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn4PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 4

RealmsofOrbisTurn4DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 4

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47328546&viewfull=1#post47328546


Turn quote: As a rock on the seashore he stands firm, and the dashing of the waves disturbs him not. He raises his head like a tower on a hill, and the arrows of fortune drop at his feet. In the instant of danger, the courage of his heart sustains him; and the steadiness of his mind bears him out. – Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt

Events of the years 1500 to 2000 First Age of Man (FAM):

-The climate finally stabilizes, although the longer term effects have begun to show. The Au Chau, a farming people who ride on horseback, expands from western Jiuan into Oycumen. They worship a sky god named Dyeus, have a proud tradition of oral poetry, a patrilineal society, and measure wealth in cattle (which they hold sacred). They are divided broadly into warriors, priests, and labourers. Already they have begun to split up into different groups as they expand.

-All sorts of new discoveries and breakthroughs are also made. The first recording of a comet dates to this time, along with the first intact dragon skeleton. Sails made of cloth are used on ships for the first time, while chariots begin to spread with the Au Chau. The Neolithic farmers have spread far and wide, being closely followed by the bronze workers. The first glass beads appear.

-The world population is 30 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-Around this time, the Dvegr complete the transition into Neolithic lifestyles, marked by the adop-tion of polished stone tools, intensification of food production, and staying in one place for multiple decades or centuries. As they settle down, they construct large stone buildings, one of which clearly holds a throne room.

-New oral stories appear, speaking of how Veldon and one of the lesser gods, a group of gods called the Demetes, the gods of the earth, the mountains, fertile earth and the underground world, as they attempt to figure out a way to free Ocil, as they avoid Flin and Era, who are trying to convince other lesser gods to join them against Ocil and destroy him once and for all.

-The Dvegr now have powerful chieftains, bordering on kings. At the moment they only collect small tributes and gifts from the outlying islands, but their name becomes widely known. The Rybakov Archipelago is steadily brought under their control, although they have many skirmishes both among themselves and with the native peoples already living there.

-Despite their propensity for fighting, the Dvegr are keen to trade. They establish contact with more fishermen and travellers, exchanging a great multitude of trinkets and other useless shit. Polished stone tools, copper beads, pottery, and linen are some of the items moved in very small quantities. The low level of trade is partly explained by the small and isolated populations of the archipelago, along with the lack of wealth in general.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-The Skrall Kingdom begins to advance in leaps and bounds. A sudden burst of innovation sprung forth too after the discovery of the extensive copper deposits, and to help keep records the Skagosi developed writing (scratched initially on animal bones and pottery). This writing system advances rapidly too, and within a few centuries develops to have a full range of both syllabic and ideographic runes.

-Skrall begins to rapidly and violently expand southwards. Whole towns are sacked and the inhabit-ants are either killed or sold into slavery to the Qingtong culture. The Qingtong are more than happy to sell manufactured bronze items in return for slaves and pure copper.

-Around this time, the first permanent trackways appear along with tunnels. Despite the lack of wheeled carts, the dwarves are more than capable of utilizing their growing networks of tunnels or the trackways (with donkeys carrying the goods) for trade. Highly centralized, operations are all controlled from the palace at Krellgr.

-Some dwarves discover that under certain conditions, yeast will metabolize sugars into ethanol, a type of neurotoxin. It is highly popular however, and is flavoured with honey for taste. Soon, this “beer” is being produced everywhere and whole vats are sent to Krellgr as tribute (which trades it to the Qingtong in return for more manufactured goods).

-Trade rapidly expands between Skrall and the Qingtong, leading to the rapid growth of professionalization. Craftsmen now work full time, while warehouses are administered by the literate. Attached to the grand palace, they produce ever more wealth. They also record down a great wealth of information about other peoples all around them.

-Finally, the priests and labourers are now finding strange gems, some of which are inscribed with runes. They hear more whispers to keep digging, and eventually hit a layer of mudstone. In it is a massive dragon skeleton, nearly complete and below a layer of ancient lava. It is by itself, and atop a layer filled with the impressions of fern leaves and dragonflies the size of dwarves.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand
Capital: Unconquerable
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The powerful and angry orcs of Nigasand are again warring, although not with the Swarerde as much. They are expanding west, hitting fishing villages and driving away human clans. The land is poor however, and even the domestication of all the remaining animals in the arid lands cannot help too much. They have camels at least, who are useful for carrying orcs and their possessions around.

-The orcs begin to look more towards internal development at this time, due to the lack of success in attacking humans as of late. Raids evolve into sieges, as the orcs attempt to starve the humans out. They later opt to attack trade routes, aiming for donkey and camel trains, from which they loot tributes meant for Swarerde. The Empire responds by retaking several cities in Lower Flovis.

-With the stolen goods (and growing native industry), several orcs turn to becoming full-time craftsmen now. They mostly work military goods, converting what bronze they can obtain into standardized weaponry (swords evolve at this time from daggers). Slaves are still heavily relied on to do the bulk of the heavy work, but they are given higher rations as agricultural productivity improves.

-Some humans even think that life as a slave among the orcs is preferable to being in Swarerde (especially during political turmoil). Small numbers of them move to Nigasand, and later they prove to be invaluable to shamans who are trying to broker alliances with friendly humans. The shamans are also in charge of developing basic infrastructure, including trackways and irrigation.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Berlinia
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Palace economy

-The God-Emperors of Irminonia receive news that various vassal chiefdoms have come into contact with the rapidly expanding Western Au Chau. They prove to be a painful nuisance, and at times even dangerous. However, their skill at riding the horse is unmatched, and it inspires the Irminians to start riding horses themselves. The horses are small and weak however, and do not like to be ridden on by men in heavy armour. Many nobles also don’t like riding on them.

-The army undergoes professional reforms, with each administrative region of the empire being responsible for raising and supplying a “legion” for the army. Men armed with bronze spears, padded cloth tunics, and shields tend to make up the bulk of these legions. Each one is led by a general, appointed by the emperor. Generals have to have at least 15 years of experience to qualify, and many of the more powerful ones tend to start siphoning off some wealth and pres-tige. The new mining complexes are often partly controlled by these generals.

-The empire aggressively pushes south and east in a series of brutal wars, while using diplomacy and trade to form a collection of allied chiefdoms to the north. Wine is readily accepted by the peoples here, who will trade a slave just for a jug of wine. It also helps to spread the culture of the empire in their general direction, as wine drinkers often also enjoy eating the food and wearing the fashions of foreigners. With many forests cleared, the land is turned over to agriculture, although in the north the land is difficult to work and thus offers little wealth.

-Irminonia reaches its greatest territorial extent, and is among the proudest and largest of any em-pire in the world. With a million subjects, existing administrative policy is starting to reach its limits. Production growth is strained, while food distribution is becoming less than adequate. The God-Emperor himself is starting to find it hard to assert himself as a literal god too, especially when the bureaucracy beneath him has swollen in size and many of his subjects never see him.

GorlanFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Karoshi
State Religion: Lu’tya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Palace economy

-Shipbuilding technology begins to rapidly advance among the goblins, mostly due to their proximity to other civilizations and because they live on islands. Sailing vessels become common, and some particularly huge sailing ships (with large hulls made of planks tied together) are even used for the first true examples of long distance bulk trading between themselves, Swarerde, and Irmnonia. Such trade is often risky and uncommon.

-The Karoshi subdue and colonize the last remaining islands in the archipelago. They use rather well-trained spearmen who fight in close formation (as opposed to a loose group). Led by officers and particularly powerful families, these small armies manage to either kill or force the inhabitants. In return for their service to their home cities, the officers and families are given generous grants of this new land.

-Around this time, the leading families decide to reorganize the forty or so separate tribes and clans making up the Karoshi into ten tribes. Each new tribe is named after a mythological goblin hero, and are allowed to send three elders from amongst themselves to Gilgamesh, where a great assembly named the “Geronium” is held. Along with these, the major families each have their own representatives. Understandably, the families hold most of the power, but can ally with some of the ten tribes when it comes to voting.

-In Gilgamesh, a grand palace made of stone and towering over the city is constructed. Here the few dozen or so goblins meet to discuss how to manage affairs and to vote for the “Great Goblin”. The Great Goblin is voted by the Geronium, and lives in the palace. His purpose is to head the proceedings. Voting is done on pottery shards, and records are kept on clay tablets. Most of these tablets record the daily business of building and maintaining infrastructure.

-A small literate class develops after the advent of record-keeping, and are synonymous with the bureaucracy. Many wooden and stone irrigation ditches, wells, water reservoirs, granaries, and warehouses are ordered by these goblins. Agricultural edicts are also important, as many small goblins are given grants of land in areas with poor soils and are expected to improve irrigation there. Any surplus tends to travel to Gilgamesh, where it is bartered for with other goods.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-The Aclerians take to the water for the first time, building themselves sailing boats out of timber, reeds, and animal skins. Although they lack woven cloth for true sails, they make the best of what they have already. One of the reasons is potentially due to a sudden halt in their prior aggressive expansion, necessitating fishing as an alternate means of getting food.

-A great shaman foretold that a great calamity would come to the tribe if they continued their vio-lent and warlike ways. Although it took a few decades for them to truly calm down, the shaman managed to successfully develop ways to convince his people not to war constantly. His successor then later attempts to usurp the chief, presumably in revenge for being blinded. He is exiled from the tribe, and in later years he passes into myth and legend. It is said he used black magic and had dark knowledge.

-Although ostensibly now peaceful, Alcerians still fight frequently among themselves or other tribes, just with reduced intensity. The development of fishing means they can support higher populations, and in turn, increased political sophistication and simple gift trading. Chieftains continue to grow more important, as they go from being merely the first among equals to having a position of authority over others. Effectively they hold a title that is bigger than the mere individual.

Turn 5: 2000 to 2500 FAM

Endless Space OST - Geology04:43

Endless Space OST - Geology

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn5PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 5

RealmsofOrbisTurn5DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 5

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47354886&viewfull=1#post47354886


Turn quote: Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with superstitious doubts. Then, until death itself comes, no calamity need be feared. – Sun Tzu

Events of the years 2000 to 2500 First Age of Man (FAM):

-This is a golden age for humanity, as nearly two thousand years of steady social and economic de-velopment have led to the growth of massive empires, powerful kingdoms, and the adoption of many new technologies. Many nations go through severe political turmoil at this time as the limits of their economic and administrative systems begin to surface. Even the elves feel the strain as the bronze using “Au Chau” constantly fight with them. They may have to move soon, even after adopting chalcolithic technologies.

-In 2498, the records told of a great calamity to befall every nation. The skies darken for years, and the sunset sky turns a deep red. The crops fail, the moons turn blue, and the world much colder. Things do not return to normal for three years, and strange reptilian beasts are seen in the skies screaming. The Au Chau then invaded the great Kingdoms of Oycumen, riding in from the plains after two years of crop failures cause a great famine.

-The use of bronze usage catches on so quickly that it very quickly takes root in societies shortly after or even during copper usage. By the opening of the 26th century, the distinction is mostly meaningless, except in a few certain locations as bronze is now widespread.

-The world population is 39 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The Dvegr advance as they always have, steadily and slowly. As they coalesce into increasingly powerful chiefdoms, the chiefs have the power to organize people on a bigger scale. Irrigation ditches, dykes, granaries, and improved management of the land all contribute significantly to agricultural productivity. Most important of these, is the introduction of rice, grown in small flooded pools.

-With more food, comes a surplus that can support people who don’t need to be directly involved in producing food. Potters, flintworkers, carpenters, weavers, and warriors are among some of these early specialist roles. Groups of them work to help build and furnish fine houses in Miklagard. A statue of Ocil giving a crown to a Dvegr is erected in the largest of these houses.

-Following the expansion of Miklagard, Prestrú's descendant and ruler of Dvergfit, Ásketill, announces that he will sacrifice himself to the gods and have his heir, Bárðr, sacrifice him, just like Alvadniðr. The sacrifice happens in the 2001st year of the First Age of Man, as Ásketill is killed on an altar. The next day, Bárðr is crowned ruler. At the time of his crowning, it is said that rain fell intensely as the sun shined, at that moment, Bárðr is quoted saying that "Veldon is watering the fields, giving us the gift of life".

-Towards the end of the period, a violent volcanic eruption shakes one of the colonies to the northeast. This was followed by a strange beast flying overhead and roaring as fire burst asunder from its mouth. The confused Dvegr saw that a few hours later, a soft powder was raining down upon them, along with chunks of a rock that could float in water. Finally, a great cloud came and consumed the colony in its entirety, leaving no trace but a few survivors in fishing boats.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-As the dwarves dig even deeper, they finally find a strange property from all of the gems they un-covered and inscribed with runes. When held, they make the holder have the ability to lift small objects and set things on fire. To make using them easier, these gems are fixed to staves. The downside is that some of the users have terrible visions when asleep, including a grey monster that screamed and spat boiling water. The priests say the staves may hold great power, but at a great cost to the soul.

-The military campaigns wind down over time as the needs of the rulers change. With so much wealth already, they are content to remain with what they already have. A grand underground li-brary is built to store records, while rooms for storing beers (now with new flavours!) are carved out of the rock. The dragon skeleton and dragonfly fossils have also been prominently displayed in Krellgrs palace, along with a map of the known world (a bronze disc of abstract pictures rather than a work of cartography).

-As trade and commerce expand, some regional centres begin to develop into fully fledged towns. While Krellgr holds supreme power now due to the bronze monopoly, these rival towns do have the benefit of being in closer proximity to better agricultural land or trade. As rice paddy agriculture spreads too, the population in the south begins to rise much more rapidly in the north.

-Several explorers and travellers make contact with a dwarf who is not a Skagosi in roughly 2490. He recites a tale that a great cloud of dust and rock rose up and swallowed his home before him, and so in fear he fled his homeland to head north. From him, the Skagosi become aware that they aren’t the only dwarves. Their new friend enjoys beer thankfully, as do many people outside of the Empire. As a gift, he sends a litter of kittens to Krellgr, as they had not seen cats before.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand
Capital: Unconquerable
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-The savage and backward orcs have always been on the periphery of civilization. Reluctantly how-ever, they adopted the technologies and culture of their advanced neighbours until they slowly even began to resemble them. However, a new forging technique brought strange impurities out of a red rock. A soft grey metal, which is much more common than bronze and more easily worked. A downside is that it’s so soft it bends easily. The metalworkers are busy working out how to fix it.

-The Swarerde go through a period of civil war for a century early on in this period, before they are united by a fiercely militaristic dynasty. Unlike previous ones, they no longer claim to be gods, but merely the children of them. What’s more, this dynasty used an army of charioteers to seize control of the Empire, and they are hungry to grab land from the orcs.

-Despite the orcs building up an impressive army of their own, the Swarerde charioteers drive them away, using mobility to run circles around inflexible orc formations. They are driven back to the hills, where looser formations of infantry armed with swords and shields can hold their own. Unfortunately, since they have few swords or armour, the orcs are unable to retake their lands. They lose control of the lands to the south, largely because they do not have any ships or means of bypassing the armies of Swarerde.

-Social development steadily rises in Nigasand, with the population surging past half a million orcs and humans. While sexually incompatible, the humans nonetheless live as slaves where they work in war industries (such as fletching). Improved communications with the Gor’lan allows them to buy food from the goblins in return for bronze, while gold is imported from Mokta Luka. The bars are stamped with a seal verifying its purity.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Irlinia
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Terminal palace economy

-The core of civilization shifts from the alluvial river valleys towards the seas. Irminonia is quick to realise this, and in this period the Empire begins to construct large wooden trading boats, along with faster and smaller ones driven by oarsmen. Fishing becomes a major industry, with whole villages and towns sprouting up like mushrooms along the coasts. As trade is equally important (contact has been made with the Gor’lan and Swarerde), this means that the first independent merchants are coming into existence.

-The palace economy of Irminonia begins to break apart. With the rise of private commerce and professionals not employed by the state, wealth and land is now being increasingly held in the hands of private individuals. Primitive market elements begin to take root, driven by the God-Emperors edicts to clear pathways for wagons and encourage commerce. This is bad news for the God-Emperor though, who begins to see his control slipping.

-In the 27th century, the God-Emperor declines in rank. No longer is he god of all, but merely selected by the gods to lead. His power further weakens when he begins to split up the Empire into separate “states” which he appoints men to rule over. Wars proliferate towards the end of the era, driven by the widespread adoption of the chariot. In these wars, as many as 30,000 men fight with 1000 chariots. After one of those wars, significant swathes of land were won in the west.

-At the end of the period, the Empire recovers partially from the wars with her neighbours and the Au Chau, but has permanently changed. Rival power centres have risen to prominence in the chaos, and many landlords have found ways to improve farming yields far from the river valleys. The spread of technology has allowed the farmers on the empires borders to grow into rather powerful kingdoms too. The Emperor sacrifices animals and humans to the gods, and is told by a priest that they have given their message already. The deep red skies common at the end of this period give an omen for the end of the golden age.

GorlanFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Karoshi
State Religion: Lu’tya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Terminal palace economy

-After extensive contact with the peoples of Oycumen and Notos, the Karoshi finally adopt a fully-fledged writing system of their own. Unusually, it is based on a rather restricted set of characters (each representing a sound) numbering about 30. However, this proves to be a major advantage as pretty much anybody can learn to read and write in it, and even adapt it for other languages. By the 25th century, it is commonplace among traders.

-Shipbuilding also takes several leaps forward with the introduction of bronze in construction. Large rams are put on the end of ships to allow them to make holes in enemy ships, and after ramming the enemy vessel is pelted with arrows and spears. This new type of ship, driven by banks of rowers and commanded by professionals, allows the Karoshi to quickly dominate the seas and trade. Merchants and powerful oligarchic families are the ones benefitting the most from this, growing in power and wealth all the time.

-Two of these professionals, Gregor Karyuk and Tur Farz, are sent with a flotilla of ships to establish several colonies on the mainland. Assisted by young goblins who are hungry for a farm of their own (in wake of overcrowding at home), they begin to build tiny replicas of their mother cities. The sea in which these goblins live is increasingly called the Sea of Ful'drac, now full of trade and industry. The old palaces on individual islands are increasingly without power as the independent cities outgrow the need for centralized political authorities, and are soon swallowed up by the cities they used to rule and built over.

-A common currency of sorts is introduced by the grand family Tuur'ash at the height of this period, represented by standardized ingots of copper. The descendants of the Olla still live among the Karoshi, although they are known widely by now as the Ogallum. Due to their stronger bodies and braver natures, by now they have become the heavy warriors and mercenaries of these islands. Goblins (particularly younger ones) still fight, although mainly in an auxiliary role as archers.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-The Aclary develop a form of a pictographic written language. Usually scrawled on pieces of bark, this script is mostly used as memory aids, although a few oral tales of legend and historical accounts are also written down. They were inspired by the peoples to the north who had regular contact with the Gor’lan, who possess writing. The northerners also practice a kind of agriculture, and the practice begins to spread southwards. The Aclerians seize control of many farming villages in the north towards the end of this period, seeing them as useful places to keep livestock at. The northerners also bring polished stone tools, which are quickly being adopted.

-One such manuscript details the travels of a coastal village chief’s son. He set out with a flotilla of a dozen large sailboats, seeking new lands because of food shortages at home. He returned a year later, alone, on a single boat. He told of lands of lush green that lie to the south. Unfortunately, they didn’t have enough food to last the journey there and back, so they had to resort to cannibalism. The son had to kill and eat his crew members to survive.

-Other texts of the age are of religious nature. This proto-scripture brought an eventual shift from ritualistic violence to a code of honor, which, among other things, endorses loyalty to the chief. At this time, the Aclary begin to centralize and display increased political complexity. A Grand Chief is chosen among the village chiefs, who in turn agree to answer to him. Intertribal conflicts are less common, and are most often resolved by the Grand Chief’s own warriors. The Aclerians become more organized and geared towards defence against external foes.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The men of the northwest isles of Oycumen have never been civilized. They only adopted farming a few thousand years ago, and only learned how to make mead and work copper in the past few centuries. In the 22nd century, Chief Ingar Kyrsson of clan Vorkaen united three great tribes around Skardavag (Dragons bay). His people have long held a spiritual reverence for strength and honour, granting the bravest men a place among the gods and heroes. They wear furs and animal bones believed to grant them powers, and scratch pictographs (or runes) into sacred stones.

-Warriors dedicate worship to particular heroes, often identifying with certain runes and having them tattooed on them in order to give the bearer power. The black dragon Azkargadan is the most revered of all, the one seen as the most powerful mortal to roam the world. Those who worship this beast, take the name of "Skardasson" (son of dragon).

-Actual observations from the tin traders from the south are less flattering. The tribes in these lands still farm the land with wood and bone tools. They wear coarse clothing, live in damp roundhouses, and only at this time do they introduce more intensive agricultural practices. Of course, this allows them to grow more food, to support more people, and may be the reason for the move from tribes into chiefdoms.

-This time is one of violence, marked by constant warfare as the Vorkaen initially battle to unify Skardavag, and later hold onto their gains too. It takes two centuries to fully integrate the three great tribes, and another two to safeguard their gains. Huge wood and earth forts dot the landscape, sur-rounded by tiny patchwork fields, huge untamed forests, and swamps. In the largest of these forts, a grand feasting hall is built and used in celebration of the unification of the tribes, alongside a temple and mustering grounds for warriors.

Turn 6: 2500 to 3000 FAM

Purcell; Dido´s lament; Simone Kermes, soprano; Direction Teodor Currentzis09:41

Purcell; Dido´s lament; Simone Kermes, soprano; Direction Teodor Currentzis

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn6PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 6

RealmsofOrbisTurn6DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 6

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47373492&viewfull=1#post47373492


Turn quote: Shelley's "Ozymandias".

Events of the years 2500 to 3000 First Age of Man (FAM):

-Around this time, the world entered the younger Ganleng period in climatology. Climate studies indicated a pronounced decline in pollen from domesticated plants and the rapid recovery of major forests in Oycumen towards the end of the period, often overgrowing most old towns. Around this time, many settlements were also abandoned or shrank significantly in size. The temperature once more also showed signs of dropping, as the treeline retreated by several hundred metres.

-The written record in Oycumen and Notos held steady at this time, but displayed a sudden drop around 2800 FAM, followed by a complete abandonment in 2900 for a period of fifty years. The numbers of shipwrecks found from this time (a proxy for trade) indicated a complete collapse of shipping as well. Grave in Western Oycumen are filled with skeletons showing nutritional deficien-cies. 20% of these skeletons show signs of a violent death. The elves, forced from their ancestral home, travelled east in search of a new one as the descendants of the Au Chau fill out the continent.

-The world population is 52 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Subsistence agrarian

-Rice paddy agriculture really takes off among the Dvegr at this time. Although laborious, time con-suming, and difficult, the rice paddy produces much more than any other form of agriculture. The dwarves find that the volcanic soil is extremely well suited to this, and can be easily replenished by sprinkling with volcanic ash. It takes several centuries for the appropriate infrastructure to develop, but by 3000 FAM the Dvegr population is booming.

-In 2501, with the "Dracatburðr" (the Dragon Event) still in recent memory, Bárðr's descendant and ruler of Dvergfit, Kannarfr, together with some colonists, decides to visit the volcanic island where the event happened to reassure his men such a thing will not happen again. He observes that plants are rapidly recovering, and concludes the land suited to agriculture. Several years after migrants arrive, they form a cult based around worship of the volcano. Kannafr names the island Demetey, after the name of the cult (who themselves name the island Vulcanay).

-Returning to Miklagard, as Kannarfr entered his royal home, he sits on his throne and looks out his window, he is suddenly hit with a vision from the gods. He sees Veldon being controlled by Flin, as he makes large sea waves, flooding settlements on the coast of the islands. He also sees people who worship a war god slaughtering his folk. Returning to reality, Kannarfr knew what he had to do. Fol-lowing his vision, Kannarfr decides to expand upon the cohort of warriors that was established years before. Theoretically, he can raise a thousand of them at any one time.

-By the end of the period, the exploitation of new rice farming techniques and the population boom allowed the Dvegr to colonise the whole Rybakov archipelago, in the process stimulating the beginnings of large scale trading and contact with the residents of mainland Jiuan. Besides Miklay, Flinsay and Demetey, a few more islands have gotten cults. Left of Miklay, we have the islands, going from right to left, Gomorray (after a cult surrounding Veldon and Artemedes' daughter, Gomorra), Réttrey and Áskey (after Ásketill). East of Miklay, we have the islands, going from west to east, Arheyjay (after Arheyja, the goddess of youth and fertility, because of its dense population compared to other islands), Giptey (the small island by Demetey), Faray, Hǫrgrey (the small island north of Faray, named after the number of altars on the island) and Punoray (after a cult surrounding Punor).

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-With the need to move increasing volumes of bulk goods, the first true ships have appeared. Made of planks tied together around a wooden frame and powered by sails of cloth, they ply the rivers on behalf of Krellgr. They are notoriously weak on open sea however, and smash like eggshells in rough weather. An attempt to sail east in search of land ends in disaster, with the ship breaking up out at sea. Fishermen do start sailing in the eastern sea later on however, especially as many dwarves acquired a taste for fish.

-The dwarves move deeper underground when the cold weather comes. Unfortunately, their crops can’t. Numerous harvest failures in the north plague the Skagosi and force them to take up fishing, trade, or to move south. These migrations in turn led to overcrowding of the river valleys, leading to wars between the Neolithic farmers and Skagosi migrants in the far south. The process only accelerated as time went on, and by 3000 FAM a huge population shift towards the south has taken place. Fed by productive rice paddies and huge fishing catches, the dwarves there live well. Unfortunately, these shifts have led to a weakening of Krellgr as merchants and landlords have risen in wealth and power.

-Krellgr in the north continues to suffer as time goes on. High up in the hills, the first major problem after crop failure was the sudden vanishing of the trees and increasing snow. This led to avalanches, giving the dwarves an even bigger incentive to move underground. The old city is abandoned in favour of one that is mostly underground and fed by costly rice imports from the south. Bronze is the main reason that this city is still alive, as Krellgr holds a monopoly on its production.

-As staves go through rigorous usage, it becomes clear that the older priests who use them frequently are somewhat detached from reality. They have frequent nightmares, including one who claimed that a demon held him down in bed and tried to seduce him. Although apparently unsuccessful, the priest was still obliged to go through purification, as he had ejaculated in his bed and ruined the sheets. The purification process is tied into healing, taking place within bathhouses carved deep underground. They are unusually warm, and are reputed to improve health. Indeed, other priests have seemingly mastered a kind of healing magic, and some of the more powerful ones have improved on the ability to conjure up fire. Some of them can set a tree ablaze at twenty paces.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Manorialism

-Iron working is already common among the orcs, but three centuries of experimentation yielded a new way to work metal. Around 2750 FAM, the process of steeling becomes widely known, allowing iron that was equivalent to bronze in quality yet cheaper to become commonly available. Shortly afterwards, iron production rapidly increased as the orcs sought to never lose to the Swarerde ever again. They constructed a new capital (Citadel), a massive stone and earth fortress at the neck of the peninsula.

-The Swarerde Empire at this time also begin to heavily focus on expanding the army, although the cost of buying many thousands of chariots heavily indebted the state. The orcs outfit their army with relatively cheaper iron swords and armour, and granted citizenship to human slaves after they served 5 years in the army. The wars continue to escalate, and by 2800 the Emperor launched an invasion of Nigasand, besieging Citadel.

-During the siege, the charioteers were swarmed by masses of soldiers with iron weaponry, quickly destroying the cream of the Swarerde nobility and their army. The victorious orcs followed the de-feated back to the Empire, where they ransacked the defenceless cities and plundered the trade routes. The Emperor fled and many regional governors all attempted to declare themselves the Emperor in the power vacuum. None of them were able to seize complete control, and the Empire collapsed into civil war, ending with multiple warring statelets vying for power.

-The sophisticated palace economies and trade collapse. The invaders brought iron with them, and with the war soon over many human citizens of Nigasand (trained as blacksmiths) took the oppor-tunity to settle to the south or migrate, taking the technology with them. As trade collapses in the lawless land, so too does the incentive for farmers to produce for market. Many cities shrink or are abandoned, with the population going into steady decline. Only on the north coast does the population expand, and even then it is restricted to the immediate coastline.

-By 3000 FAM, even scribes have stopped keeping records. The last tablets (unfinished) describe the remaining inhabitants of the Empire living under feudal lords who fought amongst themselves and had thoroughly sacked the major cities. With the implosion of trade and the decline of the cities which created specialists, this process is now even underway in Nigasand, with many urban centres being abandoned as the hungry orcs search for food. Migration brings the last specialists and most migrants to Citadel.

-In celebration of their victory, the orcs founded the Nigasand Republic. The religion of Rage itself also began to gradually formalize at this time as an official pantheon of gods was established by the ruling elites of Citadel. These orcs (and a few humans), are voted by citizens in the city. A type of mass education is also promoted, whereby the wise (typically former priests from Swarerde) travel throughout the city state to give oral lessons on morality, mythology, and ethics. Within a century, few continue to do this, except in the vicinity of Citadel.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-The grand Empire of Irminonia stopped expanding at this time, mainly due to the massive expense in doing so for little gain. The Emperors instead spent the next few centuries bringing forth innovative reforms, mostly aimed at strengthening the state. Imperial examinations are introduced to create a professional class of civil servants, while the army is demobilized and use mainly for keeping internal peace. A period of three centuries of no warfare or major unrest thus came to be.

-This period of prosperity was one most beneficial to the people of the Empire. Edicts are regularly brought out to promote thrift, increase production (to sell goods to the Karoshi), construct major irrigation works, and to store fertilizer for use in the fields (consisting of faeces, ashes, and leaves left to rot). The population booms as a result, with many millions of people now inhabiting perhaps one of the grandest empires in the world.

-However, this Empire is not immune to the iron laws of economics. Towards the end of the period, the cost of maintaining the bureaucracy has swollen to crisis levels. Agricultural output is subject to diminishing returns, especially when the soils to the north are too poor and heavy to work, so an increasing reliance is made upon trade. The system works, especially with the Karoshi to serve as middle-men in helping the Empire to find consumers for their manufactures. Unfortunately, it comes to a shuddering halt in the early 29th century.

-The civil war of the Swarerde first impacts on the orcs and goblins, followed by Irminonia. The sud-den end to trade causes a major economic crisis at home. Wine and pottery are left without con-sumers, leading to the implosion of prices and the collapse of manufacturing. Although food is plentiful, the peasantry are in dire poverty, and the landlords find little benefit to producing for the market. The rise of piracy devastates the southern coasts, leading to the final collapse of trade and the price of labour.

-Hordes of landless and hungry skilled workers flee to the countryside, where they swear fealty to the landlords in return for food. The landlords quickly set up separate facilities for manufacturing the new iron tools and bully the freeholders. By 2900, they have become powerful regional lords who collectively obstruct the Emperor. They even begin to build their own forts and raise private armies. The swollen bureaucracy and impotent armies are incapable of outmanoeuvring the machinations of the lords, especially as the major cities (primary supporters of the old regime) shrink. The written record ends for about a century.

-As the First age ends, the Empire survives only in name. The landlords only retain the Emperor as a figurehead, and rally only when foreign invaders threaten their lands. Even then, the lords fight constantly amongst themselves. The great old irrigation works fall into disrepair or ruin, and the peasantry switch from farming massive estates to working small fields in villages tied to their lords’ home. The process of societal collapse, begun in Swarerde, continues beyond Irminonia into the north, where the great chieftains and petty kingdoms fall or suffer. The towns are abandoned, and wars multiply. In the wake of severe depopulation, the Au Chau move into the vacuum.

GorlanFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Karoshi
State Religion: Lu’tya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Manorialism

-During this time, trade contacts with the orcs have proven very fruitful. Manufactured items ranging from iron weaponry and tools (which become increasingly common as the First Age comes to a close) to wine and cloth are all happily bought and sold by the merchants who profit immensely by their position. Huge new ships made from strong timber and with multiple sails were extremely common by 2700 FAM, with many additional ones kept in reserve for military use.

- As complexity rapidly increases in line with the population, huge new bureaucracies and social institutions are adopted to manage the intricate machinery of society. Merchants become heavily reliant on the smooth transfer of goods and information, with any holdups or disruptions often causing ruin for a great many. They adopt metal bars as a medium of exchange, while bureaucrats in the cities keep detailed records and commission many great works (including the expansion of the port facilities at Gilgamesh). The system begins to crack in the 28th century.

-The swollen population by this stage has become heavily dependent on the transport of food by ship and the movement of trade goods. A well-organized navy protecting this trade and the cities, funded by a kind of taxation is essential to this. However, the collapse of the Swarerde Empire and the advent of iron bring catastrophic changes into play. The once great cities of the Empire descend into civil war, while trade collapses. The orcs also undergo major shifts of their own as they adopt iron and slowly revert to self-sufficiency.

-At home, it reaches a crisis stage. After trade with Notos collapsed, it left many artisans at home out of work. Living standards plummet, and many Karoshi stop having children due to their poverty. One of the few industries doing well is ironworking, although the common availability of it and the sudden exodus of trained blacksmiths to the countryside in search of work only encourage rural self-sufficiency. All of these economic processes feed upon each other, spiralling downwards and leading to the complete disintegration of international trade, and by extension the great cities.

-By 2900 FAM, the population has halved due to low fertility rates. Most goblins have reverted back to subsistence farming, labouring under major aristocrats who rule from heavily fortified palaces built in the midst of the ruined great cities. Trade by this stage is almost non-existent, and writing has mostly fallen out of general usage. Additionally, the mainland colonies decline similarly and display a complete abandonment of urban areas, although they retain the use of many technologies (the most important being ironworking). Climate change leads to the last misery for the goblins. Date trees, once common throughout their islands, no longer fruit due to the cold. They clear the useless trees, and break up the ground with iron ploughs.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-The Aclerians make the final leap into a wholly agrarian lifestyle. Although keeping large herds of cattle and other animals is important (indeed, necessary), people are now deriving a greater share of their calories from cereal grains. Wooden ploughs have made an appearance among them, and are used to break up the soil (no major rivers exist, often restricting farming to oasis’s and near to the mountains where a few small rivers originate). The new farms are encircled by the larger and drier plains (which have been drying even more recently) left to the pastoralists. Otherwise, the adoption of multiple new technologies and their subsequent expansion marks the dawn of a new era.

-The growing population leads to ever more organisation and trade. While largely ignorant of events in the wider world, they often trade with strange little goblins who visit the northern coast every once in a while to exchange trinkets. From them, they learn many new ideas and technologies, although they are never quite integrated into the wider world. One of the great chiefs hears of grand men outside of the mountain ranges who call themselves “Kings” and hold absolute power, which their children inherit after death. Although keen on the idea, when he declares himself “King”, he proves to be unpopular and detested. He is later mur-dered in his sleep when his skull is caved in with a large rock. To prevent his children taking revenge, they too are killed.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-Bronze comes by the sea to Nordaney, along with a variety of other technologies, including chari-ots, horses, and some of the finer trappings of civilization (such as wine). Unfortunately, many of these innovations have been brought by an offshoot of the Au Chau, who have settled the south-east of the island and pushed out the native inhabitants. Nonetheless, they are of considerable benefit to the Cytanni.

-Throughout the end of the First Age, the cooling climate induces many changes. Although it was possible to grow grapes for wine, they stopped fruiting about a century after introduction. Declining farming yields are offset by improved technologies that allow more land to be brought into cultivation. The old haphazard Neolithic fields are replaced by regular patchwork fields, each typically maintained by a single family.

-The Cytanni are still as expansionist and fierce in battle as they always have been, with an eye on the lands to the north. With increased access to bronze weaponry at this time, they conducted many successful raids on their enemies and slowly gained control of prominent hillforts. A type of diminutive axe made for throwing is widely used, and is a popular choice of grave good too. As the usage of bronze later expanded, tin traders would come to the islands more frequently to trade. Bronze remains in common use until the end of the First Age, when the southern traders almost entirely vanished. However, bronze is still used on a reduced scale and heavily recycled by the Cytanni.

-The hillforts expand slightly as the total population of the islands reaches around 400,000. The highest densities are in the south, where agriculture is fairly well developed and contact with the continent is advanced. The Cytanni take advantage of their position that they can support a few craftsmen in the hillforts and farmsteads. They typically produce smaller goods such as pottery, metalwork, and woollen cloth, along with the mining of tin. These goods are rarely produced in quantity, the decline in trade during the 29th century having virtually no effect on the peoples here. The arrival of the Scadutians to the southeast however, does.

ScadutannianFlag
Scadutannia – Crossu88
Capital: Sceadwian
Culture: Scadutian
State Religion: Scadutian polytheism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-Having split off from the Au Chau over a thousand years ago, the Scadutians slowly migrated west-wards along the northern coast of Oycumen. The Au Chau peoples (and their descendants) have come to dominate massive swathes of the mainland already, but the Scadutians are the first to attempt a living on the Midnight islands of the northwest. They bring bronzeworking technologies with them, along with relatively advanced methods of animal husbandry and a type of drinking cup they bury with the dead (alongside daggers). They worship the sky-god Dyeu (who rules the skies), who heads a pantheon of gods.

-Moving into the southeast, the Scadutians encounter resistance from a particularly large hillfort by a large swamp. They successfully drove out the inhabitants and took over the fort, naming it Sceadwian. They are also (unlike most of the people in the Midnight islands) led by a chieftain. He holds his power by virtue of the fact he can work bronze. Most Scadutians still use quite a few bone and stone tools and weaponry however. When they go to fight, they still use flints for arrowheads – bronze is reserved for swords, which have been getting longer and stronger as metalworking techniques improve.

-Although initially violent, the Scadutians are keen to trade and interested largely in peaceful expansion. To this end, they begin to slowly drain parts of the swamps and rivers around Sceadwian and to set aside pasture for sheep. They also divert streams into one particularly large river, which slowly becomes the main conduit for boatsmen to use. As wood is difficult to come by, in addition to stone, the Scadutians mostly make pottery and woollen cloth in addition to brewing beer for trade. They exchange it for timber and limestone quarried to the far north of their hillfort, where several tribes have established cordial relations with the newcomers. The river is particularly shallow and slow moving, allowing for the construction of a wooden trackway and bridge later on.

Turn 7: 0 to 250 SAM

Valhalla - Heroes of Might and Magic IV03:10

Valhalla - Heroes of Might and Magic IV

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn7PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 7

RealmsofOrbisTurn7DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 7

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47411557&viewfull=1#post47411557


Turn quote: There is a time for many words, and there is also a time for sleep.

Events of the years 0 to 250 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-Despite the major interruptions in the last age and in the early part of this age, the collapse of empires and kingdoms does little to prevent the expansion and development of complex societies. Ironworking becomes common throughout most of the civilized world, although it has only just been recently introduced in Jiuan. New religions are making an appearance too, starting with the goblins of Gor’lan, who now practice organized religion and worship only one god. Due to population pressures, they have also started establishing colonies, a practice now increasingly common in the civilized world. The age old copper-using cultures vanish too, either having become wholly bronze using or masters of ironworking. Even cultures that solely use bronze are becoming rare, and may soon adopt iron.

-The elves of Oycumen finish their grand migration east, having reached a land cold and poor for farmers. Despite their reluctance to give up their old ways, they have adopted metallurgy into their lifestyle (although they look down on smiths). Throughout the rest of Oycumen, the continent has reached either a baseline or is now in recovery. Indeed, the Gor’lan were among the first to recover, followed in turn by many human kingdoms. The opposite is underway in Jiuan, where the great Shui kingdoms and the Skrall implode for similar reasons as the societies in Oycumen and Notos did centuries before.

-The world population is 78 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-With the dawn of a new age, comes the first of many major changes to the Dvegr lifestyle, already underway at the end of the preceding age. With agriculture intensifying and the population steadily increasing, the range of crafts and trades has also expanded. Bronzeworking is introduced to the islands from the northeast, taking roughly two centuries to become commonplace (although it is virtually unused in the most westerly islands). Since the metal must be imported, the traders to the north are now relied on to get it, and usually exchange it in return for spices, luxury wood, and now a new mineral discovered near the volcanoes – gold.

-Although Kannafr is long gone, his visions and sayings remain potent even now. Although the Dvegr have multiplied and become the masters of these islands, they still see fit to build extensive fortifications and towers on the coastlines. The small towns now common on the islands surround themselves with walls of pounded earth and ditches for protection, while groups of Dvegr are rallied in case of a skirmish. Most of the time, these walls are hollowed out and used for henhouses.

-Trade with the mainland begins to rapidly expand near the end of this period, marked by the sudden introduction of metalworking. It quickly became apparent that the volcanoes are excellent sources of gold, although the fumes there have overcome many. Despite the high risks involved, the Dvegr begin to exploit the gold deposits, and to export stocks of timber and spices. Some of the more enterprising and organized chieftains by the mainland have even started aping the methods used by the far off kingdoms of the east. They now live in big halls, organise labour on a large scale, and set up workshops by their “palaces” for artisans to produce goods such as jewellery and to prepare and weigh spices.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Manorialism

-The great Skrall Empire begins to undergo major changes as a new type of metal is introduced for usage. Iron is inferior to bronze, but much more readily available and cheaper, although none of the mines in Krellgr hold any. The most productive of the new iron mines lay on the north-western borders of the empire. The iron is typically processed there before it is carried by donkeys to the fertile southern lands, where it can be made into a whole variety of tools and weapons.

-Population decline and the monopoly over bronze become less important, to the point where Krellgr and the northern towns spiral downwards into poverty. The old buildings are cannibalized, the mines flood and are abandoned, and mountain trade completely collapses by SA 100. The ultimate decision to relocate to the south is made, after which the ancestral homeland of the Skagosi is left to the elements and wild tribes of the mountains.

-The relocation begins to cause severe political and social problems. Wishing to retain his power, the King founds a brand new city (named New Krellgr) in the middle of the wealthy lands of the south. It required bullying quite a few landlords and relocating many thousands of peasants, and then consumed many more in the construction of the new capital. The collapse of the northern parts leads to the rapid loss of his traditional power base, and the landlords begin to refuse his demands.

-By the end of the second century, trade is in decline as law and order suffers. Agricultural estates become steadily more self-sufficient in order to prevent dependence upon the king, leading to the decline of his army as he becomes steadily poorer. Eventually, an attempt to put down a revolt leads to the landlords all banding together to attack New Krellgr. They kill the king and divide up the country amongst themselves, before breaking down into constant warfare as they disagree over the division of the spoils. The former Skrall kingdom is left in control of a reduced rump state in control of New Krellgr (an underpopulated city with few lands).

-Despite this, civilization does not come to an end. Writing is preserved, alongside food and beer trade. Iron is another valuable commodity, which is imported from the north. Knowledge of the arts is preserved. The rival lords also patronize various philosophers and priests, sometimes with many contrasting views on the nature of reality and how people ought to live. The “summer and Winter” nations of the west keep in regular contact, and eventually towards the end of the period the Skagosi become aware of dwarves from an archipelago who use bronze. They speak a language with a few similarities to the Skagosi.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Manorialism

-Although a great deal of knowledge was lost in the past, some knowledge has survived. Travelling human specialists have discovered or recovered some forms of the older arts. They show that ashes and fat can be used to clean with, methods of making lye for leatherworking, and dyes made from plant leaves. Additionally, they have saved many traditional medicines, knowledge of which filters down among the orcs.

-For a period of two centuries, the Nigasand wage war on the kingdoms inside Swarerde. They adopt galleys for naval combat and hire humans to act as auxiliary skirmishers in their battles. With numbers now more important, warfare is slowly intensifying once more as many rulers move to arm their soldiers with iron weaponry and introduce ways of organizing ever larger armies. The orcs mastered this first, and profited greatly from it as they seized much of the river delta and the island off the coast. Unfortunately, this island had such vast walls it required the orcs to build a ramp up to it in order to gain entry. Corpses of animals, people, and orcs were used to build it when they ran out of timber.

-At home, the great engine of trade begins to shudder back into life. Humans still frequently travel to live among the orcs, as the orcs highly prize their skills as craftsmen (amongst other services). Jewellers and beer brewers are common in Citadel, and sometimes in the lesser villages too. Interracial prostitution is common likewise, and the shamans often organise areas for this undesirable activity to take place. A lesser number of orcs also copy the humans (somewhat imperfectly) in their trades, and often are apprenticed as everything from potters to jewellery smiths. Gong farming has also picked up, as orcs will pay good money for faeces to be collected up and spread upon the fields.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Although the Empire is defunct in all but name and the grand old buildings are abandoned, they disguise real changes in how people live day to day lives. The spread of iron and the process of steeling have led to an explosion in the manufacture of all kinds of tools, from hoes to picks, shovels and spades. In turn, this has led to a population shift away from the great river valleys. The forests are cleared for lumber, the swamps drained, and thick, heavy soils are ploughed up. The population recovers rapidly.

-As metalworking becomes more common, the peoples of the empire begin to naturally demand increasing quantities of it. Iron mines have sprung up, often being small pits tended to by part-time shepherds. Gold has become slightly more common, with most of the nobility finding the ability to hire jewellers. New skilled crafts emerge, and although people rarely trade, the artisans under the feudal lords diversify immensely.

-Although the Emperor has limited powers, he does manage to pass laws within his core territories. Known as the “Order to Expand Favour”, it decrees that in succession, all lands will be divided up among the sons instead of just the eldest. Within a century, it leads to the rapid decline of many of the great noble houses. Some families catch on, and begin to deliberately restrict the number of children they have. Land tends to increasingly become more equitable and is held by greater numbers of people. It has also led to a vast segment of the population being forced to either leave their shrinking farms or adopt the trades. The towns begin to grow once more, while marginal lands are cultivated.

-The Emperor regains some of his former glory as the larger noble houses decline, leaving him as the sole major authority. He rebuilds the granaries and reintroduces a standing army (which at present mostly maintains the peace). Unfortunately, his reforms have created tensions with his so-called “vassals”, who towards the end of this period declare independence entirely in all but name, or claim the title of King. As the new economy spreads and is adopted abroad, new kingdoms sprout up in the north, one of which the Emperor allies with to prevent attack by his vassals.

SayiteFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Sayite
State Religion: Saya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Manorialism

-With the old palaces long since decayed or built over, the Goblins of Gor’lan have gotten used to living as subsistence farmers. However, this period marks the beginnings of recovery. Iron tools become widely used, especially towards the end of the era. Trade quickly recovers, even including bronze (although bronze is now used mostly for decoration). Population also recovers, and soon far in excess of what the land can support. Famine becomes more of a problem, and the impoverishment of many farmers leads to their enslavement. The great families begin to rebuild the cities and fill them with slaves and citizens. The trades recover, and the aristocracy begin to wear elegant clothes, drink fine wine, and wear jewellery once more.

-In this Dark Age, one Goblin brings a beacon of light that takes them out of it. Said to have received messages from the one true God, a young goblin by the name of Abrylim has begun preaching the glory and greatness of Rosaya. Reputed to perform miracles, he gains many followers to this new faith of “Saya”. The religion preaches that those who profess themselves as followers of Rosaya and the Saya faith will be guaranteed a spot in Jartool, a land where followers of Saya go after death. Jartool is described as a land where the rivers flow with milk and food is abundant, and no one knows any hardship.

-Abrylim also introduced a code of religious laws known as the Hrok yo Roasaya (Judgement of God.) The laws prohibit adultery, theft, murder, lying, coveting, and following any god but Rosaya. Breaking these laws leads to eternity in Tartyol, where only suffering is known, unless you admit guilt and make penance for your sins. Towards the end of the period, the Vat yo Tarrow, (Book of Truths) is composed as the unifying holy text. This religion also promotes actively converting others to the faith, something which Abrylim promotes upon being elected to the position of Great Goblin.

-Under his wise rule, Abrylim successfully convinced the majority of the aristocracy to convert to the new faith, while also resettling islands to the southeast. Although they have goblins living there, they do not follow the true faith. Several bloody wars were necessary to subjugate them and those at home too. The new religion has brought a whole raft of political and social tensions, and in combination with the rapid population increase has brought rioting to many of the resurgent towns. Conflicts among the aristocracy are also rising as they fight over land. Others move overseas in search of a home, taking their faith with them.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The great migration of Notos begins, with the Aclerians at the head of it. Having already adopted agriculture and new crafts in addition to a variety of technologies, many tribes have started migrating east and south in search of new lands to cultivate (despite warnings about what lies beyond the mountains). They lose contact with the Aclerian culture, but are successful enough that they begin to expand quite rapidly, displacing untold numbers of hunter-gathering tribes. Along the way, one of these groups uncovers a cave with strange paintings on the walls, showing that the dreaded deinotherium harassed whoever lived in this cave too.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The age of bronze slowly comes to an end among the Cytanni. With ironworking technologies spreading so rapidly, it didn’t take long for it to arrive in the Midnight isles, although it does so only late in this period. It took until the 2nd century for the first iron tools and weaponry to appear, and even by 250 the use of iron is sporadic and infrequent. Bronze is still used for weaponry among the warrior elite, who have also adopted something now obsolete far to the south. Chariots are now common among the Cytanni, who ride on them to battle and throw axes from them. In the wetter and hilly areas this is a bit more difficult, but in the plains it allows them to rapidly spread and dominate. They move northwards, overwhelming smaller farmsteads and building hillforts. Unfortunately much of the land is also covered in forest or boggy, or worse yet, inhabited by direwolves.

-New burial practices come into being. Gone are the great old graves full of goods, they now hold replica tools made of pottery (indeed, many older graves have been pilfered for bronze and gold). These graves also tend to be close together, and usually a considerable distance away from the hillforts. The reason is that recently many of these settlements have started to expand and rebuild their defences, with huge stone walls, wooden towers, and warning beacons. They encountered many skeletons in the process (including ones buried with flint tools and models of cats with huge fangs), which had to be removed.

-The Cytanni begin to trade regularly with the Scadutians at this time, as their borders come to meet and economic activity picks off. Along with increasing trade in iron objects, the Cytanni buy woollen cloth, manufactured goods, and imports from the mainland. In return, they trade timber, cattle, quarried stone, and much later, raw iron from the hills. Beer brewing and cattle droving become popular too. Many of the Cytanni would drive cattle throughout the land for grazing in the summer, and then slaughter them in the autumn. The lack of salt makes it difficult to preserve the beef however, which means most of it must be eaten before it rots.

ScadutannianFlag
Scadutannia – Crossu88
Capital: Sceadwian
Culture: Scadutian
State Religion: Scadutian polytheism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The Scadutians, with their extensive ties to the continent and promotion of trade, are the first in the Midnight isles to adopt ironworking technologies. Although considerably behind, iron tools were common by the 3nd century, with most settlements boasting blacksmiths and a plethora of tools and weaponry made from the metal by 250. New ploughs have been made using this metal, and with their heavy iron blades they make short work of the wet and heavy soils. The population begins climbing upwards, although the danger of living on an exposed plain means many people stay close together, and often on islands in the rivers or on the tops of hills.

-Like their ancestors, the Scadutians bring the proud tradition of horseback riding with them. Until recently, horses had been too small and weak for the purposes of war (or carrying somebody for long), but now the power of selection has allowed them to grow big. With strong and powerful bodies, they can not only carry a rider for long distances, but use their weight to ride down men. Although restricted to the wealthy fighting elite, these horse riders raid smaller tribes and villages, before running away as quickly as they arrived. It didn’t take long for them to secure the plains. By that point, they had met the other major power in the region – Nordaney.

-Nordaney is filled with people who are willing to trade a great deal, although both nations initially lacked metal. By the end of the period, the situation had changed with the advent of iron. The Cytanni have not yet truly mastered the art of working iron, but they do have deposits of it scattered in the hills suitable for exploitation. Bog iron (which is common in the wetter areas) is another major source of the metal, which is traded for in return for woollen cloth and manufactured goods. The Cytanni also have good stands of timber and stone, both of which are appreciated in the water sodden towns and villages the Scadutians call home.

SakasuneseFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Subsistence

-Far beyond the reach of any civilized peoples, or even those who plant seeds and till the soil, live an isolated group of elves. Having been restricted to their archipelago for tens of thousands of years, they have changed little, until now. They live in small tribes numbering no more than thirty apiece, scattered throughout the islands and sharing a common language, religion, and ancestry. The elves are tattooed, and live in a matriarchal society.

-Recently, some of the tribes they trade with intermittently report a people who have started clearing forests on the mainland and plant grass instead. They bring new technologies and ideas, some of which have started influencing the elves. Around the third century, a lady of war united many of the tribes in her home island through a combination of force and guile. Although they number only a thousand strong, she manages to convince many of them to live in a semi-permanent village where many of the tribes gather for special occasions.

-Here, the elves have always exchanged gifts, established social bonds, and celebrated many religious events. They revere the god of the sea in particular, as travelling by boat is integral to their lifestyle. Indeed, towards the end of the period they adopt a more robust kind of boat that uses the wind to help it move, with a sail made from rushes are twisted into a kind of fibre and woven together. They use this new boat to fish from, which helps generate enough food to sustain the village at Sakasu.

-The residents name themselves the “Mizukan”, who grow to have sometimes a hundred living there at once, although they are also referred to as “Sakasu” after the village. They have also switched to intensive foraging, as by staying in one place they have changed the land without realising it. They discard seeds and frequently clear away weeds and trees that don’t produce fruit, leading to the growth of forest gardens. In a self-reinforcing process, rubbish tips full of rotted fish and faeces leads to the land becoming more fertile, meaning more fruit trees, and allowing the population to grow.

Turn 8: 250 to 500 SAM

RealmsofOrbisTurn8PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 8

RealmsofOrbisTurn8DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 8

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47458493&viewfull=1#post47458493


Turn tune: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uuomEfenx_8
Turn quote: Strongest is Necessity because it governs all things.

Events of the years 250 to 500 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-At its coolest in thousands of years, the world is certainly a different place, much to the upset of many in the northern parts of the world, whose crops have been ruined by frost. Many upland areas have been abandoned in the past thousand years, most notably the lands once inhabited by the Skagosi, whose former great city is now buried in snow. The ice floes travel considerable distances southward too and there are even reports of white bears visiting the Midnight Isles. The climate has also induced many peoples to start migrating once more, leading to yet more violent conflicts.

-The world population is 117 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-The palaces of the Dvegrn enter a golden age, literally. The volcanoes are an excellent source of this precious metal, fashioned into beautiful ornaments and jewellery. Shipbuilding begins to rapidly improve, evidenced by the proliferation of ports and expansion in trade. Large wooden ships made from tied planks ply the seas, carrying gold, luxury wood, pottery, rice, salt, copper, bronze, and iron wares. Most trade is with the grand kingdoms of the east, although a smaller trade with the dwarves to the Far East and barbarians to the west is also undertaken. The former of these proved to be of great importance, especially once it became clear how much they had in common.

-The syllabic-ideographic writing of the Skagosi is seen as poor, but their alphabet possessed potential. In the 267th year of the Second Age of Man, a Dvegrn named Himinis in the relatively affluent islands of the northeast took the Skagosi alphabet and adapted it to the Dvegrn language, creating a phonemic, orthographic writing system. He spent the next decade transcribing many of the oral tales and existing texts, including "The Book of Ocil" (a religious book), "The Misadventures of Dauforn", "Veldon and the Demetes", "Dvegrn Folk Songs" and "Great Dvergfit" (a history of Dvergfit). Inscribed on wooden slats and tied together with string, they are kept alongside official records. Unfortunately, only palace clerks and those involved in accounting and figures are the ones able to read, and they mostly use the new writing system for note taking.

-Himinis had a much wider and longer lasting impact, however, when he also developed philology and linguistics after noticing interesting similarities between Dvegrn and Skagosi (notably those basic words such as “mother” were often the same, but terms referring to more recent developments diverged significantly). His work into this field has led to the birth of several philosophical movements, most of them focusing on language. At this time there is an increasing degree of political centralization, and the first “King” of the Dvegr himself preaches the utility of eloquence in speech and the value of oral tales and epics in legitimizing his rule (he claims he is related to the gods). Despite the common ancestry with the Skagosi, contact is still heavily limited by geography. Only a few things such as jewellery and cottonsilk travel in either direction, but they hint at something more. Ironworking was brought from the east as well, although usage of it spreads slowly due to the distances needing covered.

-The Dvegr finally colonize parts of the mainland at this time, naming the land the “Járn Peninsula”. A land plentiful in trees, it comes at a time when wood is sorely needed. Growing shortages of timber hamper daily life, and moving wood from the hinterlands is often costly. Fuel has switched to dried dung or reeds, while houses are built from stone and clay. Land shortages have led to fish, chickens and pigs becoming more important to the diet. Water shortages have also become a problem for rice paddy fields, and many elaborate networks of irrigation channels and dykes have to be built. The fertility of the volcanic land (in addition to the presence of gold) draws many to settle there, in spite of the danger.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Manorialism

-Although long divided and broken politically, the sleeping giant begins to stir once more. A major demographic recovery takes place at this time, aided by the introduction of new heavy ploughshares with iron blades. Blacksmiths, now common to every village, have refined their techniques and manufacture a whole range of wares. The Skrall state, once impoverished and weakened, still held onto the strategically vital city of New Krellgr (despite being in a swamp, it controlled much of the nearby river) long enough that the recovery of trade justified its existence.

-Taking advantage of this, the Kings of Skrall pushed to the unsettled or abandoned lands to the north, with the old mines in particular being of great importance. The army was reformed at this time with a focus towards a merit based system of rank rather than nepotism. Although unable to win any wars against the hostile kingdoms to the south, Skrall is able to recover and display a great deal of vitality as they expand northwards. Another major benefit was the Kings of Skrall focusing on internal peace and encouragement of immigration. As the period draws to a close, warfare between the states once constituting the empire flares up and intensifies, creating many refugees who bring their skills with them to Skrall.

-As trade recovers, the Skrall become increasingly aware of the Dvger, a group of dwarves who speak a bastardized variant of Skagosi. Limited exchange through merchants and adventurous travellers revealed interesting similarities in creation myths (particularly the legend of Dvergr) and much of their religious beliefs too, suggesting ancient ties in the cloudy past. Actual material goods that travel between them are limited largely to jewellery, fine metalwork, luxury wood, and cottonsilk, all of which tend to be small, lightweight, valuable, or a combination of all three.

-Although recovery has taken place, the Skagosi are still divided into mutually hostile kingdoms, much like the Gan Kingdoms to the northwest (and until recently the only other major civilization). But, demographic recovery and expansion to the north in combination with military reform yielded fruitful benefits as the period draws to a close. The relative peace and influx of refugees allowed for the cultivation of many marginal lands and boom in trade, with cottonsilk now grown for sale in domestic markets or overseas. To help in this trade, Skagosi exchange small copper or bronze axeheads for goods and vice versa, them being a vestigial reminder of the former empire. Some of them are worn as badges by a rather shadowy group who profess complete loyalty to the King. The extent of their activities is of yet unknown, and as the rival kings descend into warfare it becomes even harder to keep track of them.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Market economy

-Although nine in ten orcs practice subsistence agriculture (or fighting), they have encountered some problems with geography. Quite simply, some places are better at making things than others. With the population having swollen, the old ways simply won’t do, and armies of human peddlers, dispossessed goblins, and even a few orcs have started wandering the countryside (alongside the teachers) hawking everything from tools to smoked fish. To ease transactions, small iron (or bronze) tools are used as a kind of money. For the first time, the Orcs are introduced to the benefits (and problems) of a strange new system. Timber is imported to meet growing shortages, and small artisanal workshops are sprouting up everywhere.

-The expansion in trade is matched by the growing military reach of the Republic. As the armies grow bigger and more professional, the core of the army consists of older and experienced Orcs (with heavy weaponry and armour), while younger Orcs tend to skirmish around the edges. Shamans and craftworkers (along with prostitutes, camels, and peddlers) have started trailing these new armies too, hawking their services or keeping up morale. Many campaigns are conducted by this massive but lumbering army, which with the aid of fleets of galleys and barges advances southwards along the Flovis river valley, seizing control of rich and fertile lands. The old administration and populations persist for now.

-By the end of the 5th century, Nigasand has subjugated the Lower Flovis River and put many former great lords into a state of servitude. The other petty kingdoms quickly followed and pledged submission to the great Nigasand Republic, now the largest empire in the whole of Notos and controlling territories both rich and vast. The camel begins to rise in prominence at this time, as Orcs prefer riding them over horses (and horses prefer not to be ridden by Orcs). Camel trains begin to thread the ends of the republic together, carrying all sorts of goods overland. Citadel itself swells into a city of 100,000, with academies now teaching the landed aristocrats, and increasingly the growing numbers of those involved in government and business. Schools of philosophy develop here for the first time, most of them being Flovis or Sayite in origin.

-Despite this, the Orcs are still violent and constantly looking for ways to expand and fight, while riots are common in the growing towns (especially during famine). The smaller farmers frequently revolt too, as many of them have been forced into slavery or debt bondage. The growing human presence within the Republic has also led to many Orcs working under human masters in the towns, and in some cases even becoming enslaved by wealthy humans. Citadel and the borderlands between Flovis and Nigasand proper are particularly unstable. In addition to the existing teachers, priests, and philsophers, are missionaries from Gor’lan preaching a religion and system of government that further incites tensions. Factions of farmers, town orcs, humans, landowners, slaves, religious fanatics, and traders mingle in this volatile melting pot.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Irminonia continues to develop, aided by one animal in particular. The horse was only really adopted relatively recently, having been introduced by the Au Chau in the mists of time. Their full potential is still being explored, as horse breeders continue to work on breeding bigger and stronger horses. Riding the horse has become much more common too, rather than using chariots (although the latter is still preferred as being more elegant). Some of these horses are strong enough to carry men in heavy armour and weapons, a fact later exploited by some Emperors.

-In 320, the Emperor managed to successfully outmanoeuvre his rivals in a political stunt so cunning that a fox went to god himself and told him he had been replaced. This began with the Emperor sending spies to the Kingdom of Blute, where they at once began to spread rumours among the people and became aware of the size and positions of Blutes armies. The people became dissatisfied and it required the army to be put on alert, a move which put them at unease. Next, the emperor sent an emissary with gold and jewels to the duke under vassalage of the Blute King, promising him lands in return for raising a rebellion against Blute. The duke thought that the Blute King was readying to pre-emptively crush him, so he agreed because he knew Blute could not recover even if they won the war.

-In 321, the Emperor had managed to raise an army of many chariots, infantry, and horsemen. An alliance with a lesser King outside of the Empire allowed him to discreetly move reinforcements over without alerting the other Kingdoms. Mercenary goblins and orcs were also hired to fight, and to bang loud drums to raise morale and frighten the enemy. When the time for war came, the Emperor marched into the Kingdom without any resistance as he captured town after town. Each city was unable to hold out against such vast forces, and the King of Blute struggled to call upon his vassals, who had deserted him. He fled the country and Blute was summarily divided up. The Duke who had pledged allegiance also pledged vassalage, in the hopes of securing more lands.

-By the end of the 5th century, Irminonia is in the midst of a widespread and sustained economic boom. The forests have been cut back and cleared, while the amount of land under cultivation has grown appreciably. Iron usage is common, while artisanal workshops churn out enough goods that they can be exported abroad to either the north (which is a valuable source of raw material and slaves), or to the Sayites, who have become powerful merchants once more. However, the Kingdoms that were once under rule of the Emperor have also been changing, and now many of them have been adopting central government or introducing standing armies.

SayiteFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Sayite
State Religion: Saya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Market economy

-The Sayites continue to undergo severe turmoil and major stresses as the world changes. Quite clearly the way in which they now live is utterly different to the way their ancestors with the grand palaces did a thousand years ago. However, they have found a way to make a mockery of those palaces with new masonry techniques. Pillars, carved out of rock and cemented together with an aggregate including lime, are used to hold up massive roofs, allowing the Sayites to build impressively tall and open structures. In addition, they have started to fire bricks of clay and use them in building, starting with poorer structures. However, the wider potential of them has not yet been fully explored.

-The Sayites also steadily reform their military structure, introducing a system where “Legions” of 1000 goblins and humans fight together (typically with goblins as commanders and skirmishers). Smaller units designated as “Har’ims” patrol cities and maintain public order, and are directly subservient to the Great Goblin. Another key reform introduced in the 4th century was the Rollatar. Established as a concession to the aristocratic families, they are given seats in the Geronium and are now allowed to reign on a council that is in control of regulations on trade, law, and taxation. When they begin to introduce taxes for the first time, it causes much resentment among the population, who become increasingly violent with time. The Har’im is unable to keep the peace, requiring another solution.

-This comes in the form of the colony and new trade regulations. To reduce overcrowding, many goblins are given assistance to set up colonies and rule themselves as outgrowths of the older settlements. Unfortunately for the great aristocratic families, these new cities tend to be democratic, and full of merchants and people who make their living by industry and trade. Textiles develop into one such major industry, especially as many farming goblins switch from goats to sheep (or flax for linen). Slavery has become increasingly common too as the aristocrats control increasingly larger estates, forcing the impoverished farmers into either fleeing or slavery. The overseas trade routes are such a way for have-nots to escape, although many of them are forced to row the galleys as slaves too.

-The Saya religion continues to gain new adherents, with some now in the Flovis valley and Nigasand proper. Unfortunately, it only tended to further heat up tensions there, as the religion tends to exclude other faiths. Since goblins and humans in the motherland are forced to convert or face exile, and due to the fact that prospects at home are poor, they often choose to emigrate. The new cities quickly become just as rich (if not more so) than their mother cities, and tend to be ruled by democratic assemblies in combination with merchants. Philosophy blossoms in these places, and soon the older aristocratic cities have only succeeded at delaying the riots. Slave revolts are typically common too, aided by the fact some humans are wealthy enough to own goblin slaves, further inciting tensions.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-Although largely isolated from the outside world, the Aclerians have started communicating with the disturbing but shrewd little goblins once more, which haven’t been here in many centuries. Unlike last time, they wear finer clothing and bear daggers made of a stone that bends. What’s more, they are very interested in buying livestock and their products in particular. Although the Aclerians primarily raise cattle (and a few donkeys and chickens), cowhide is especially prized. It didn’t take long for the Aclerians to begin selling sacks of it to the goblins, and soon they are introduced to small wheeled carts. Pulled by donkeys or cattle, they are an efficient way of moving heavy goods around, and spread extremely rapidly.

-The Aclerians begin to slowly leave the shrouded timeless era of prehistory as their contact led to them being recorded for the first time by outsiders (Aclerians: Impulsive and violent). The existing writing system begins to be used to send messages from the grand chieftains to these traders in order to arrange for the exchange of certain goods (such as iron). Unlike the chieftains of the past, these ones have been fairly successful in establishing their title as a permanent position that is typically inherited by their firstborn son. One even crowned himself a “King” to make it clear that he was the most powerful. Indeed, with several thousand heads of cattle and tens of thousands of subjects, who can dispute this?

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The “wild” Cytanni have changed much from their ancestors who wore animal skins and hunted in the woods with flint spears. They now work with iron, making ever longer and sharper swords in addition to heavier ploughs. These new ploughs tear up the wet and heavy soils that once frustrated many a farmer, allowing them to expand even further north. The new lands are organised in a very different way due to this invention, with fields being larger and less people devoted solely to farming. The population has grown significantly, and many hillforts have become overcrowded. Defensible land is harder to come by, leaving many of the Cytanni vulnerable to direwolves and the savages of the north.

-The introduction of new technologies has impacted how the Cytanni fight, too. They now ride in chariots with metal rims, wear armour of leather studded with metal, and sometimes even ride horses. The direwolves are a constant menace, but careful effort on the part of warriors and hunters has made driving them out much easier. One tactic is to set fire to a forest, before riddling whatever comes out (deer, wolves, and outlaws) full of arrows. The farmers have also cleared even more land, making it harder for the beasts to hide. The pups of direwolves are sometimes encountered, and are adopted by hunters and warriors in order to help them further north as they war with the less-organized tribes of the north. In the south, new villages have started sprouting up due to the relative safety there, as hillforts are often overcrowded or difficult to access. In these new villages, mead halls are a common fixture.

-Back in the homeland, the Kingdom has undergone major changes due to the result of population growth and increasing economic specialization. Saltworking is a common activity now, with many people using their spare time to boil seawater away down to salt, which is used to preserve meat through the bitterly cold winters. Sacks of salt are often carried by hardy horses that withstand cold or boats to trading posts that have sprung up throughout the south. Little more than a timber stockade, they are a place for traders to meet in safety and to exchange goods. A century after the birth of the salt trade, a network of trails criss-crosses the land, often with some enterprising fellows putting stone beds in areas that flood often.

-A group of hunters who got lost and ventured way too far north find a giant slab of ice. As they approach it, they see what seems like a humongous leathery wing and run away in fear, spreading tales of this awe-inspiring find among the populace.

ScadutannianFlag
Scadutannia – Crossu88
Capital: Sceadwian
Culture: Scadutian
State Religion: Scadutian polytheism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Being close to water has its advantages, especially in this day and age. Trade has been growing for some years, and people now travel by boat quite frequently too, often using the rivers to move goods around. The Scadutians have introduced a new way of making boats, in which they build a frame of wood and then nail overlapping nails onto it to produce a strong, but relatively light vessel that can be used for all sorts of things. With a shallow draft, it can go inland a long way and may be dragged short distances overland, plus its wide bottom allows it to carry a great number of goods or people. Within a century of introduction, they have become common to the east coast of the Midnight Isles and the continent. Despite poor handling at sea, they do superbly in internal waters.

-The reason for the adoption of this boat is largely down to the new economy in place. Along with the Cytanni, the Scadutians have increasingly gotten involved in trade. Salt, once rare here, is now common thanks to the mines and saltworks of Nordaney. Wine has been imported from the continent for the first time, and is greatly appreciated. Stone and wood are still commonly imported, usually by barges. Many of the younger villages have been fortified with substantial ramparts, and soon become much more attractive to live in than the older hillforts towards the end of the period. In these villages, the craftsmen proliferate alongside drinking halls and brothels. New breeds of sheep with fine hair and the rise of dyeworking leads to the nobles adopting finer clothing. Despite this increase in commercial activity and luxury goods, the new settlements are uncommon and rarely exceed a thousand residents. Indeed, most people still stay in or close to the hillforts.

-Other notable changes begin to take shape as the Kingdom expands. The chieftains have started forming rather interesting relationships with one another, copying the political systems of the continent. In them, a chief looks after his people in return for military service or a kind of rent. Very often these chieftains live in the new villages, and usually in much bigger houses than the common people. They raise small warbands of infantry and cavalry, but prefer to ride chariots into battle. In a much later development, a great chief goes on military campaign in the south and crushes the local tribes, before declaring himself a “King”. The land is distributed out to his supporters, who found many new villages far away from the hillforts and encourage migration and new farming methods. By the 6th century, the hillforts begin to be abandoned as the countryside is opened up to settlement.

SakasuneseFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Subsistence

-The Sakasunese continue to develop relatively rapidly; to that end they have carved up the land and treat it like a personal possession. From experiments with fishing and staying in one place, the Sakasunese have figured out how to raise fish. They build little rock walls in streams and rivers, before throwing drugs into the water to knock out the fish. They pick them up and put them into ponds and specially dug channels and raise them on insects and scraps, giving a year round reliable source of food. This provides yet another incentive to remain there, especially as they begin to also tend orchards and herb plants. Some elves have started making crude imitations of the clay pots humans make (or bartering for them).

-The practices have started being copied beyond Sakasu, but the town is certainly the major place to be. The population swells to a thousand, and now elves are travelling to the place to drop off food and supplies. More permanent housing has been constructed, with the grandest being the villa of the queen, made from quarried blocks of volcanic rock. The title is held in matrilineal succession and becomes a rather permanent fixture (much to the annoyance of many elves). Not only are there queens, but now it’s often common for her to appoint a “Lady of War” to be in charge of fighting and a high priestess (although sometimes they appoint men).

-Growing rapidly, this nascent chiefdom quickly begins to direct resources on the island towards investing into expansion. The Lady of war usually does this by gathering several dozen followers to raid tribes on other islands and to force them to acknowledge the rule of Sakasu. This extends to the volcanic islands too, which are seen with great reverence. Trade links have also worked in the favour of the polity to extend influence overseas, and now many of the human farmers on the mainland are at least vaguely aware of a great elven queen, who is believed to be a great seductress, rivaled only by the mysterious kitsune, who also populate the archipelago.

Turn 9: 500 to 750 SAM

Chinese Instrumental Music - Imperial Dancing Music Of Tang Dynasty (HIGH QUALITY)07:17

Chinese Instrumental Music - Imperial Dancing Music Of Tang Dynasty (HIGH QUALITY)

Turn music
Court music of Skrall

RealmsofOrbisTurn9PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 9

RealmsofOrbisTurn9DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 9

RealmsofOrbisTurn9InfoMap

Info map of Turn 9

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47496372&viewfull=1#post47496372


Turn quote: You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation - Plato

Events of the years 500 to 750 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-Bronze using societies come to an end, as usage of iron overtakes the spread of bronze working technologies. From now on, civilization is synonymous with knowledge of ironworking. Of course, this doesn’t prevent many primitive peoples from using iron (especially if they can trade for it or loot it from elsewhere), and in one instance has given rise to a new kind of lifestyle. Upon the great plains of Oycumen and Jiuan, ride massive hordes that live primarily by pastoralism. Farming has been always difficult in these lands, but with cooling and drying the advantages of rearing flocks of animals seems much more attractive. Additionally, as they ride from a young age, they prove to be among the best horsemen in the world, feared by many.

-Several decades before the end of this period, the climate once again begins to warm, lifting people out from their former misery as crop failures in hilly regions become less common now. The ice sheets and glaciers stop growing, much to the relief of the people whose villages lay in its path. Unfortunately, it has also coincided with an increase in volcanic activity, much to the upset of those who live nearby volcanoes. Elsewhere, it has helped drive populations upwards and in turn economic development.

-The world population is 176 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Palace economy

-The Dvegr have adopted many of the trappings of civilization, including indoor plumbing and writing. But, one such recent innovation concerns something much more abstract. Several clerks have spent the past few centuries developing simple aids to help them with calculating and measuring. Since land and storage of goods is most important, this naturally extends to working out area and volume, which several Dvegr work out formulae for during this time. Rice is one of the most important, and the unit used for a measure of rice is a “pud”. In the year 677, the first accurate estimate of rice production in the whole kingdom was made (esti-mated at 60 million puds). Each family (average of 8) was also estimated to hold 30 verts of land, each vert producing on average 50 puds per annum.

-These clerks have managed to only work this out due to the rather extensive reach of the new centralized administration. Military expansion on Herrey and the construction of fortifications by Járn help to cement the power of the crown as private armies are cracked down on. To ease transactions in trade, the quality of gold is assured with the stamp of the king, while smaller iron bars called Denars are used for small change. The idea was reportedly inspired by the civilizations of the east, whose merchants have used it in trade for some years already. The mines have also yielded a most interesting new resource. They are yellow crystals that upon burning produce a most foul smell, and may be used to make an oil-like fluid that eats away at metals. The Dvegr are most keen on using it to clean jewellery and ornaments.

-Despite the increase in agricultural production, trade, and an adoption of civilized behaviours, the quality of life among the ordinary Dvegr is deteriorating. Increasingly, more and more resources are being used to maintain the vast network of fortifications and the standing army. To maintain existing farmland, vast quantities of iron and timber must be imported and paid, despite the growing costs of both and declining tax revenues. The cultivation of marginal lands leaves this kingdom vulnerable to famine, and now these break out with regularity. With costs spiralling upwards, the adoption of money allows the Dvegr to initially buy much of what they needed. But in 689, a major volcanic eruption took place that buried whole towns and killed thousands, in addition to many of the gold mines and ruining large expanses of cropland. By 750, there has been some recovery (although some towns were buried too deep to make the effort worth it), but there exists too few labourers or resources spare to truly rebuild the devastated regions.

SkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Market economy

-Skrall continues the long march back into relevance, with the most recent symbolic move being the re-settlement of the old Skagosi towns in the mountains and hills. Despite it being the coldest it has ever been in thousands of years, with many of the deep mines flooded and freezing, the Skagosi have figured out a way to make these inhospitable lands liveable once more. The soft black rock in some mines has been used sporadically for fuel for some time, but the horrible fumes produced made it useless. Now, the Skagosi have used bamboo rods and picks to drill holes out of the mines at such an angle that it prevents water coming in, but allows the smoke to escape. Additionally, they build tanks of water heated by this rock, which can be drawn off by bamboo pipes to other areas to allow for easy heating. Although expensive, the good deposits of copper and iron here make such activities worthwhile, and the old towns begin to be re-settled.

-Increasing contact with the Dvegr led the Skagosi to remember their old religion. Indeed, they were no longer miners living in their cold mountainous homeland, but farmers in the warm and wet south. The resettlement of the old towns and the influence of the philosophers led many Skagosi to reconsider their religion, and in turn to reform movements that sought to correct de-ficiencies. Inspired by this, the King of Skrall convened with his priests and introduced a standard liturgy much like the Dvegr, along with new religious laws and a holy text. Detailing major similarities with the Dvegr in terms of origin myths, the book also used the reformed writing sys-tem. The runic alphabet has been revised down to about 30 characters, each representing a basic sound (also much like the Dvegr one). Additionally, instead of being restricted to priests, the new script quickly gains usage among some nobles and merchants.

-As the period draws to a close, warfare intensified among the lesser kings of the Skagosi dwarves. Armies swell in size, using massed infantry in formation and led by officers selected on merit. New tax codes improve revenue collection, while states quickly begin to outgrow the families that created them. The population continued to grow, and into the millions, fed on ever more puds of rice (Skrall produced 800 million puds in 714) than ever before. The escalation of warfare mostly affected the other kingdoms, but Skrall has seen scores of refugees, immigrants, philosophers, scholars, and warriors move and mingle. Many schools of thought have been born, some of them advocating wholly new ways of organising society. One group advocates the equal distribution of land and an end to money and hierarchy. Others stress the importance of the individual and their importance either as an individual, or within society. And yet another is composed of people who say that one must ask questions and debate to reach truth, and that the Deep Ones are not responsible for the creation of the world. Indeed, they claim that every substance possesses a “mind” which has the power to act, without necessarily requiring a god to act upon it.

-Trade became so important that some Kingdoms were made dependent on importing it during harvest failures. Skrall exploited this mercilessly, holding back reserves to drive up prices and then selling it off at opportune times to generate both huge riches and to bankrupt smaller kings. It allowed them to play off kingdoms against each other, and helped to precipitate peasant rebellions. Since military expenditure was constantly driven upwards and the peasantry squeezed for all they had, it eventually led to the complete collapse of many lesser kingdoms and their subsequent annexation by Skrall. The entire royal houses were summarily butchered, a process that by 750 had led to the near reunification of the Skrall Empire. In the closing stages of the last wars, some priests began using staves, having figured out ways to cast fire at their enemies. Unfortunately, these priests are often half-crazy and live as recluses. They develop a belief that displeasing the Deep Ones will lead to them being turned into insects, trees, or even women.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Market economy

-Although writing has been around for a considerable number of millennia, it has usually been a foreign import. With literacy and wealth generally on the rise, an increasing number of orcs (mainly those involved in industry or administration) are now working with a new alphabet and writing system developed specially for Orcs. After they conquered such a vast Empire, the next big challenge was in working out how to best manage it. Several centuries later, the language of administration is Orcish, often requiring those working in law, government, or business to have a fluent understanding of it.

-The last of the lesser kings and petty rulers who do not bow to the Orcs are subjugated at this time, although at some cost. Unlike previous campaigns, this one went into a much wetter and hotter land, quite unlike the dry and warm conditions Orcs are used to. In this southern expedition, the Orc army marched on the city of the Mutsa Kingdom and sacked it thoroughly before chasing dissidents into the jungles. The King of Mutsa was most terrified by the Warlocks, who meditate before battle and use dark magic to help them fight. There is some wealth here, including ivory, gold, kola nuts, copper, and some salt. Unfortunately, rebellions are frequent (especially as this was the first time they were conquered by an outside power) and tax evasion is high. Even a century after conquest, tax offices are still attacked, and the province remains a backwater.

-In light of these issues, the Empire undergoes a steady transformation as the days of constant warfare come to an end. Power is decentralized to the provinces, where towns and cities may be allowed to hold elections for public offices. Sayites are often appointed into government positions, and while initially they abuse their powers to promote their religion, the Orcs later introduce laws which stress secularism in order to clamp down on religious dissent. As time went on, the Empire began to benefit from this new administrative system. Farms began to intensify production, people moved to the growing cities to move into crafts, while trade and industry boomed to unprecedented levels. The military industry is redirected towards supplying the combatants of the wars of Irminonia, which have proven profitable for the Orcs. Much of the state budget of the Empire is made up of taxes (direct and indirect) from trade.

-The system however, has many of its own flaws. Many farmers are often pushed into heavy debt and are enslaved or reduced to being merely tenants on the land. While Orcs are encouraged to take up pastoralism and fishing (many of them do so), the intensification of agriculture soon spreads to the homeland in due course. A wealthy and powerful class of Orcs and humans has emerged, which collectively holds an increasingly share of wealth and power within the empire. They build vast estates and fine country houses, filled with luxuries brought from all over the world. The council of high shamans, disgusted with these changes, moves to a cave in the mountains south of the city of Citadel, which has doubled in size over the past 3 centuries. Peasants and townsfolk continue to riot frequently, and quite a few have converted to the Sayite faith. Some philosophers are even starting to think about religion, and in the potential of reforming it.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: God-Emperor
Race: Human
Economy: Market economy

-The rise of philosophy, mathematics, and skilled crafts has all impacted life immeasurably in Irmi-nonia, but the latest advance has been applied to the art of war. The development of heavy fortifications means it’s much more difficult to break down the walls of cities and forts. In response, a massive type of bow is mounted on a frame and is used to hurl rocks with considerable force. While heavy and bulky, a good number of them can drive defenders from the walls of a city and help open up a way in. This comes at a time when warfare is escalating quite rapidly, and with it, the need for such siege equipment. Sayites are the main source of these new skilled craftsmen and engineers needed for such complex machinery, and are accepted. Unfortunately, they bring their faith of Saya with them, which has begun to spread throughout the Empire.

-In 712, the great Emperor Ramolis X reformed the army, expanding it to an unprecedented 90,000, complete with contingents of heavy cavalry (armed with lances and swords) with skirmishers (armed with light bows and throwing spears). Invading the Kingdom of Gruytarch to their immediate west, the King there knew of the previous trickery of the Emperor and immediately raised an army of 100,000 to meet him, marching to attack the army of Irminonia before they could seize the major towns and cities. He chased the weaker army that had advanced into his kingdom, believing them unsupported but they retreated and drew the king after them. They then met in battle, where then they began to fall back, drawing in the enemy towards the centre of their lines so as to encourage them to charge forwards. The line however did not break, and from over the hill came heavy cavalry that rode around the back and charged into the rear, devastating the army and breaking them up. Their king was slain, and Gruytarch became yet another possession of the Emperor.

-In 737, the Emperors nephew Ramolis XI came to a throne that was more powerful than ever before in history, with an army of 120,000 and huge territorial expanses. To solidify his position and reunify the Empire once and for all (in addition to boosting his legitimacy, as his parentage is in question), he invaded the Blood Emperor to the north. This Empire was long based on both wine and strong familial relations, to the point that most families were heavily inbred and mixed wine with blood in religious rituals. Ramolis XI once again copied the stratagems of his predecessors, building up a vast army with strong heavy cavalry and the building of popular support. The Blood Emperor luckily managed to drink himself into a stupor and banged his nose when his helmets visor slapped down onto his face, causing him to have a nosebleed and to choke to death on his blood. The nobles abandoned the royal court to pledge loyalty to Irminonia as their armies advanced, until eventually a final siege saw the destruction of their capital and subsequent annexation. The remaining petty rulers quickly conceded the authority of the Emperor and were duly annexed over the next few years, leaving Ramolis XI the undisputed master of the world.

-Ramolis XI continued his successful reign, formally reuniting the Empire after marrying into the remaining royal house (which ruled the kingdom to the south) and holding a ceremony to celebrate the beginning of a new golden age. Unfortunately, many of these wars created a large military that needs a major source of revenue, and although there is a lot of plunder, people are already clamouring for more wars to get even more plunder and land. Indeed, it is a policy of the Emperor to give out free land to his subjects in the aftermath of wars, and since many farmers are often impoverished and without land, many join the army in the hopes of getting their own plots of land as a reward (along with plunder). The growing population fuels this expansion, especially as marginal lands are now cultivated and many cities with tens of thousands of residents (or even hundreds of thousands) are now common.

SayiteFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Sayite
State Religion: Saya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Market economy

-Much like in Irminonia, the Sayites have quite the affinity for mechanical inventions and devices. However, they are not so much interested in siege weaponry, but in a more powerful type of bow. Called the “belly-shooter”, it is a bow loaded by pressing your belly into it. It can hold a bolt that can be thrown with more force than a normal bow. It was only invented late in the period, and is nor-mally used by the more cowardly goblins. The normal soldiers still use the same swords and spears as their ancestors did, although they only fight in one major conflict. The island to the west off the coast of the great Nigasand Empire is subdued after a ten year campaign, which was seized due to its proximity to trade routes. Several smaller conflicts have erupted with the rapidly expanding Cobali Republic to their west on the mainland, which has adopted many of the innovations of the Sayites (and even copied their religion).

-At home, soldiers have much more pressing concerns. Riots and slave rebellions are so common that soldiers must be called in to crush them, causing dissension among those who feel bad at put-ting down their compatriots. Facing such problems, the Geronium introduces a new set of reforms known as the “Tiborius reforms”. The old tribal system is abolished, and now two senators are elected from each province (based on a major city). Additionally, the senators may elect 2 consuls, each responsible for maintaining order and preventing corruption. One of these consuls (lesser goblins) may be also appointed to the position of “Great goblin” during a time of crisis for 2 years, during which they hold absolute control.

-A major expansion in the construction of public works begins, aided by a shift among the aristocracy to appeal to the commoners and gain a better public image (so as to get into office). Theatres, colleges, libraries, and hospitals (all funded with generous donations) are now also common, providing entertainment to many and further stimulating the expansion of both the middle class and bureaucracy. Philosophers, artists, physicians, engineers, scholars, and all sorts proliferate here, spreading their ideas and innovations. One physician claims that invisible particles are responsible for disease, and one philosopher rejects Saya, and turns instead to what he calls “perceptibles”. He spends much of his life writing down and creating a vast range of works on the natural world. His work explicitly rejects the tricks of magicians, the whims of gods, or blind chance, and instead asserts the universe is governed by rational laws.

-Overseas, colonies continue to grow and multiply like fungal spores. A new law (Edict of Jall) recently introduced to many of the cities aids in this, in which a land grant of 20 acres is given to any interested citizen. This is on the condition that they actively improve the land for five years. A good enough incentive, as many goblins and some humans are constantly on the search for land to secure as their own. Most expansion is to the islands of the south, many of which are barely habited. Even there however, people find it difficult to escape debt and hardship. Trade with the Aclerians, Nigasand, and Irminonia has increased in conjunction with missionary activities, to the point that small communities of Saya followers are present in all three societies. Unfortunately, they also tend to create tensions with the natives.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence agrarianism

-The Aclerians enter the Iron Age proper, with centuries of fruitful trade and skill diffusion resulting in the rise of blacksmiths. Originally goblins who worked for Aclerians, the black-smiths roam the grassland looking to ply his skills. Since most iron has to be imported and is rarely made from scratch, these men typically do repairs or rework the metal. As time passes on, they settle down in the bigger villages and towns. Iron weaponry and tools become in-creasingly common too, although still relatively costly. New mining techniques later make it possible to extract and iron themselves (although it is often time consuming and expensive). Gold is much easier to come by, and seemingly in greater demand.

-The spread and size of the settled areas continues to grow. More and more, permanent vil-lages spring up alongside rivers or oases. Shifting cultivation falls out of fashion as land use intensifies, people dig channels and begin to store and conserve water in ever more sophisti-cated ways. The existing village swell into towns connected by thin gossamer webs of trade and culture. Gold, cowhide, and salt are all prized by the Sayites, who exchange large quanti-ties of iron for it. Donkeys are the beasts of burden here, wheeled carts are rarely used. Wool and linen are in great demand by the Aclerians, who have begun to wear clothing made from it. Several Sayites settle permanently in the northern villages, where they work in the growing textiles trade.

-Political changes are underway now too. The great chiefs are slowly gaining power, very often establishing dynasties and building themselves fine halls. They also control a lot of trade, and now assert their will with warriors equipped with iron spears and cowhide shields. Shamans come out worse due to the steady erosion of many of their traditional powers over the community as the chieftain begins to subsume them, something that causes tension among the Aclerians. This is made worse by the recent arrival of the highly religious Sayites, who have won several converts already in the north already. Violent confrontations with the shamans are common, but such as the skills of the Sayites in demand (not to mention their own overpopulation) that many continue to migrate here.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Being a Kingdom upon the Midnight isles, the Cytanni have always been particularly inclined to-wards sailing the seas. The recent expansion of trade and population growth has led to the construction of truly large wooden ships, some of which are suitable for use in war or in trade. As oak is used in their construction, this necessitates having plentiful numbers of oak trees. Since these are getting rare, oak has to be brought from increasingly further afield (such as in the north), where regular warfare with the tribes there and violent confrontations with direwolves are the cause of many a deaths. As the period comes to a close, the wars have proven to be to the benefit of the Cytanni, who through sheer weight of numbers have slowly pushed the boundaries of their Kingdom to the mountains of the north.

-At the foothills of the mountains, the King of Nordaney founded a major hillfort called Kalsboro. However, it quickly begins to grow due to its strategic position, with access to both water and high ground. While the farmland around is not particularly great, iron ploughs and huge numbers of la-bourers worked to dig, drain, clear, and ultimately develop the lands around to produce enough food to support this new town. There is a problem in that much of the old hillfort is later abandoned due to overcrowding, forcing the construction of a major walled town some distance away from the hillfort. This is a story repeated throughout the Kingdom as a whole, as many hillforts are either abandoned or swell in size, to be replaced by “Oppidums”, a kind of walled town with thousands of residents. Such is the importance of Kalsboro that the first major road in the Midnight islands was built, a gravel and rock road connecting it to Skardavag.

-This road becomes quite busy, and many of the villages nearby it begin to grow into rather large towns, with an average size of about 2000. Although they are not as common as in the east and south, these towns still outsize anything which came before. They host regular markets, as now for the first time, coins have begun appearing in small numbers. Although most people like to sail by the sea or use barges on the rivers, wheeled carts are making an appearance, mostly to transport salt or timber from the interior. In one case, a logging camp happened upon a major ice formation with the scaly wing frozen inside. After many local villagers were brought up, they hacked at the ice and used bonfires to help melt it down, until finally they discovered it was a great dragon had been frozen inside. While it was discovered centuries ago, it had only been freed in the year 689, for which it was immensely grateful. The dragon announced that it would be in debt to the Cytanni, before it flew off. The glacier from which it emerged began to melt soon after, and by 750 had vanished completely.

ScadutannianFlag
Scadutannia – Crossu88
Capital: Sceadwian
Culture: Scadutian
State Religion: Scadutian polytheism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-A succession of mediocre or otherwise poor kings leads to this period being rather bad for the ruling house of Scadutannia. In the absence of royal power, many of the regional lords and chiefs take advantage to encourage decentralization. Many large towns begin to develop from smaller villages, taking advantage of the expansion in trade and improving farm yields. Currency, introduced from the mainland, appears sporadically in the wealthiest areas which now host markets. Clumsy systems of taxation, lawmaking, and enforcement appear at the same time, very often with overlapping and confusing jurisdictions.

SakasuneseFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Subsistence aquaculture

-Contact with the human farmers of the mainland has increased in recent years, more so as both Sakasunese and humans regularly travel back and forth for the purposes of trade now. The Sakasunese, being rather materially poor are rather fond of iron. Of course, the elves don’t know how to even repair damaged iron blades, let alone make them. Having heard of the Sakasunese reputation for being lusty and seductive, quite a few humans are all too eager to part with iron tools and weaponry in return for sexual favours. They also impart a little knowledge about how to cold-work the metal, but otherwise the lack of iron in these islands means the Sakasunese are still dependent on human traders.

-Several humans also bring plants with them, often accidentally or as gifts. Among them is rice, a crop which was introduced to the human farmers by the dwarves over a thousand years ago. It took a while for them to take off, with the rice first grown in the same ponds used for rearing fish, before even more ponds began to be dug and extended. While highly productive, it is fairly difficult work, and many elves only turn to it reluctantly only because of the lure of food security. When some elves tried to later the lifestyle, they realised it was impossible to, lest they starve. The population continues to grow, with many elves now outside of Sakasu digging rice paddies and moving into stone houses. Pottery is now being manufactured too, along with intricate stone carvings and gems. Some textiles have also been introduced, mainly being brought as gifts by the humans.

-Violence is also still a part of the daily life of the elves, especially as each successive queen usually has more warriors to call on and a bigger incentive to expand. The number of fortified houses and stockades multiply, while raids and murders of foreign elves tend to be common. The move to agri-culture also started a shift in religious practice. Inspired by human religious practices, they begin to carve fertility statues (which resemble large and pleasantly soft elves) and leave offerings to the kitsune in the hopes of ensuring more food and successful pregnancies. Specialization in trade, farming, fighting, or religion also seems to be slowly coming in, and the more important Sakasunese tend to live in bigger houses and have more food. The old egalitarian lifestyle is coming to an end.

Turn 10: 750 to 1000 SAM

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate II06:53

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate II

Turn music
Music of Irminonia

RealmsofOrbisTurn10PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 10

RealmsofOrbisTurn10DevelopmentMap

Development map of Turn 10

RealmsofOrbisTurn10OrganizedReligionMap

Organized religion map of Turn 10

RealmsofOrbisTurn10InfoMap

Info map of Turn 10

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47572226&viewfull=1#post47572226


Turn quote: The various modes of worship which prevailed in the Roman world were all considered by the people as equally true; by the philosopher as equally false; and by the magistrate as equally useful.― Edward Gibbon

Events of the years 750 to 1000 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-The cold period of the previous 250 years comes to an end, with the world once again warming up. It couldn’t have come at a better time, as now the world is a very different place. With over one quarter of a billion sentient souls, multiple empires, dozens of kingdoms, hundreds of chieftains, and thousands of tribes, it is a busy and diverse world. A revolution in underway in thinking in all corners of the globe, as now hundreds of new ideas and inventions proliferate and the grandness of civilization grows. The revolution is driven by the sweating hands of millions upon millions of peasants and citizens, and many hundreds of thousands of merchants and peddlers, bankers and builders, who are creating riches and monuments far beyond the wildest imaginations of the great men of the Bronze Age. New religions are aflame in many a part of the world, carried like embers along the wind to set fires far from their origin. One of these is Humma, a religion heavily influenced by influences from both ends of Oycumen and Jiuan, many adherents of which live in monastic communities.

-At the same time, it seems much like that many of the old gods and fantastic beasts, once thought of as legends, are now an increasingly important fact of daily life. This is most evident among the dragons, which are seen in the skies on a semi-regular basis. They rarely interact with the people below, but are very interested in precious metals, which have been appearing above ground much more frequently. Lesser deities have also emerged from the forests, fens, and hills. Often adapting to the changing lives of the people, they promise to help them before they return to where they came. They are said to reduce disaster and help the good years last longer, although they frequently allow conditions to worsen a little so as to “preserve balance”.

-The world population is 264 million.

DvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verolin
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Manorialism

-As the 8th century wears on, shortages of basic goods become more of a problem. The population peaks, and the dwarves (renowned for their shortness) shrink even more. Their bones become brittle, they become physically weaker, and hunger becomes an everyday occurrence. The Dvergfit monarchy adopted a number of solutions to these challenges, such as a massive new body of law. King Alvros' Code helped to bring together all existing legislation (mostly covering matters such as property, money, or taxation). This code also formally unified the islands into 15 separate provinces, with Jarn as a special territory.

-Unfortunately, these measures do little to improve the weakening economy. The new bureaucracy needed to administer the provinces and enforce the law is costly. It sucks up what little surplus is left. The expansion of the army on Herrey does little to help, and although the King asks belatedly for ways to make the extensive fortification networks less expensive (besides the obvious), little is done. The population began to shrink in the 9th century, despite the work put into building aqueducts to irrigate the fields. As the population problem becomes a crisis, the King introduced a series of increasingly desperate measures aimed at colonizing the mainland. One expedition managed to open up a new area to colonists known as Pelagonia, named for the human farming tribes (collectively called Pelagones).

-By the 10th century, the Dvegr have entered a full-blown crisis. The shrinking population and weak-ening trade led to the collapse of regular taxation, leaving the crown heavily indebted. The defunct gold mines are also useless, as money falls out of use and people switch back to subsistence farming. The monarchy continued onwards, using the sheer size of the army and the network of fortifications to maintain control. Unfortunately, the monarchy was unable to pay the army, and in 976 they mutinied. The remaining soldiers turned to banditry or desertion, and the regional governors stopped paying taxes and established their own ruling houses. Political and economic disintegration followed shortly afterwards, with merchants fearing for their lives and peasants turning to feeding themselves. Most of the grand palaces, aqueducts, fortifications, and towns fell into ruin, although a few Dvegr moved into the old forts and rebuilt them as fortified homes. Herrey itself was taken over by a power-hungry general, who declared independence and took several islands under his rule.

ImperialSkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall Empire
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Deep Ones
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Market economy

-The Skrall have become increasingly enamoured with the dishonourable way of making money, that is, by trade. A revolutionary ship design has aided their activities. It is not the fastest, strongest, or most aesthetically pleasing, but it has the most important quality to a merchant – cost effectiveness. As more rice is gathered from the paddies and cottage industries churn out millions of items, the overall wealth and number of items to trade thus increases, and many of these merchants seek markets further afield. Industries are booming, with whole villages or town districts turned over to the manufacture and sale of goods, from nails to beer and pottery. Trade with the Gan Empire is already common, but now they have established contact with the Sakasu and arrived just in time to witness the Dvegr collapse. Elsewhere, traders move over the vastness of the great continent west, towards an empire they only know as “Ir Minh”.

-Now is the golden age of philosophy, seeing many rich influences from the Gan Empire, and to a lesser extent from the Dvegr. When the intellectual climate in Gan becomes less favourable, Skrall is seen as a much more liveable place for many of these philosophers, who very often are patronized by wealthy citizens and the monarchy. Schools, libraries, debating chambers, and rooms set aside for laboratories are all funded extensively, all of them full of philosophers examining parts of nature in detail. One philosopher manages to compile several encyclopaedias on the world (covering geography, natural philosophy, anatomy, history, alchemistry, and the magic of staves). One anatomist discovers that after cutting up dead priests (illegally) and examining the brain closely, that it appeared a bit like a sponge. Additionally, the priests (who don’t have a reputation for sound thought) have claimed to mastered control of fire, although philosophers doubt the veracity of their claims.

-The armies of Skrall continue to march, overwhelming the earth in much the same way that army ants overwhelm beetles. A trade embargo was declared on the remaining southern kingdoms, before their cities were besieged and the inhabitants starved into submission. By this point, the highly organized army of Skrall has become one of its major strengths, having utilized massed infantry formations to their full advantage. In a siege or restrictive terrain (such as the hills and forests) this is a disadvantage, but for now resistance has been largely crushed. The remaining kingdoms were annexed, and then whole areas controlled by petty kings were seized in the west, bringing up the borders of Skrall to the coast. It is also renamed as the “Skrall Empire”, as now the ruler of Skrall sees himself vain enough that such a title will be deemed suitable.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Market economy

-Having already been home to many ancient civilizations, the expansive Nigasand Republic rather reluctantly carry on the old tradition of pretending to be benevolent rulers, despite the fact they came as violent brutes to plunder the land. One of these covers economic development, which progresses rapidly over this time. The first crude watermills pop up, while glassblowing also appears near the end of the period, used initially for making glass beakers cheaply and in bulk. The Orcs also order the construction of the “Rage Sanctum”, which is actually just a council office. It is a pretty impressive council office nonetheless, filled with libraries, burial tombs, living quarters, rat rooms (they like to eat these for some reason, although most rats are bought from street urchins), and dungeons. The council also introduced universal suffrage, so now all free taxpaying males can vote in elections for the senate or local administration. The ideas of democracy have taken root.

-The Orc armies, although somewhat irrelevant in an Empire of tranquillity that has never yet been seen before, continue to expand. A few deinotherium were captured and used for ceremonial purposes to ride upon, but never saw action. Indeed, most expansion is at sea. Huge new fleets of massive wooden galleys with bronze rams and catapults on-board are used to patrol the coasts and lesser islands, while smaller galleys are used on the increasingly congested Flovis river, which by this point is clogged with barges moving all manner of goods (such as timber from Gor’lan, or hides from Aclary). Some of these military expeditions can still explore however, and several do travel to the ends of the Flovis River, where they discover a massive waterfall preceding a gargantuan lake. Only one of the expeditions managed to successfully reach the lake (by disassembling the boat and hiring porters to carry it up), which they left by a smaller river to the south, discovering a vast ocean thereafter. They sailed home by following the coast west and north, charting the land in the process.

-Despite this being a golden age, it is a time of increasing religious tension and conflict. The ac-tivities of the Sayites have led to large numbers of the dispossessed converting, and after sensing what a threat this was, the Orcs quickly began to work on reforming Rage with the aid of several shamans and philosophers. They soon introduce a standardized liturgy, which states that every living entity is an embodiment of the one true god. Their aim is an optimum activity of the soul through strength of mind & body: in this way an individual can achieve ultimate power. It is one most rigorously applied in the arenas of the Empire, which are large areas set aside for fighting and amazing feats of acrobatics. The athletes in these arenas tend to travel together in circuses, finding money by performing throughout the entire empire. Of course, a more useful form of Rage is by practitioners using it to sense “disorder” among the people, allowing the deployment of soldiers to quash rebellion before it begins. In the border regions and in the busy port towns where religions mingle, this is of considerable importance, although rioting has become frequent due to the activities of militant Sayites.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: Na’zyr
Race: Human
Economy: Market economy

-The vision of the Emperor extends far, far beyond that of his predecessors a thousand years ago. Unlike then, Irminonia can truly blossom as a powerful Empire that cannot be reckoned with. In 770, he invades every kingdom to his east, subjugating them with an army of 120,000 men (many of them are on saddled and armoured cavalry, using heavy lances) that smashed his enemies to pieces and cracked open their cities like eggs before pouring into them. A multitude of other kingdoms, chiefs, and republics all hurried to form alliances and to move against Irminonia, but by this point they were losing. The first great Irminonia war ended in 782 with the cession of much of the land to the east (up to the river). However, with Irminonia hungry for yet more land, the second war (807 – 815) followed in much the same way, ending with the conquest of much of the west and the effective doubling in size of Irminonia.

-Part of the reason for their success is down to some clever moves made by the Emperor in preparation for the war. As always, the army was heavily funded, and despite attempts to cut back on the budget by some ministers, it has swollen in size to have 150,000 men. They are drilled relentlessly, with honour and discipline stressed in addition to making sure the best men are available. What also helped was the new state religion, formed after years of coalescing thought and reform movements reached their logical conclusion. Known as “Na’zyr”, it worships but one god (Rahab), who created the world and the five great races. On closer inspection, many believe it to be suspiciously similar to another religion, especially when large sections of the holy text were blindly translated from Sayite. Nonetheless, it is a religion quickly gaining some acceptance among the urban poor, who see it as a preferable alternative to the foreign Sayite faith, being close enough to their own views. Unfortunately, given the nature of port towns, the mobs often attack Sayites, blaming them for their woes in the cities.

-The Emperor is keen to promote this new religion (especially since he is technically Gods repre-sentative on earth), by building massive temples and giving out wine and animal sacrifices as offer-ings to Rahab (the poor tend to consume them themselves). The religion begins to spread throughout the empire, although it is still in its nascent stages. The Empire is already considerably massive, with huge tracts of land being redistributed and tilled by former soldiers. An integrated Empire-wide road and administrative system are also being developed, and with warmer weather it has never been a better time to be a farmer. Some of the generals and landed gentry have bought up huge tracts of land to farm too, managing them as major enterprises that grow grapes or wheat in bulk for export. Lead, iron, gold, tin, copper, mercury mining and production all skyrocket, with industries likewise booming. The Empire even begins to receive trades from “Gan” and “Skag”, who bring bolts of cottonsilk. These traders bring back copious amounts of gold and silver, and intend on returning with even more.

SayiteFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Sayite
State Religion: Saya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Market economy

-The Gor’lan have quite the affinity for inventing things, and given the perennial problem of finding enough food to eat, the application of this knowledge to agriculture couldn’t hurt. The process be-gins with the invention of the waterwheel, a rather simple way of converting the motion of water into rotary power for machinery (such as millstones). Although primitive, several copies begin ap-pearing in both Irminonia and Nigasand at the end of the period. On the home islands themselves, they are difficult to build due to the lack of suitable sites on streams for them. Several mills are also powered by the tide, and many are built to aid the distribution of public bread. It turns out that giving out free food is a good way to quell rioting, and by the 9th century has become something widely expected of the government. Of course, it is rather costly, as the cities need to ship in this grain and process it too.

-The military is the body responsible for the distribution of food to the townspeople, and for many other rather civil activities. They not only manage the food supply to the poor, but work on the construction of roads, the rebuilding of highways, and various other public works. The quality of the soldiers suffers accordingly, and many of them begin to also take on part-time civilian jobs. They are also present in the expansion of the great new city of Ros’Foral on the Arhanky peninsula, which due to trade and good farmland has grown into something of a second capital in its own right. Huge networks of paved roads in turn connect this city to the other mainland ones, where a culture of free thought and wealth-making has taken firm root.

-The individual cities and agreements between them also see the beginnings of finance as an industry in itself. The first true banks appear, although they are largely used for storing wealth, rather than having a major role in lending and investment. Tax codes are also reformed, as tax revenue becomes increasingly important to the actual functioning of a city and the municipal services thus provided. Sweepers, pavers, bricklayers, water carriers, bakers, scribes, and magistrates are among the many people employed by the government to prevent a city descending into filth and savagery. Huge sewers and bathhouses with adjoined brothels are also constructed, so as to centralize filth in locations far from eyesight. Trade continues to explode in volume, aided especially by the municipal authorities. Hides from Aclary, cottonsilk from Gan and Skag, wine from Irminonia, and grain from Nigasand all find their way here. Aclary is the most favourable of these nations, due to their rapid adoption of the Sayite faith. The others have already begun religious reforms that side-line the missionaries.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Saya
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-The Aclary continue to progress onwards, with multiple towns and fortified palaces now scattered around the plains, often clinging to muddy puddles for sources of water. The advent of iron, a growing population, new ways of fighting, and increasing political sophistication leads to most of the Aclary adopting some kind of feudal system, albeit heavily based on kinship relations and reciprocation. The king himself maintains a large personal bodyguard of swordsmen and archers, which is paid year-round (with salt) and employed to defend Cayerus and the surrounding fiefs. They are also used to hound the weakening shamans, who have been steadily undermined by the rapid spread of the Sayite missionaries. The issue was eventually resolved in favour of the Sayites, when a Saya priest was appointed to sit on the Kings council instead of a shaman. His reign was followed by violent uprisings and reprisals as conversion became much more militant and rapid. By the 10th century, the old faith has been pushed back, with the Aclerians now following the one true god.

-Trade with the Gor’lan steadily increases, especially in wake of the mass conversion to the new faith. Money even begins to slowly make an appearance in the north, along with foreign-ers besides the little goblins. Human traders from Nigasand are now common too, along with those from Irminonia and dozens of multiple other smaller traders and their religions or phi-losophies. Trade ships are common enough that the Aclerians eventually begin to buy or build their own ones, and sail them either west or north to cut in on international trade. Finally, the King of Aclary himself ordered the construction of a port on the southern coast (until now most populated by fishermen) and the organisation of a fleet of ships to explore the south. In the process they discover a group of tropical islands that appear to be untouched by man. They build a small village there before the expedition leaves to get more supplies.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Until recently, the Cytanni have always been rather behind the curve when it comes to technological wonders, but now it is their time to shine. They have found a way to build a furnace so hot it can melt iron, and allow for it to be poured and cast in moulds. It is unfortunately rather brittle, but with reworking it can be strengthened enough for general purpose use. It eats up a lot of timber though, something which the Cytanni have started to run out of for the first time. As a result, they have started to reshape the land, through draining marshes and planting new forests. New mines are opened up, enriching the kingdom and setting Nordaney firmly on the path towards power. By the end of the 10th century, over one and a half million people live here.

-With their massive stores of iron, the Cytanni declare war against man and nature. Thousands of warriors descend on the south and north, driving out regional chiefs and petty kings and nearly doubling the size of the Kingdom. The mountains and foothills of the west and north are finally secured and pacified, opening up the land to the next war. Now tens of thousands of peasants hack at the forests with iron axes, tear up the thick soils with heavy ploughs, and dig massive dykes and canals to move water and soil on an unprecedented scale. Huge areas of land are drained and opened to settlement, while the direwolves are slaughtered and driven far into the north by organized teams who are paid well for every skin they deliver. The wilderness is systematically pushed far back, revealing a lush green land. Only to the far north does a true wild land remain, where the people stick to the old ways. Even then, they know that their days are coming to an end as the Cytanni tongue spreads north.

-In many ways, Nordaney now heavily resembles the grand empires to the south, despite their lack of strength relative to them, or their size. Most people now have experience of using money, as merchants spring up in their thousands to buy and sell goods all over the world. Even luxuries from Irminonia are becoming common (such as wine) here. The warming climate also does some good, as farms become more productive and some even turn to becoming vintners themselves. Barges now clog the rivers, which in some areas are reinforced with masonry and timbers to prevent erosion. Canals allow some of these boats to converge on a brand new major town in the headlands to the north, acting as an intermediary between Nordaney and Kalsboro, from where goods may travel to the continent.

SakasuneseFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Palace economy

-Unlike most elves, the Mizukan are rather interested in adopting the technology of their neigh-bours. To this end, they have bought or copied a large number of things already used by humans or dwarves. Chief among them is ironworking, as now many small smithies have sprung up throughout the islands and work to either repair or make iron tools. At present they mostly repair them, due to the lack of iron on the islands. Despite this, they can trade for it from the Skrall merchants who sometimes come down this way, who sell the elves iron in return for luxury woods, handicrafts, and sexual favours. The Sakasunese are nonetheless cunning enough to use it (along with obsidian for studded clubs) to declare war on the rival tribes and to finally unite the archipelago under the town of Sakasu.

-Mizukan now begins the slow and painful process of total unification, as often the lesser tribes rebelled against the queen during times of weakness. While the last tribe technically submitted to her authority in 845, it took another bloody century to end the last open rebellion, and even then dissent still simmers under the surface. However, Mizukan has brought the gift of peace by banning intertribal warfare, and maintains a small fleet of boats with professional warriors to keep order throughout the islands. Trees are cleared, and pathways cut through the hills to ease up travel into the hills, while the town of Sakasu swells into a bustling port (with more brothels per head than any other settlement in the world). The port connects the capital to the growing wider world that the elves are slowly becoming gradually aware of, as they slowly abandon the ways of their ancestors and begin to even take on Skrall fashions.

-In this political centre, much is spent to ensure the dominance of the growing town over the dominion of elves. A massive stepped monument to the sea god was later built, with a huge central part of the monument hollowed out to make room for a port and a canal to connect it to the sea. While a boon for trade, the labour required to build it was immense (the lack of iron tools made it a much tougher challenge), and many elves died in its construction. A huge stone academy was built to house philosophers imitating the ideas of the Skrall. Carved stone statues (representing god, but clearly done in the Skrall style) are now common in Sakasu, while lesser wooden shrines fill the hinterland. Many of these lesser shrines are dedicated to the Kitsune, by now a major part of folklore. Indeed, it has been claimed to control the fertility of the land and enjoys regular festivals by elves offering it food. In return, it has given the elves many good harvests.

UruthiFlag
Zillamaster55 - Uruthi Confederation
Capital: Gül-Kab'an
Culture: Uruthi
State Religion: Eternal Plains
Race: Demigiant
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-Long before the age of snow and ice, the demigiants had wandered the surface of the world for many millennia, but with the advent of the age of man they began to slowly lose their old homeland to the men. Now they number a few tens of thousands, scattered over the cool northern parts of Jiuan and Oycumen where they eke out a living by hunting and rearing animals. The men have been spreading however, forcing the demigiants to either adapt or die out. The Uruthi chose the former.

-The last few centuries of the first millennium have seen major changes in the lifestyle of the demigiants, with the most obvious being a relatively quick adoption of the pastoral lifestyle. Keeping herds of goats, sheep, reindeer, cattle, or horses, the Uruthi are now able to consume dairy without suffering from stomach pains, allowing them to live by pastoralism much more easily. Most techniques are borrowed from the men of the plains, but the demigiants keep a few unique things of their own (most obviously hunting).

-This time in the history of the Uruthi is still shrouded in doubt and mystery, due to their distance from the centres of civilization. What is known is that they live in family-based tribes of around fifty to a hundred, they regularly move around, and are relatively keen on outbreeding, a factor which has allowed them to push out the slightly less intelligent demigiants and aids in the adoption of new technologies and social organisation. Indeed, this crucial trust of outsider groups made trade more feasible and led to them leaving gifts of reindeer to men, who in return give the giants iron axes and pottery.

TolunidFlag
ThePinkPanzer - Tolunids
Capital: Gurvakah
Culture: Delshor
State Religion: Darganasi
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-In the mists of time, humans once discovered how to ride horses and to use them for their own benefit. While many adopted agriculture, their distant descendants remained on the plains, follow-ing herds of animals and living the pastoral lifestyle. Living in eastern Oycumen, these are the Tolunids, a people who mastered horse riding long ago. Indeed, they are probably the first to invent the saddle, a frame of wood and leather holding the rider comfortably on the horse while the rider can swing a sword, thrust a lance, or shoot an arrow. In this time, as they have always done, the Tolunids raid their neighbours and occasionally attack farming peoples in the civilizations surrounding them, finding great opportunity in pillaging the borderlands.

-The Tolunids do have a tiny capacity for creative activity (as opposed to destroying everything), in that they do trade with the Sayites to the far south. In return for slaves and weaponry (which the Sayites are only too happy to provide), the Tolunids give them well-bred horses, perfect for riding. Other rulers pay off the Tolunids instead of trading with them, usually with gifts of slaves, iron, or gold to prevent them raiding. As the tribes of the plains fight each other frequently however, the civilized people sit back contentedly to watch, and start betting on which side will win the next petty conflict. Naturally, the gifts used to pay off the Tolunids to stop them raiding tend to be quite small.

LanunFlag
Robinkooli - Lanun
Capital: Zoifstead
Culture: Zoifture
State Religion: Octopus Lords
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence fishing

-In the far north of Oycumen live the Lanun tribes, a people who inhabit a rocky and windswept island frequently buried in snow during the winter. The islands sole virtue is its proximity to the warm waters brought from the west by the seas, which prevent it from becoming a frozen wasteland entirely. Among the tribes are the Zoifture, who have live in this land as fishermen for thousands of years. Even today with all the changes in the world, they have little changed from their Mesolithic ancestors, using stone tools and living in semi-permanent villages built from turf and stone. They visit the mainland for timber, and use oar-driven longboats (lacking sails) to travel. They occasionally hunt whales and other sea animals too, and only in the past thousand years have adopted two new innovations. One is the rearing of hardy goats and sheep, the other is coldworking of iron tools scavenged or traded from the south.

Turn 11: 1000 to 1250 SAM

2nd Century A.D. - Fragment 109:27

2nd Century A.D. - Fragment 1.wmv

Turn music
Sayite religious music

RealmsofOrbisTurn11PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 11

RealmsofOrbisTurn11OrganizedReligionMap

Organized religion map of Turn 11

RealmsofOrbisTurn11InfoMap

Info map of Turn 11

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47653571&viewfull=1#post47653571


Turn quote: “Never let the future disturb you. You will meet it, if you have to, with the same weapons of reason which today arm you against the present.” ― Marcus Aurelius

Events of the years 1000 to 1250 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-Much like at the end of the First Age, the population has peaked. 281 million souls now crowd out the world, having dramatically changed how the land looks from many miles above in the aether. To the observer above, they can see vast green expanses. The forests of old are long gone, and have been banished to the frontiers of the great empires of the world. Many hundreds of different species of wild animals have been eradicated or pushed back. Bears, lions, wolves, and many other monsters are now but a dying memory to those living in the warm and safe cities of the great civilizations. The only beasts now common are dragons and other magical creatures. As it turns out, many of the minor deities now also coming out of the woodwork are upset at having lost their former believers, and think that a more active presence will help.

-A major plague broke out in the 1160s throughout much of the world, devastating everyone from the greatest empires to the smallest petty chiefdoms. The plague is sourced to a dragon, which had caught the disease a few centuries ago. He was unable to get any relief for it, and the pus which leaked from his sores drove him mad. Driven out of his hiding spot in the mountains of Jiuan, he terrorized humans in the summer of 1161. He also vomited and scratched off sores in many different towns and villages, introducing the disease to multiple kingdoms and empires in a short time. Eventually, he collapsed from exhaustion and crushed several houses in a village in Nuu’ta. The hottest summer in five thousand years rotted his corpse until it stank so badly that the village was abandoned. The plague spread rapidly thereafter, devastating many regions in the west (although much of Jiuan was spared).

-Increasing volcanic activity and earthquakes has been responsible for many disasters in the past few centuries, but the biggest yet is the draining of the Salt Dale, a vast internal sea in Jiuan. An earthquake shifted a natural rock dam, which had been holding the waters back for over ten thousand years. The damage to the dam caused water to begin seeping through the cracks and began to break up the rock, which had progressed naturally for centuries. But a second earthquake caused a landslide which made a small tsunami in the sea, washing over the dam and breaking it down. The torrent of water then swept away the salt marshes to the south (turning them into the Sunken Bay) and destroyed everything along the major rivers too, including kingdoms and peoples. The survivors packed up what they had left, and began moving to Gan, putting pressure on the tribes there to invade the empire because of the lack of land available.

-The world population is 281 million.

VerenicDvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verenism
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Manorialism

-Despite the Kingdom having fallen to bits, many Dvegr are actually much better off than they used to be. Dvegr now eat more, live longer, even grow a little taller, and they tend to be more valuable to their lords. These lords no longer command vast armies of peasants, but small militias of the self-sufficient villages which are difficult to coerce into giving supplies or manpower. The birth of the 11th century brought with it a famous poet known as Frodr, responsible for two great epics. The first, known as Mikill, spoke of Veldon, the Demetes and several other gods fighting Flin, Era and their group of gods, as they battle to free Ocil. The collapse of Dvergfit is explained within this epic, stating that Flin influenced the Dvegrs to fight among themselves to distract the gods, especially influencing a general called Atreus to commit mutiny. The epic ends with Ocil finally being freed, weakened by his experience in Flin's realm.

-The second epic, known as Detta, focuses on the Dvegrn view of the events of Mikill, looking through the points of view of King Fretralit, who is trying to keep his realm together, and the soldier Vigamad, fighting the rebellion and witnessing Ocil's freeing, before being killed off in an epic battle. Frodr would also travel to Skrall, where he would engage in debates with Skagosi and fellow Dvegr clergy. As it turned out, the King of Dvergfit managed to improve relations significantly with Skrall, whose merchants and priests were now common throughout this part of the world. Impressed by their faith, the King of Dvergfit adopted Verenism, the reformed religion of the Skagosi, after being convinced to do so by Frodr. In turn, Frodr's influence led to this age becoming known as the Frodric Age.

-The population decline had finished by the end of the 11th century, with the great nobles finally realising it was no longer possible to wage wars or live as wealthily as their ancestors did. The recovery began with the official support of King Skiljarmr by the Skrall, whose sovereign had a deep respect for his brethren after adopting Verenism. To support his endeavours, Skrall sent ships and men along with supplies, and even banned trade with the other lesser states (seen as pretenders). Skiljarmr, with this support, invaded Estruker and forced their nobles to bend the knee to him. The war was short and rather bloody, involving the wooden fort of Estrukan King being set on fire. After he ran outside, he was killed by giant crossbows. These crossbows, developed with the aid of Skagosi carpenters, were used to great effect in naval warfare too. The war of course was won due to the aid of Skrall, but holding onto their new acquisitions is difficult even with their support, due to unreliable supply lines with Skrall. However, the success of the war helped to convince more sceptical nobles to adopt Verenism.

ImperialSkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall Empire
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Verenism
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Market economy

-The Skagosi have always been interested in magic, especially as now those who keep a fine balance between keeping a sound mind and stave use are seen as near godly by the uneducated. Seeking to copy them, a group of philosophers have tried everything. In one instance, after leaving pee in a bucket of sand for a year, they remove some crystals that can be filtered with pot ash to make a type of dirty white crystal that burns with a purple flame. The purple quality of the flame is seen as something to induce lust, and so it must be kept away from women lest they become hysterical. It may also be used to treat impotence, as wives are allowed to take their husband to court if he underperforms in bed. The judge typically asks for the husband to demonstrate an erection, and if he fails to become erect, his wife may divorce him. To avoid this, the husband often eats “philosopher’s snow” beforehand.

-The Skrall Empire continues to rapidly expand in the new millennium. Pushing west, they seize the last of the lands east of Gan, while also aggressively conquering southwards into Qivdenna. Multitudes of humans and dwarves are brought under the increasingly powerful Empire, one that has started to intrude on the lives of those it rules over. Debates on theology and contact with both the Dvegr and Sakasu (in addition to the Gan) have led to a major rethinking of how to approach religion, especially when many openly mock the Deep ones by refusing to worship them. In response, a reform movement called “Verenism” grows rapidly throughout the 11th century, influenced by recent legal reforms which have tied the whole Empire together. The Emperor took notice, and so he agreed to convert in return for conceding authority on religious matters to the new religious leadership.

-The results were rather massive, as now huge sums of money have been allocated to the construction of “cathedrals” and the erection of idols to promote the new faith. While the conservative priests and religious minorities are in opposition, the vast majority of the Skagosi are not bothered, as the new faith stresses major continuities with the old (most religious holidays, traditions, and heroes are still celebrated). The old priesthood go into open rebellion in 1123, angered by the loss of their old powers and the spread of monasteries throughout the Empire. They threw fireballs throughout the capital and set the grand cathedral on fire, before they went into the countryside to raise the peasantry against the Emperor. Many of these peasants joined due to other reasons, such as high rents and taxes. The rebellion was, thankfully crushed by the reformed Skrall army, which included loyalist “fire throwers” and humans who rode on horseback with heavy lances. The rebels were publically hung and the remaining ones fled south to Qivdenna, yet to be subjugated.

-Wars against the southern clans of Qivdenna occupied much of the 12th and early 13th centuries, the clans not only refusing to submit to authority, but accepting refugees, outlaws, rebels, and other sorts among them. The elves of Sakasu also became involved, often allying with the clans of the south to drive back Skrall armies. This became a bigger problem when Mizukan built a professional navy and took control of the seas, in turn taking control of trade and threatening supply lines. The Empire itself later had to contend with the rise of the Pink Caps, a militant religious organisation based on the old faith, with influences from Sakasu and southern human practices. The Pink Caps often draw much of their support among the peasantry (who traditionally wear pink caps), impoverished through indebtedness or forced to become serfs, in addition to paying taxes, tithes, rents, and giving much of their free time to work on public projects. They are also often conscripted into armies, most notably the one that travelled to support the King of Dvergfit, where many died far from home. Supply shortages were one of the major problems in that expedition.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Market economy

-The swollen and filthy cities of the Empire are difficult to maintain, especially those that have hundreds of thousands of inhabitants. Over the course of about two centuries, the municipal governments struggled to rebuild the cities (including Citadel) to have new sewage systems. They are considerable feats of engineering, requiring huge sums of money, armies of workers (skilled and unskilled), and architects with all of the parchment and ink they can get their hands on. Most of the old sewers were merely drains meant for rainwater, but by this time have become rivers of brown sludge. Their replacement with new sewer systems (some of which will persist for a very long time) does much to clean up the cities. Despite this, there are still many other challenges to city life.

-The Sayites, and later the Na’Zyr have been causing trouble throughout the Republic as they slowly displace the old religions, or fight with the more faithful. A major rebellion in 1149 was crushed by the military, and in order to prevent it happening once more, all of the collaborators and rebels were taken in ships to one of the newly discovered islands to the southwest. Named Haha, it becomes a colony to leave dissidents on. It is one of the three new colonies set up in this time by Nigasand along the western coast (Roar and Brarg are the other two). While all colonies possess forts and a major military presence, Roar is set aside for forestry and hunting in particular (farmers are banned from most parts of the island). Brarg itself is set aside for fishing and mining, and Haha for exiled religious dissenters. Initial settlement of the islands was undertaken to help find new lands for settlement, due to the population crisis at home. Despite the crackdown, Sayite missionaries from Aclary and Gor’lan continue to flood the land and proselytize, more militantly than before.

-The population, which formerly had been growing uninterruptedly, stopped doing so after 1150. A major plague which had hit in the 1160s killed around 1 in 5 people, and recovery did not take place immediately. The dispossessed are often recruited into the navy, which has been growing at this time in order to gain control of overseas trade. Many of them also work on the new shipyards in Lower Flovis, because the old shipyards have become silted over or left in dry areas due to the delta growing over time. Although the growth in trade has slowed down (overseas markets have stopped expanding), the humans, orcs, and goblins in Nigasand continue to bring new things from abroad. Deinotherium are among them, brought over either for use in public entertainment, or as a working animal. Their size and poor behaviour makes them difficult to use in other areas, and they cannot be bred well either. Some handlers use potions, bought from the alchemists who live in the cities, to make the animals placid.

-Although most people in Nigasand live reasonably well, they aren’t any better off than their ancestors, generally paying much higher taxes and working for longer, despite their wages being barely any higher. The great farms have slowly merged together to form truly massive estates, some of which rival the size of the old provinces. The aristocracy has come back in force, spending great sums of money gained from proper management of the land on luxury goods. Monetary issues have started surfacing due to extensive gold and silver mining, which for decades has outpaced the growth of wealth. This in turn has led to rising inflation, which has priced many of the poor out of land ownership and forced them into tenancy or joining the army. Everybody has started to have much fewer children in response, in turn slowly driving up the cost of labour and increasing the tax burden on the population. The taxes slowly rise, paying for the grand engineering projects, army, and navy. There is even a tax on watermills now, which are a frequent sight along the rivers.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: Na’zyr
Race: Human
Economy: Market economy

-As the Empire ramps up military spending and expansion, the other kingdoms of Oycumen have begun to do the same, often copying the new equipment and tactics in use by Irminonia. Cavalry has become increasingly important, often taking up a vast share of the state budget. The stirrup, introduced from the east, becomes a fairly standard piece of equipment. In combination with the breeding of larger horses, a new tactic has started to come into play. By holding a lance under the armpit and charging in unison with hundreds of other cavalrymen, they can deliver a hefty punch to infantry and break up formations. Of course, cavalry is expensive to maintain, representing an increasing cost on the budget as horses grow in both size and number. The last major campaign was conducted into the west, seizing vast territories that unfortunately were not as wealthy as initially supposed. The campaign actually represented a net loss, as there was barely any plunder to be had from the subsistence farmers and goat herders of the hilly lands of the west. Additionally, a lot of land and money must be distributed to the expectant soldiers (the army now numbers 200,000 in size). Several attempts are made to reduce expenses after the war by getting rid of the weaker or unsuited soldiers, but as they consist primarily of poorer infantry who signed up to fight it has little effect on the overall budget (paying for cavalry). A dowry from a royal marriage with an ally provided some money (especially after tax revenues began to come in), but only for a few years.

-This was a problem for the Emperor, as he had planned on hosting a lavish banquet for his generals and granting generous pensions and estates. In order to make up the deficit, he debased the coinage and borrowed heavily to pay for the banquet, pensions, and estates. This came at a rather bad time, as the population had recently stopped growing and shortly afterwards, economic growth seemed to have come to an end too along with the expansion of trade. While more workshops could be built, or farms expanded, they did not ultimately produce much more (if any) than the artisans and farmers centuries ago. Manure and faeces is used extensively to help replenish the soil, which is slowly becoming exhausted from overuse. Watermills explode in number, often leased out by aristocrats to nearby farmers. Despite such changes, the economy stagnates, and the diet becomes poorer, especially in the wake of the 1160s plague which killed 20% of the population. Families shrink to conserve wealth, and consumption drops. The cities stop growing, and the great construction projects come to an end. The church is now starting to slowly become more important as an institution, although even by 1250 it still does not have much in the way of power. Churches are still typically small, in most cases being converted homes, as it does not yet have the wealth or power to build truly massive ones in the cities.

-A fleet of 5 massive ships and 10 lesser ships is constructed and sent west, ostensibly on a grand voyage to find new lands to conquer or trade with. Unfortunately, due to lack of supplies and poor weather, they head north instead to the Midnight Isles, where they buy some goods before returning home and stating failure. They were however, reasonably profitable (as one can expect, since many traders in the Empire ply the same route), so the voyage was not a complete failure. Additionally, they modified existing maps on some of the lesser known parts of the northwest of Oycumen, as new towns had appeared or had been abandoned. There has been little overall change in what is traded, although salt is now a common good alongside other minerals acquired from mining (the western lands hold vast salt mines). A new major port is built on the south coast to support the new military shipyards (it slowly begins to surpass the capital in importance), where a grand church was built for the benefit of Na’zyr worshippers. Unlike everyone else, the church is exempt from taxation, allowing it to begin growing as priests acquire land and wealth. At a time when material conditions are starting to worsen, many are seeing the benefit of spiritual salvation, especially when the church is often a source of charity.

SayiteFlag
Native Hunter - Gor’lan
Capital: Gilgamesh
Culture: Sayite
State Religion: Saya
Race: Goblin
Economy: Market economy

-Despite the wheel having existed for over 3000 years, only in 1092 did a goblin named Bygu with a back problem create one of the easiest and most overlooked inventions in history. By sticking a wheel on the front of a big wooden tub with handles, he created the wheelbarrow, and was able to relieve his poor back. His neighbours were shocked, and secretly cursed themselves for not thinking up such a clever idea. In fact, it’s such a clever idea that it spread throughout the entirety of Gor’lan within about twenty years, with thousands of humans, goblins, and orcs smacking their foreheads and as they realised how obvious such an invention was. The practical effects of this invention are many, such as making the fort builders along the northern coast feel less miserable.

-These forts were built at a time of increasing tension. The hordes of the plains have terrorized some of the inhabitants just outside the Gor’lan, and sometimes threaten the great empires. The army has also grown in response to these threats, and from a desire to secure the wealthy lands of the east, separating Gor’lan from the great Nuu’ta Empire. These lands were already settled, with a multitude of towns, farms, chiefdoms, and the occasional city state, but even their considerable armies and walled towns were no much for the four Gor’lan legions sent to subjugate this land. Although many tribes collaborated, a few hid in the hills for many years, often raiding Sayite colonists. Most of these colonists tend to be dispossessed farmers and impoverished townspeople, with the benefit of citizenship to boot (which gives them all kinds of legal and economic privileges). Many of the people conquered in these areas are also later granted citizenship, and slowly begin to convert to Saya as the 12th century wears on. The religion receives a major boost with the Cobali acceptance of the one true faith, allowing missionaries to spread westwards into the Republic.

-Unfortunately, a major plague broke out in 1163 that devastated the Gor’lan. The urban poor suffered horrifically, with some towns losing half of their people. More radical Sayites preach that the end of the world has come, and many flee the sickly cities for the countryside. A spiritual and economic crisis comes about, and many goblins begin to claim that the problems wrought by the plague are a result of their rulers and the merchants being morally bankrupt. The latter part of the century is plagued not by disease, but by rebellion and civil unrest. Most cities are forced to enact measures to stem the crisis by regulating the trades and distributing food to the poor. The loss of the tax base forces cities to either raise taxes or mint money to make up the deficit. Many of the poor do initially benefit from the extra land, and often move to work in the mines or farms desperately short of labour. Guilds have been formed to encourage artisans to remain in their jobs and to increase production, but many of them still continue to flout regulations in order to find work elsewhere.

-By the 13th century, although still fairly wealthy and with a powerful army, the goblins of Gor’lan are much worse off than their ancestors were. Three great prophets emerge at this time, to bring a spiritual solution to the problems of the people. The prophets are a human from Irminonia, a goblin from Gor’lan, and an orc from Nigasand. Collectively they claim to have received messages from Rossaya, and write new books to add to the Vat yo Tarrow. Their main objectives are charity, kindness, and spreading of the faith, especially to Nigasand and Irminonia. Unfortunately for them, their attempts were short lived, as both empires made a strong response to crushing the religion. Most missionaries are outright arrested, exiled, or murdered. Major rebellions and rioting flares up in both countries, although only in Nigasand there was a concerted effort made to isolate and eradicate the Saya faith. To the east, there is much less missionary activity, with merchants generally leading the way. A few missionaries do travel into the Nuu’ta Empire, but otherwise missionary activity is low. The Humma monks travel in the opposite direction, with backing from the Nuu’ta to set up monasteries in the west.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Saya
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Aclary continues to grow and become ever more powerful, aided by the sweating labours of millions of peasants. The economy, aided by the expansion of trade with Gor’lan and Nigasand, has developed to the point that the kings of Aclary now mint coins. Initially used in Cayerus and port towns, it spread throughout the countryside and enters common use in the 11th and 12th centuries. The good climate also helps, as the rainy season seems to last much longer and helps to feed truly massive farms with enough water that irrigation is not usually required. Slowly, Aclary becomes a breadbasket, and even though it is unable to rival Nigasand, it has truly started to develop into a powerful empire. Trade has grown extensively, especially with Irminonia, which is rather hungry for the more exotic products of Aclary. Despite the increase in trade, the overseas markets become restricted in the 13th century, and a minor plague broke out in the 1160s that devastated many of the northern towns, further hampering development. Militant Sayite missionaries to Nigasand also upset the authorities there, hampering the work of merchants.

-Despite this power and wealth, much of this period was spent by the kings of Aclary struggling to build a centralized government. The nobility had been developing too, focusing on improving farming yields and introducing crop rotation and soil management to boost output. The result was a major population boom, and many regional nobles became sufficiently powerful enough to raise their own small armies. In Cayerus, the king introduced strict regulations for his own army, mandating that boys be taken from their families at the age of 8 to be trained for a life of military duty. This unit became the new royal guard, while the rest of the bodyguard was expanded into an army proper. Paid with regular wages, they require an expansion of the civil service and taxation system in addition to legal reforms. The result is that by 1250, a centralized administration exists in Cayerus. It has no room for the old shamans and priests, who have been supplanted entirely by the Sayite faith.

-The old faith still predominates in the hilly regions or scrublands, where royal control is at its weakest. Missionaries, often adventurers who have little concept of fear, are the frontline soldiers of Rossaya, preaching to every isolated village, herders, traders, and nomads they can find. They follow the colonists to the islands in the southern sea, where they discover that the initial expedition failed and the village had long degenerated into savagery. The new colony was much more successful, and even had a fine church built in imitation of the grand churches being raised back home. Cayerus has a particularly impressive one, carved out of blocks of granite and with a thick concrete dome on top, with a thin sheet of beaten copper to cover it. It shone brightly for many years, aided by the help of a special alchemist who knew how to keep it from decaying.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Nordaney
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-The Kingdom of Nordaney goes through another shift as the Kings of the country change its name to Cytannia, reflecting their dominion over nearly the entire island. Sea travel has become ever more important as a result, for now expansion overseas and trade is crucial to ensuring that the crown collects enough tax revenues and maintains their influence. A new type of ship comes about, with a single large sail and a massive bowl-shaped hull. Economical and with the ability to travel in both shallow rivers and the seas, they are preferred by merchants over other kinds of ships. To build them, even more timber is required. The last of the old forests (some never touched by man before) are plundered. The spread of money and expansion in trade led to a sudden boom in bridge building, although most of them are made of timber and wash away after a few winters. Robust stone bridges are rare.

-Coal mines expand in these years, as people search for ways to reduce the chronic dependence on wood for fuel. Although coal is a good substitute, it also pollutes, choking the towns with sulphurous fumes. A trade in timber starts to boom, especially with the eastern island (four fifths of which is covered in forest). It is also discovered that pine is suitable for planks in ships, while the skeleton and keel are built from harder woods (such as oak). To this end, large pine forests (and conserved oaks) are planted to provide enough wood for construction by many enterprising chiefs and peasants. The kings of Cytannia even manage to build up a small fleet of warships, seizing the islands to their south that control the straits between Cytannia and the mainland. These islands were mostly occupied by petty kings, who saw the futility of resistance and submitted to their new overlord. The last of the great achievements of this period was the construction of substantial roads in the south, in connection with the bridge building boom. Unfortunately for them, the overseas markets seem to have stopped growing. The expansion of trade in Cytannia has started to slow down.

MizukanFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Palace economy

-The Sakasunese are living in a rather strange world. A mere thousand years ago they lived in small bands hunting for food. They now live under a great queen, who rules over every single elf and every scrap of land in the whole archipelago. From her palace in the growing city of Sakasu, she dictates everything with absolute power. However, the changes set off by the adoption of the new life are uncontrollable, even by the mightiest of queens. The population continued to grow. Villages other than Sakasu have started to grow, challenging the power of the centre. Trade with the dwarves and humans has led to new technologies, religions, philosophies flooding and polluting the land. Ruling is much more difficult, and in the year 1145, the queen of Sakasu reorganised all of the islands into prefectures. Each is administered by a prefect, who is replaced after several years of service. Additionally, she reorganises the role of the Lady of war, making her appointee into a Grand Admiral responsible for the growing navy.

-Other changes have been taking place as the Sakasunese lurch forwards unsteadily, creating a world wholly divorced from the old. Although the creation of the aristocracy was hated by the lowly kinds (who often voiced their anger by murdering their betters), it was an irreversible process. The lords slowly but surely either convinced or coerced the lowly to follow them, a process aided by the prefects. Roads were cut through hills and forests, paved with stones and constructed by organised labourers. Small carts began to fill the hinterlands, displaying goods once never seen outside of Sakasu. Skrall coins spread, used by peddlers who take pleasure in using them. The new world, although created by the elves, is a very alien one to them.

-Seeing as the Sakasunese become too culturally other, the kitsune, the tengu and other local nature spirits begin to believe that they have more of a claim to this land than the elves, who begin to abandon the old ways, and are slowly becoming more and more foreign. Kitsune become less friendly and more distant, retreating into the wilderness, while tengu openly attack carts and travellers on roads far away from settlements.

-The crisis of identity becomes obvious as the years pass. The philosophers (native ones now appearing throughout Sakasu) have come to the conclusion that elves are fundamentally feminine, while dwarves are masculine, and begin to promote various new ideas and beliefs to reinforce this. Dwarves are also a threat, especially as they force their way southwards and conquer the clans that the Sakasunese trade with. Mizukan began to develop a professional navy, paid for with tithes from all of the islands. Protecting trade, this navy also brought warriors (mostly skilled archers) to their allies in Qivdenna to oppose the armies of Skrall. Meanwhile, a new kind of ship has helped Mizukan to dominate the seas, a vessel which has a huge ram on the front. Powered by rowers, it can also move quickly, and strikes fear in the heart of those opposing them. Most pirate ships are repurposed trading ships from Skrall, which tend to be too small to act as true warships.

UruthiFlag
Zillamaster55 - Uruthi Confederation
Capital: Gül-Kab'an
Culture: Uruthi
State Religion: Eternal Plains
Race: Demigiant
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-These big guys have seen rather interesting changes take place as they begin to slowly settle down. Although extremely isolationist (most men leave them alone), they learned how to farm from a few human traders who give them pottery, cloth, and iron tools in return for livestock. Their strength means they can much more easily control animals, their thick bones, barrel chests, and meaty thighs all mean they can shrug off injuries that would outright kill men.

-Despite their adoption of farming, the Uruthi do not do much beyond sowing crops in lands naturally grassy already, besides clearing some vegetation. They still roam, but in the end they return to these crudely marked fields for harvesting. Eventually, a century of this resulted in the construction of houses with stone walls near these fields to live in during the harvesting and sowing seasons (the roofs are replaced frequently), before they go out to pasture in the summer to rear livestock. They keep trinkets and ornaments in these villages, and now are very keen on marriage outside of the family (cousin bonding is now increasingly frowned upon). Natural selection takes over; causing their own bodies to change as they become better at digesting milk, resisting disease, increasingly intelligent, less clannish. Although still violent and feuding, the great old clans begin to weaken.

AltanidFlag
ThePinkPanzer - Altanids
Capital: Julanar
Culture: Delshor
State Religion: Darganasi
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence pastoralism

-Altanids, being a nomadic people, have always been aware that meat tends to spoil during long journeys. That was until they discovered the great big lake to the north, the water in which tastes odd and makes people go mad if consumed in excess, but when the water is evaporated by the hot summer sun (which is even hotter during this period), it leaves behind a tasty white powder which makes the meat and some other foods stay edible for long periods of time. The Altanids gather great stockpiles of this so-called "salt", and some even give the surplus to the small, green people of Gor'lan for weapons, iron and other goods.

-Much clan infighting occurs, now usually resolved through duels between chieftains. The one who achieved the most duel victories is called the High Chief, but his authority is limited and not universally recognized, though many warriors flock to his clan, making it the biggest. The clansmen learned to breed only the strongest and the fastest horses, so that their colts and fillies grow up to be stronger and faster for future horsemen. These horsemen raid surrounding non-pastoralists, civilized and uncivilized alike, but many of those pay the raiders off with goods and slaves. The only ones exempt from this raiding are the goblins of Gor'lan, with whom the nomads enjoy frequent and peaceful trade.

-Trade with Gor'lan grows exponentially, with salt and horses being exchanged for iron and slaves. One goblin even trades a huge and odd-looking cart, something called "catter-pulled", for 53 sacks of salt. The chief finds it amusing, and then acquires it (by duelling with the previous owner and delivering a devastating victory) and always has it pulled with him from encampment to encampment.

LanunFlag
Robinkooli - Lanun
Capital: Zoifstead
Culture: Zoifture
State Religion: Octopus Lords
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence fishing

-The peoples of Lanun continued much as they always have, scratching a living from the rocks and seas. Their poverty and seeming timelessness disguises real changes in their lives. In particular their woollen clothing is relatively new, spun during the long and bitterly cold winter months when they have time spare to do it. Although the nights are always long in winter, the people here have noticed it’s warmer than usual. Two centuries of this warmth has led to the grasslands expanding, the trees standing a little taller, the number of houses ever more. Despite their isolation, a few ideas and materials seep northwards, brought by the hardiest traders in the world. They sell nearly identical iron axes with “IRM” stamped on them, greatly appreciated by the people here, who trade for it with amber and ivory.

-These tribes often fight, especially among each other. The prevailing mode of combat is hit and run attacks by boat, where young men paddle out to attack small hamlets and villages. One of these hotheads is a man called Hannah the Irin, a great big bastard who can convince people to fight with him to hell and back. Sailing on a ship called the Desecrated vessel (an oversized fishing boat), he forced many villages to pledge allegiance to him and to give tribute. When Hannah died, his name was one of the few to remain in common memory. Additionally, the recent warming and new technologies (ironworking is slowly becoming a known art) have allowed Lanun tribes to settle new areas, either due to the presence of bog iron, small mining pits, timber, or land suitable for grazing. At the end of the period, some people started to grow hay and keep it for the winter months, in addition to building smoking sheds for fish.

Turn 12: 1250 to 1500 SAM

JEAN SIBELIUS.- Valse Triste Op06:08

JEAN SIBELIUS.- Valse Triste Op. 44

Turn music

RealmsofOrbisTurn12PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 12

RealmsofOrbisTurn12OrganizedReligionMap

Organized religion map of Turn 12

RealmsofOrbisTurn12InfoMap

Info map of Turn 12

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1454502&p=47751127&viewfull=1#post47751127


Turn quote: Justice being taken away, then, what are kingdoms but great robberies? – St Augustine of Hippo

Events of the years 1250 to 1500 Second Age of Man (SAM):

-In a complex society everything is connected. Each person’s needs are fed by the skills of many others. Their lives are woven together, like a fabric. But the connections which make society strong also make it vulnerable. The great Empires of Oycumen squabble and engage in destructive wars. Disease returns several times over these centuries to decimate the people. The great Kingdoms and Empires have long since lost the ability to rebuild, and stagger along by taxing or conscripting their impoverished peoples to defend and maintain their crumbling power. Peasant rebellions flare up, the money economy breaks down, and the countryside once again fills with trees, bandits, and wolves. Forests creep towards the dying lights of civilization in the cities, growing ever dimmer as people flee the decaying ruins.

-The fragile world sailing through the cosmos is careening ever so slightly away from the sun. The warm summers that prevailed for centuries are getting shorter. The draining of the Salt Dale lifted a great weight upon the earth, allowing the crust to rise and buckle. The crumpling land causes volcanoes to belch clouds of thick smoke into the skies, shutting out the sun's light and warmth. It starts to get dark, it starts to get cold. Crops die, and with them so too do their farmers. The winters grow longer and bitterer. Glaciers crawl down the mountains to push over even the mightiest stone constructions. Heavy rains overwhelm many complex and intricate irrigation systems, washing away centuries of work and ruining countless thousands of homes and towns. As the world slowly dies, people struggle against these disasters, doing just about anything they can to survive. People boil bark or grind up grass for food during famine. This was just the first century.

-The world population is 223 million.

-In Oycumen, we are currently in the late classical period, while in Jiuan, we are currently in the time of the four dynasties.

VerenicDvergfitFlag
Damian0358 - Dvergfit
Capital: Miklagard
Culture: Dvegr
State Religion: Verenism
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Manorialism

-Although the world outside of the Rybakov archipelago is suffering from the effects of social and economic collapse, Dvergfit seems to be making the best of it. Many of the common people are well fed and hold a considerable number of rights from their local lords, who in turn aggressively defend their privileges and rule from the Dvegr king. Despite impressive moves by the monarchy to reassert its power and authority, it has heavily relied upon military force and support from overseas. When this support wanes, so too does their power over the nobles. Although the various islands and petty rulers continue to fight among each other, a grand expedition was organised in 1340 that would put an end to this for good.

-The energetic king, Seggr the Great, was famed for his skills in both war and diplomacy. Despite considerable domestic opposition in both nations, Mizukan and Skrall both agreed to send navies and soldiers to support an invasion of Dorer and Arat. Brought together, the combined forces were led by Seggr in a campaign in the north known as the “Great expedition”. The first paper maps in Dvergfit are made to record the campaign, showing lots of little arrows and crudely drawn houses with the name of a town or village underneath them. History would remember the success of the campaign, but in its time it had mixed results. Although ultimately successful, Seggr was unable to deal the final blow. His forces were capable of forcing an individual duke or chief to end a rebellion, but could not hope to keep all of the quarrelling nobles in check all at once.

-Distraught, but having not given up, he commissioned the great cartographer Síð to compile maps and books on all of his holdings, including the locations and sizes of various settlements and their wealth in addition to levies. Additional small numbers of administrative staff helped him to record this information, although it was somewhat difficult to do so. Much of the information did help in holding various tax collectors to account, securing larger revenue streams for the monarchy. Trade has been recovering for the past century, and despite the disruptions in the rest of the world, seems to be rather healthy among the dwarves here. Duties on trade help to fund the rebuilding of many impressive forts and walled towns nearby the border with Herrey, securing their hold on what was formerly a lawless land. Dvergfit continued to advance in all fields, despite massive storms and frosts that ruined farms and washed away generations of hard work. The plucky farmers were undeterred, repairing dykes and drainage channels in addition to digging storage ponds and canals. With Mizukan converting to Verenism, ties are strengthened even more. Even the blanks on the edges of the maps begin to be filled as traders and fishermen now begin to frequent the coasts in and around the Salt Dale.

ImperialSkrallFlag
Pezgod1 - Skrall Empire
Capital: New Krellgr
Culture: Skagosi
State Religion: Verenism
Race: Dwarf
Economy: Market economy

-Although successful in many wars, the Skrall Empire has started to slow down the pace of expansion. The 13th century saw several campaigns against the troublesome clans of Qivdenna, but ultimately they petered out. The expense of maintaining garrisons in the south became burdensome, driving up taxes and resulting in many magistrates finding poor dwarves to “squeeze”. The last major campaign was carried out in 1324 to subjugate one of the bigger chieftains, a man who had been arrogant enough to declare himself “king” and tried to drive out Skagosi colonists (who had been slowly migrating southwards). He failed to win the war (he eventually was captured and had savage dogs set on him), but convinced the Emperor the futility of further campaigns. His attention was instead directed towards the militant Pink Caps, who had again risen in rebellion in 1327. He came up with a cunning trick, in which trade caravans south would be followed by his own soldiers. The greedy Qivdenna raided these caravans, only to be ambushed in turn by Skrall soldiers. Of course this could only work for so long, and although the borders were pacified for two centuries, by 1500 multiple famines and floods had led to many Skagosi abandoning Qivdenna in favour of better lands up north, as dead dwarves have little use for land. The clans in turn begin to reclaim these lands.

-Although much of this period is remembered for the bitter winter frosts and frequent flooding, this is heavily glossed over by a brilliant new import from the Gan (and later the remnants of the empire). A type of shrub with a pungent smell called chou has been introduced. Despite the smell it gives off, when boiled in water and drank or burnt and the smoke inhaled, it produces a most comforting sensation and relaxes the user. Of course the smell of the fresh leaves is so overwhelming that it is illegal in many places to own leaves that aren’t dry. An economic revolution is driven by the humble chou plant. Most townspeople are keen to get their hands on it, and many dwarves stop growing rice, instead turning over the land to chou that they sell for cash. The spread of the fields brings the horrible smell with it, and many medical authorities claim that noxious smells can overwhelm the senses and bring sickness (fresh leaves induce vomiting) and discourage its use. In addition to controlling this new plant, they support the construction of sewers to flush away waste and to build public bathhouses and toilets to get rid of the awful smell. Despite these measures being carried out, the physicians are dismayed to find that chou users are now in the bathhouses too!

-The charities set up by the new Verenist church begin to take advantage, using tithes to buy up grain and keep them in reserve for famine. Imperial authorities are happy to concede this power, allowing granaries to come under the control of the priests. The strengthening faith has used this newfound strength to win over many of the poorer dwarves, and to use monies to fund the construction of beautiful new temples and to impress those in Mizukan. The elves are convinced, and in 1358 at the council of Atsurui their queen agreed to convert to the one true faith. Unprecedented on both sides of the sea, it encouraged strengthening ties between dwarves and elves (although the humans in Qivdenna weren’t too happy). This usually took the form of trade, and a collaborative effort to root out pirates. This collaboration was a great boon to the development of a professional navy for Skrall, as the Skagosi now had the experience of the elves to draw upon in shipbuilding and pirate hunting.

NigasandFlag
Satansick - Nigasand Republic
Capital: Citadel
Culture: Immortal
State Religion: Rage
Race: Orc
Economy: Manorialism

-The mysterious religion of Nigasand has been growing increasingly popular as times get hard, especially for the orcs who dream of the glory days in which they lived by iron and pillaging, and not by gold and industry. Many see the traditional faith as reinvigorated and something to turn to in this time as sectarian violence is on the rise. The shamans of Rage have become increasingly mad, addled by potions and driven paranoid by the dragons in the skies. They no longer follow the old ways in which meditation and benevolence ruled, but now instead they seek to replicate the even older ways of their ancestors long ago in the days of bronze. The shamans find that the best way to best align oneself with the rage, is observe a special stone suspended on a string. Left alone, the weak ragestone wobbles to face north, serving as the pointer forwards for many orcs.

-The religious conflicts have finally boiled over. Although Sayites have been causing problems for many years, the major rebellion in 1289 was the last straw. Even in the old Flovis capital of Amnem the Sayites drove out the magistrates and ransacked many offices. The official response was swift and brutal, with the army not only finding every Sayite they could, but repossessing their homes and deporting them to Haha. Despite Sayites being scum, the shamans do decree that all individuals (even prisoners) have a right to a bed, food, and water. They follow up on this by banning Sayite literature, with numerous book burnings taking place in Citadel to send out the message that the religion was no longer welcome. Cripplingly high tariffs were put on foreign goods, driving many Sayite merchants into ruin and causing deep resentment. One effect of these tariffs was to drive many people in Nigasand back to cottage industries to make all of the goods that were in demand, causing prices to rise. In turn, many peasants became unwilling to sell cash crops in the cities (especially as labour becomes more expensive and they can’t afford manufactured goods anyways) and so switch to food crops. Droughts and dry storms only reinforce this trend.

-Nigasand and Gor’lan eventually went to war, as Gor’lan began expanding their navy and escorting their merchant ships. Collapsing discipline and hatred of the orcs led to the sailors stealing goods in Nigasand ports and eventually skirmishing with Nigasand ships. Although with a much bigger and stronger navy, the Gor’lan sailors discipline broke down due to problems back home, eventually leading to them degenerating into little more than pirates raiding the coasts. Nigasands navy persevered, if only due to stronger discipline, although it becomes incapable of eliminating the pirates. The problems continue mounting as the cities begin to haemorrhage people, fleeing into the countryside away from religious conflict and political turmoil. The cities lose much of their former power as they shrink, becoming unable to oppose new religious edicts that eventually bring much of Flovis into line with Rage. In an attempt to control the movement of refugees, the orcs establish a new city called Kil’mor in their colonies in the Red sea, with a grand keep brimming with crossbows and angry orcs. The lack of literate staff to run this new city is a problem, and despite attempts to encourage literacy the administration continues to decay. Although Nigasand is still nominally united in 1500, the ability to raise taxes, undertake projects, reign in the gentry, or go to war is severely constrained.

HolyRomanEmpireFlag
Irminonia – iAmaNewb
Capital: Ezatinsr
Culture: Irminian
State Religion: Na’zyr
Race: Human
Economy: State economy

-Irminonia in the year 1250 was the envy of the world. With borders that stretched over much of Oycumen, an army of hundreds of thousands of soldiers, and an imperial administration ruling over many cities and provinces, it is perhaps one of the grandest empires in the world. Of course, there are numerous problems with running it, and those began well before 1250. The economy is moribund, and it is difficult to pay for the growing costs of the empire. While normally able to maintain itself, it cannot recover well from shocks to the system, as no spare resources are left for recouping damage. The harsh winters of the ancient past have returned, hitting hard and without mercy. There are omens of disaster, as sunsets turn red shortly before it suddenly gets colder. Crops fail, and people go hungry. Despite the widespread adoption of the lateen sail (making it much easier to control a ship and sail against the wind), trade is in terminal decline. The Nigasand Republic put high tariffs on manufactured goods as they ossified, followed by the disintegration of Gor’lan. The cities begin to shrivel up and die as workers go unemployed. Money begins to fall out of use as crops stop being grown for export and peasants instead switch to food.

-By the year 1350, the Empire is reeling from shocks and disasters. All throughout Oycumen, the great nations, once so proud and powerful, are all but gone in the blink of an eye. The cool and dry weather has ruined the farms and grasslands that so many people are dependent on, meaning that refugees are now on the move. The Cobali Empire broke down under the strain of defending itself from these migrating hordes, eventually conceding them the right to settle in return for military service. But the hordes kept coming, swamping the numerous kingdoms north of Irminonia and eventually they began to batter at the gates of the Empire itself. Cuts to the army in order to save money came at a bad time, as now there are barely 150,000 men available to defend an Empire of over forty million. The great Emperor Tibbot made a heroic, if vain effort to save the Empire from doom. He reorganised and streamlined the army into a professional fighting force (heavily reliant on cavalry), opened new mines to secure government revenues, encouraged the peasantry to adopt new grafting techniques for plants, cut taxes, and even reopened many closed trade routes and supported the growing Na’zyr faith. Unfortunately, he died in 1458, on the eve of the greatest calamity in history.

-Tibbots son Feige was a rather weak man. In fact so weak that he even pretended to not be a man at all, preferring to wear women’s clothing and demanding to be referred to as though he were an Imperatrix. While his perversions were initially harmless, the clans fleeing west reported of a great “Kiratain” who had declared himself Kagan of the Delshor. A weak and effeminate Emperor would not be able to protect Irminonia, and indeed he began by sending an emissary to use “feminine diplomacy” to buy him off. Kiratain laughed at the suggestion and cleaved the diplomats head in two, before declaring an invasion of Cobali and Irminonia.

-The year 1462 was perhaps one of the coldest in living memory. The great river separating Cobali from the east froze solid, allowing the Delshor hordes to swarm into the country. They sacked the great cities thoroughly, and stole all that they could carry. As this happened, Feige reportedly spent 100,000 gold stolids reserved for the army on a crackpot who promised to give him female genitals, causing the army to strike for six months until they had been paid. Unfortunately, by that point the great Delshor hordes rode in and had defeated the armies of Irminonia. The survivors were driven back to the cities by the unstoppable might of Kiratain, Kagan of all the masked. Imperial administration collapsed, leaving the Na’zyr church as the sole authority in many cities. Their bishops plead with the Kagan to spare them, and in a strange twist, he agreed to spare several cities. Ezatinsr was one he did not agree to spare.

-As the Kagan marched on Ezatinsr, the great nobles either fled or spent all of their money on drinking and whoring. Feige himself spent this time prostituting himself throughout the palace and engaging in orgies. The garrison of the city, enraged, turned on the inhabitants of the palace and butchered them, with the emperor himself having his genitals cut off and a hole gouged in his lower torso before being displayed in the market square. General Novissi organised a desperate last ditch effort to save the greatest city in the world from destruction. People were conscripted to repair the ancient walls, dig ditches, and organise food supplies. When the Kagan arrived in the summer of 1463, he laid siege to the city. However during a raid of an outlying town his horse stepped on a hot ember and threw him off, causing him to break his neck. The horde was forced to return home to select their new leader, sparing the city.

-The last few decades of the century saw the rapid dissolution of Irminonia. Struggling to raise enough taxes and men for the army, the next emperor (a puppet of Novissi) allowed the migrating hordes and refugees to settle in the empire in return for military service. These new armies were raised locally and served under chiefs and generals, alongside the owners of the great farming estates who had organised militias to protect the empire. The Na’zyr church has also aided in the protection of the empire, although they have de facto absorbed most of the old imperial administration and have gained legitimacy in the eyes of the peasantry. The grand cities are but a shadow of a shadow, often clusters of villages in and around decayed stone monuments. A church is usually the largest building in a town now, and even then they are squat little buildings recycled from the rubble of old monuments. The people in Ezatinsr, with what little hope they have left, have the last dreams of the old world as they look out from the crumbling walls of the greatest city in the world.

RobbliyaFlag
Native Hunter - Kingdom of Robbliya
Capital: Robbliya
Culture: Tollirian
State Religion: Tollir
Race: Gnome
Economy: Manorialism

-With the climate cooling, the trends of the previous century are reinforced. Gor’lan is squeezed harder as the years pass on. At a time when agriculture badly needs rest, taxes on farmers go up. The exhausted soil was once left to rest between harvests, but as farmers are squeezed even harder to make up the shortfall, the quality of the land worsens. Warfare eventually escalated with the Nigasand Republic after high tariffs on manufactured goods had thrown many cities into chaos. A series of hard hitting famines (made worse by the collapse of agriculture) eventually caused the complete collapse of the Gor’lan economy, and rebellions swamped the city states. The crippled navy was unable to maintain discipline, and broke down into piracy, with many of the forts and soldiers protecting Rob’lan being abandoned as civil war broke out at home.

-In the 1400s, out of the Shadow Mountains came a group of gnomes known as the Tollirians. The descendants of an insular group of elves from within the mountains, they had established a comfortable position for themselves as a minor kingdom in the Mountains. Unfortunately, first the impact of a worsening climate was felt in their lands as the fields died. Living in the hills and mountains made them much more vulnerable to poor weather, and eventually they were driven from their homes by famine and the raids of the Kiratain Kaganate.

-After the famines and plagues, the Gnome warlord Lludd led the Tollir from the western Shadow Mountains eastwards, and then south to the Rob'lan peninsula. They soon came to dominate the region and spread the Tollir faith amongst many normal adherents to Saya until they became the dominant religion and people. Along the way many humans joined the Tollirians whom, after a couple hundred years of settling, became the dominant population of the peninsula with the only goblin populations existing in Rob'lan. However with the final collapse of the republic the Tollirians revolted and established the kingdom of Robbliya, after the Tollirian name for Rob'lan. Now the kingdom is ruled by the King who shares some power with various lords called Kaluphs who reign over some minor counties on the coast. The capital is renamed to Robbilya.

-The Tollir faith is a extremist sect of Saya that mainly focuses on humility, scholastic study, and diligence, however the Tollirians also believe that the only way to reach a state of oneness with Rossaya is through intense meditation, prayer, and study, leading many to become monks at the many monasteries in the Shadow Mountains. The Tollirs also believe that bells have a magical ability that can give them the ability to communicate with Rossaya. The head of the Tollir faith is the Patriarch who is subservient to the King. Many temples are built during this time, with large bronze bells in the center used to call the congregation to pray and for other ritualistic purposes. The bells used to be made out of Iron, but the priests soon discovered that iron bells sound like shit, and the metal is better used elsewhere. The temples are, however, rather small and utilitarian in design, for the church, like everyone else in this time, is rather poor.

-Despite attempts by the king to restore order and to promote trade, his efforts are largely in vain. The gnomes have yet to master sailing, and even if they could sail, there are few to no peoples over the seas willing to trade with them. In either case, most gnomes are instead focused on trying to grow enough food for themselves. Any surplus they make is quickly hidden away, lest it be stolen or as insurance against harvest failure.

-The king orders several grand construction projects with the optimistic goal of bolstering civilization in these hard times, but due to lack of funds they are never finished. The unfinished husks of the College of Robbilya and two grand walls in the shadow mountains are abandoned and cannibalized for temples and huts, and the country sinks further into poverty.

AclaryFlag
Mr. Face - Aclary
Capital: Cayerus
Culture: Aclerian
State Religion: Saya
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Although the rest of the world sees only disaster and devastation, the apocalypse is hardly felt in Aclary, although it does begin to slowly creep in as time passes on. As the King of Aclary grew more powerful and expanded upon the administration set up by his predecessors, the country began to really mature and come into its own. Courts and tax offices are commonplace, and by the 1400s have expanded into the northern towns and outlying provinces, following Sayite priests. The Sayite church has grown into a political force of its own, and often supports various nobles in return for land to build their own facilities. Many missionaries have saturated the country to the point that they have started overflowing, swarming eastwards into the frontier lands or travelling to Nigasand and Irminonia to find converts. Unfortunately both empires have cracked down on missionary activity hard, and although there are still converts and many secret smaller churches, they are rapidly losing support.

-The reasons for this loss of support are related to events wholly out of any mortal control. International trade slowly went into decline, and then outright collapsed as Gor’lan and Irminonia disintegrated under the weight of invasion and economic ruin. Aclary was able to adapt, as this trade never made up a significant part of the economy in the first place (it does lead to many northern towns stagnating, and later their decline as they suffer from pirate raids). The changing climate has presented problems for the peasantry however, as the rains become less reliable. The colonisation of the interior enabled in the past few hundred years reverses, and many people begin migrating east to find lands suitable for farming. A smaller and more ambitious number try their luck in the colonies in the south sea, where the land has proven fertile and with plentiful minerals. For those unable to move, they are forced into digging aqueducts and ponds to store and control water supplies. It is hard work, but at least they don’t go hungry.

CytanniFlag
Killbane - Cytannia
Capital: Skardavag
Culture: Cytanni
State Religion: Animism
Race: Human
Economy: Manorialism

-Cytannia is perhaps one of the most powerful kingdoms in Oycumen. While unable to command the power that the empires of the south have, the King here does have near complete dominion over much of the Midnight Isles. The kingdom of Scadutannia has coexisted with Cytannia for many years, often serving as a conduit for trade with the continent. The 13th century is a prosperous one for both kingdoms, but an uncertain future looms over them. Villages established in the mountains begin to suffer from bad harvests, forcing many of them to abandon the mines and pastures once common in the highlands. The winters grow longer, and expansion northwards comes to an end. Although well within their capabilities to subjugate the north, it becomes hard to hold onto these areas. People have started moving south to escape the colder winters.

-As the Cytanni enter the 14th century, these problems slowly escalate. The summers of 1323 through 1331 were mild and very wet, often to the point that many fields became heavily waterlogged. The crops die, and they continued to fail several times in a row. In 1325, even the King (when out travelling) was unable to get bread from any towns on the road he passed through. The famine decimated the population, and many people fled the towns or sold their possessions for pennies. Even gold becomes worthless. For those that survive, they quickly seize the lands and tools of their neighbours, or cannibalize buildings to repair their own houses and barns. Iron nails are invented around this time, to help make use of plentiful iron (some bridges are rebuilt using them). The fact that labour is much more expensive means that many peasants and warriors switch to using weaponry made using much less work, such as axehooks (a type of long-handled axe with a hook on the end for pulling people with).

-The Cytanni see their world change as cooler and wetter weather becomes the norm. Labour slowly becomes more expensive, while marginal land is slowly abandoned on account of the difficulty of working the soil. As peasants become more valuable, many of the towns begin to shrink as the 14th century wears on. Now many townspeople begin moving to the countryside in search of work. While trade normally made these towns wealthy, it can no longer do so. Overseas markets are collapsing, while pirates and raiders become increasingly common on the seas. When the Irminonian Empire imploded in the 15th century after invasions ravaged Oycumen, it brought an end to the peace and stability of the past few centuries that the continent once enjoyed. With nobody to buy what they produce, or to sell what they need, the merchants and tradesmen of Cytannia return to subsistence.

-The Kings of Cytannia made an effort to invade the island of chieftains to the east, and at times were often able to subjugate various rulers and open up the land to trade (usually in timber and horses, as the island has particularly good horsebreeders). These conflicts intensified over time however, especially as pirate raids became worse. There were attempts made to organise a professional navy, with ships that resemble the ones of Irminonia (although much more strongly built and smaller). The advent of the cross-staff (a device that can be used to measure angles) made it easier for captains to navigate on long voyages (usually chasing pirates). Although some of these ships could go out to sea for long periods of time in order to catch pirates, the decline of trade makes it increasingly pointless to do so. The other problem is that it begins to eat into crown revenues, which are in decline as people begin to abandon money and tax collecting becomes harder. In the last decades of the century, the overstretched navy finds itself unable to stop the raids from the continent (which are becoming ever more frequent as the kingdoms there collapse). The nobles begin to demand concessions, as now they are now relied upon to organise defence and projects, rather than the weakening and ineffectual king.

MizukanFlag
Deltasquid - Mizukan
Capital: Sakasu
Culture: Sakasunese
State Religion: Tropical polytheism
Race: Elf
Economy: Palace economy

-The Sakasunese developed into a truly powerful kingdom, with a fearsomely powerful navy to match. Centuries of shipbuilding resulted in vessels that resembled the elves that sailed upon them – sleek, quick, and powerful. Their dealings with the Skagosi led to the development of watertight bulkheads in their ships and keels that allowed them to sail to even sail the deep ocean (although they rarely did so anyways, and preferred to remain by the coasts). With the Dvergfit struggling to reunite their lost empire, Mizukan saw the benefits of expanded influence in the region. Sending a large fleet of ships with warriors, they managed to win a brutal northern expedition against Dvergfits rivals. Although their king was unable to reassert his authority much more than beforehand, the expedition and the development of oceangoing vessels led to the Sakasunese starting to trade directly with the peoples of the archipelago and the Gan Empire. This projection of power also ends much of the piracy in the waters of the Rybakov peninsula, allowing trade to begin slowly recovering. Explorers exploit the peace to travel further than ever before, slowly inching their way west.

-Increasing influence with Skrall and Gan has continued to change the culture of the Sakasunese. With foreign learning and literature well-established, it is now the turn of the elves to produce great works begin (usually in the form of eloquent poetry). New forms of art, crafts, and other new industries begin to take root due to the influence of the dwarves and humans, but are now increasingly taking on an elven character as the identity crisis continues to upset many in the aristocracy. By 1358, a new religion called Humma has appeared in the country, appealing to many of the philosophers in the country (although the common folk still practice the old pantheon and traditions). The official response of the Queen was to call a council at Atsurui that year to try and find common ground between the fey folk and Verenism. While she converted, she also declared that the Kitsune would be central to the new faith and must be respected as before. Most of the aristocracy willingly adopt it, although the peasantry distrust the short priests who come to them seeking to preach the new faith. The response from the Kitsune themselves is mixed as well, as now they only communicate with commoners and distance themselves entirely from those wearing foreign clothes.

-The powerful court at Sakasu began to reconsider adventures on the continent, sailing to Qivdenna and securing access to several uninhabited zones for the purposes of constructing trading posts and towns. The Qivdenna peoples are wary, but begin to trust the Sakasunese once more as the Skrall Empire begins to slowly retreat. Near the end of the period, these trading posts begin to see Chou appearing in sacks, shipped over from Skrall. This herb, despite arriving in the late 1400s, is an instant hit among the elven aristocracy, who enjoy smoking or drinking large amounts of it. In order to secure money to buy it (and later land to grow it on), the aristocrats begin to develop massive agricultural estates, clearing forests and managing the land much more intensely than before. The result is that of these estates begin to become commercial enterprises and take an increasing share of trade (towns sprout up around manor houses). Sakasu itself stops growing as new ports emerge.

UruthiFlag
Zillamaster55 - Uruthi Confederation
Capital: Gül-Kab'an
Culture: Uruthi
State Religion: Eternal Plains
Race: Demigiant
Economy: Subsistence fishing

-The Uruthi giants are on the move. Cold winds blew in and killed their fields, or froze their animals to death in the fields. There was less rain, with the plains drying out and grasslands also starting to fade. Despite the Uruthi figuring out how to smoke or salt food, and in some instances to keep it underground in ice houses or to keep grains in pots and away from water, they ultimately could not make more food. Within a few decades dust is shorn off from the plains, swirling in huge clouds that coat everything and fill the lungs of animals, choking them to death. The Uruthi are driven northwest, in their eternal search for food. These demigiants are not the only ones suffering, as the calamities stretch throughout the whole continent of Jiuan. The cold and droughts have forced millions to begin moving, and as existing societies buckle or collapse, their peoples burst out and damage so many others around them like shrapnel.

-The Uruthi (like many others) become violent in their attempts to find a new home. They find one coastline where there are people already living there. It didn’t take long for them to drive out the inhabitants and to move in, rebuilding their houses to be larger as they tended to scratch their hips on the small door frames. Settling down in a few villages (which are nearly permanently inhabited), the Uruthi begin fishing. They also still hunt and tend livestock along with foraging for whatever scraps they can find, and grow some crops when possible. Their numbers have been reduced, and few remain on the plains to eke out a living as food stocks stabilise again. They remain pretty miserable.

KiratainFlag
ThePinkPanzer - Kiratain Kaganate
Capital: Caikhatu
Culture: Delshor
State Religion: Darganasi
Race: Human
Economy: Plunder economy

-The cooling and drying weather hits many peoples in the world hard. None more so than the Delshor, suffering as the plains which sustain their horses freeze for longer and dry out in the summers. It is a brutal world that produces brutal people. A boy born in 1424 was no stranger to such brutality, and was hardened over the next twenty years as his clan moved around the plains in the never ending quest to find food. He was a particularly good scout, and intelligent, with a penchant for raiding and warring. Unlike many others he donned a simple mask of iron, while adorning his horse in the masks of his fallen enemies. Upon becoming leader of his clan in 1445, he spent the next decade mulling over the problems of division among the Delshor and their constant infighting. He realised the solution in 1456.

-Intermarriage with rival clans (and encouraging his followers to do likewise) is unorthodox, but bears fruit when the boy ruthlessly exploits webs of alliances and treaties to get rid of his biggest enemies. He slowly brings a massive horde together, often accepting former enemies into his ranks to become his generals. By 1459, he unites the last of the Delshor into a massive horde of fearsome warriors, and declares himself Kiratain, Kagan of all the masked. He declares a warpath on Nuu’ta, where the underpaid and badly organised armies are thrown into panic by the appearance of the horde. Unlike previous times, the Kiratain employ adopt former prisoners to join them in the ransacking of civilization. Cities are broken into by traitorous siege engineers, while the hordes swarm in to burn them to ashes. The Dual monarchy of Nuu’ta is abolished by Kiratain, who agrees to spare the rest of Nuu’ta on the condition that they give him tribute.

-Although powerful, Kiratains lust for conquest is not sated. Rallying an even bigger horde (often recruiting massive numbers of trained Nuu’ta cavalrymen, and giving them masks to wear), he marches on the Cobali Empire. Driving numerous tribes and nations from their homes, the destruction wrought by the horde ripples outwards like waves, swamping even the strongest kingdoms. Cobali is ransacked and integrated into the Kaganate, before Kiratains gaze moved to Irminonia and its effeminate emperor. Irminonia sent an emissary pleading for mercy in 1462, but this only irritated Kiratain. Making a statement, he pulled a cleaver out of a leg of beef he was eating and split the emissaries head open. Standing up, he declared that he would immediately invade this “Empire”.

-Organising the invasion force, Kiratain managed to maintain the loyalty (or perhaps fear) that he expected the Nuu’ta and Cobali civil administration to have for him. He did however largely leave them alone to run their respective countries on his behalf (as long as they kept tributes flowing to him). He ordered his trusted right hand man (or woman in this instance) to lead a smaller army east, to scout for suitable kingdoms to subjugate. Kiratain meanwhile descended upon Irminonia in 1463, sacking numerous cities and slaughtering all of the armies that dared to stand in his way. Several cities are saved by bishops working on their behalf (rather than that of the Emperor), who implored the Kagan to spare them. Kiratain wisely did so, instead asking them for tribute and bypassing the unharmed cities. Much of Irminonia collapsed shortly afterwards as the ineffectual government was incapable of preventing the nobles and cities from abandoning their Emperor. With the path to Ezatinsr clear, Kiratain marched on the city with the intent of burning it to the ground and ploughing the fields with salt. The great general Novissi organised a gallant defence of the city with the best resources he could muster, denying Kiratain an easy and quick victory.

-The enraged Kiratain orders every town and village nearby Ezatinsr to be burned to the ground and the people rounded up to be used as human shields for the advance guard against the walls. In the burning of one village, a particularly badly built hovel collapsed and sprayed embers about. These burned the horse Kiratain rode upon and threw him off, the spine of the Kagan twisting and snapping like a twig. With their leader dead, the Kaganate was forced to return back to the plains to select their next leader. With his top lieutenant and her horde in the east missing, the future of the Kaganate was in question. The next 37 years was spent with the horde being run by the original generals of Kiratain, but by 1500 even the youngest one of them left is an old man, and many of them have adopted the Nuu’ta religion of Humma. Despite efforts to maintain the old administration and to encourage peace in their conquered lands, the wars only sped up the process of decay. The world grows poorer, and darker.

LanunFlag
Robinkooli - Lanun
Capital: Zoifstead
Culture: Zoifture
State Religion: Octopus Lords
Race: Human
Economy: Subsistence fishing

-At such a miserable time as this, the people of Lanun suffer more than most. Their proximity to the cold north means they received the full brunt of the colder winters and stormier weather. Within a few decades it became all but impossible to grow any of the small vegetables and herbs they became so fond of. The trees retreated southwards, and the people, pushed by the cold winds on their backs, followed suit. The development of ironworking made access to timber even more important, the result of which was that many people began to move south. Fighting with other clans for this poor land, many people eventually managed to settle in boggy Suomaa, where there was plenty of iron and trees on the islands in the lakes. They managed to still rear some sheep, although it was difficult to feed them through winter. Pine needles and boiled bark often crept into the pottage pot.

-The inland tribes still maintain contact with the fishing ones, who benefit immensely from their new iron tools and weaponry. Harpoons, axes, arrows, and a whole variety of scrapers and slicers can be made without having to use flint. For those who remain on the coasts or north, fish becomes increasingly important to their diet to the point that about 4/5ths of everything eaten is harvested from the sea. There are those who are uncomfortable with this lifestyle, and opt to move south to join with the migrators, who usually have more comfortable clothing too (usually made from wool as opposed to skins). Additionally, the last major comfort recently introduced is pigs. They can eat almost anything and fatten up well, and quickly become a favourite. Some tribes even occasionally have luck growing crops of oats, barley, or rye, plus turnips. Berry bushes, mushrooms, and hunted moose are common enough, while milk adds an additional luxury to the diet.

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