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This page contains all 21 turns of Creation of Centuries.

Turn 1: 4000 to 3500 BCE

Rome Total War Music "Barbarian Intro" Music01:29

Rome Total War Music "Barbarian Intro" Music

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn1PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 1

CreationofCenturiesTurn1CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 1

CreationofCenturiesTurn1ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 1

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41592831#post41592831

Events of the years 4000 to 3500BCE:

-c. 3900 BC—5.9 kiloyear event, one of the most intense aridification events during the Holocene. It ended the Neolithic Subpluvial and likely initiated the most recent desiccation of the Sahara desert, triggering migration to river valleys, such as from central North Africa to the Nile valley.

-The Mesopotamian and Egyptian areas are now seeing the first dense concentration of humans in urban environments. By the year 3500BCE, some of these are bordering on the establishment of proper states. The potters wheel, bronzeworking, proto-cuniform script, alongside early bureaucracies and organized religions, means that this area is ripe for some of the earliest empires.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Spanish pantheon

-Sometime in the late Neolithic, a group of farmers, trinket sellers, simple toolmakers, and other assorted types converge on the far western coast of the European Peninsula. They form a polity ruled by a morbidly obese man.

-Under the first five centuries of rule, any new methods for replenishing the soil and improving yields are spread throughout all lands under control of the chief. The most interesting development is that of ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. Given that this place is a latecomer to the agricultural revolution, the domestication of goats, cattle, pigs, sheep, and other assorted types helps massively improve food yields and provides valuable textiles and hides.

-The population gradually grows over this period, and begins to settle eastwards. Other farming settlements are displaced due to population pressures and raids by the Spanish. Many animals are captured and the wealth of the polity grows as it now has significant numbers of livestock.

-Attempts to discover the famed Laubergians comes to naught. Language barriers make it impossible to even work out where they are, with journeys taking months over the continent. Scouts do travel east with traders however, and discover that goods such as copper or amber do as much traveling.

-In an religious ritual, the chief sputters out the following:
"REMOVE KEBAB remove kebabyou are worst turk. you are the turk idiot you are the turk smell. return to croatioa. to our croatia cousins you may come our contry. you may live in the zoo….ahahahaha ,bosnia we will never forgeve you. cetnik rascal FUck but fuck asshole turk stink bosnia sqhipere shqipare..turk genocide best day of my life. take a bath of dead turk..ahahahahahBOSNIA WE WILL GET YOU!! do not forget ww2 .albiania we kill the king , albania return to your precious mongolia….hahahahaha idiot turk and bosnian smell so bad..wow i can smell it.REMOVE KEBAB FROM THE PREMISES. you will get caught. russia+usa+croatia+slovak=kill bosnia…you will ww2/ tupac alive in serbia, tupac making album of serbia . fast rap tupac serbia. we are rich and have gold now hahahaha ha because of tupac… you are ppoor stink turk… you live in a hovel hahahaha, you live in a yurt tupac alive numbr one #1 in serbia ….fuck the croatia ,..FUCKk ashol turks no good i spit• in the mouth eye of ur flag and contry. 2pac aliv and real strong wizard kill all the turk farm aminal with rap magic now we the serba rule .ape of the zoo presidant georg bush fukc the great satan and lay egg this egg hatch and bosnia wa;s born. stupid baby form the eggn give bak our clay we will crush u lik a skull of pig. serbia greattst country".

-He then promptly dies.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-The Laubergians are a southern Germanic peoples who banded together from hunter-gatherer tribes that cooperated in settling a small piece of land. Their religion is a worship of a Great Eagle, said to have created the world and watches over Man.

-High Chief Algrobar is crowned "Son of the Eagle".

-An early form of writing is invented, using lines carved into rock or clay. A development from earlier counting systems, this form of writing is mostly used to keep records. No sound exists for individual letters or words however.

-The Laubergians keep to themselves for a long period of time, rarely mingling with those who sit outside their borders, and generally staying put in one place. This does result in an increased population density however, and movement towards tilling of marginal lands and forestry management in order to sustain resource usage.

-Hunter gathering is abandoned as farming becomes more suitable for maintaining the higher population density of the tribe. Trade with other tribes also occurs to a degree, mostly in order to import some foodstuffs. Manufactured tools are sold by those without enough land to grow food on.

-The 'Rites of the Eagle', Rites of passage for boys to become men, most of which involve physical prowess, are adopted.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-A chief is appointed to rule over the frog people. He then makes the following announcement: “Frog is stonk we will not be messed with for we are stonk frog who will honhon frog you.”

-The religion of Frogism is founded, based around the great god Garry and the “ouste” frog.

-The potter’s wheel is invented during this time by the frogs. Using it to craft perfectly shaped pottery of a high quality and quickly, they can store many items and goods in them. Some pieces of pottery are even sold to outsiders, with people on rafts heading up and down the Seine River to trade pottery for other items.

-As the population grows, more satellite villages spread northwards, especially due to trade links. The culture of the frogs seems to have become dominant, indicated by their style of pottery displacing others in the north. By the year 3500BCE, it is clear they have military powers as well. A layer of charcoal exists at this level along with several skeletons, dead from violent causes. It seems that force backed up the ambitions of the frogs.

-English traders eventually sail upriver and meet the Frogs, establishing contact and allowing for the start of trade, mostly in metals, pottery, and amber.

BritannicaFlag
KriegsMar1ne – Britannica
Capital: Lundein
Culture: English (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Anglican Pantheon

-The English people settle down, establishing a united early polity. It rules over the Thames valley, using a part time military force to control other farming communities.

-During this time, bronzeworking is developed in the Thames valley. It is unsure whenever it was developed independently or introduced from the continent, but with easy access to Cornish tin, this polity has access to a good deal of bronze. The people in there do not seem to realize their potential monopoly yet however.

-Scouts and traders filter throughout the Isle of Man (Britain in OTL) to establish trade contacts and keep friendly relations. They do especially well in the far west (Cornwall), where Tin can be mined for bronze.

-Soldiers, now wearing crude bronze helmets and breastplates, armed with bronze daggers and tipped spears/arrows, expand east down the swampy Thames. They subjugate many of the farming communities and establish systems of tribute. By 3500BCE, they have reached the sea and have begun to profit well from trade. Not much expansion is made outside of the river valley however, despite use of bronze weapons and armor, mainly due to slow travel times away from the river.

-Traders eventually meet a group of people named “Frogs” upriver in the southern continent. They establish good relations.

-To ensure a steady supply of Bronze, mining of various minerals and copper is conducted. Tin is also bought in sizable quantities from the west to be smelted with copper.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Pre-Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-On the Asian coast of the Aegean Sea, the Turkish people settle down. They establish a walled town called Istanbul, and eventually establish a network of other towns and villages owing vassalage to Istanbul. These towns still have a vague memory of 1500 years prior, when the massive lake to the north rose and became salty, with many people having to move home.

-Shipbuilding develops in the area to surprising lengths. Wooden pegs, ropes, reeds, grasses, tars, and other such items are used to sew or tie these early boats of wood together. Large solid logs are used to make a crude skeleton to attach the planks to.

-Using these boats and banks of oarsmen, raiding parties fan out over the coastlines making hard hitting raids to capture valuable metals, tools, weaponry, and other desired items. Eventually, some towns pay tribute or are annexed instead. When Bronze working spreads into the Balkans, this little polity steals bronze it cannot make.

-A slave army is created, whereby soldiers are effectively captured children taken in by the Turks. They are fiercely loyal and often compete over new lands to administer or raid. The Turkish people also engage in warfare often. This focus on warfare helps with expansion considerably.

-Alternative religions are tolerated, but quickly vanish as the Turkish people become dominant in the area. The Priest-Kings of this empire gradually develop a legal system, although being carried down orally it is difficult to keep track of.

-Traders on boats ply the seas and rivers looking for business. They become middlemen between the east and west, moving metals or precious stones.

-Fishermen also follow the traders, helping to vary the diet of the farmers.

Turn 2: 3500 to 3000 BCE

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Rome Total War Music "Melancholy"

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CreationofCenturiesTurn2PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 2

CreationofCenturiesTurn2CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 2

CreationofCenturiesTurn2ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 2

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41604716&viewfull=1#post41604716

Events of the years 3500 to 3000BCE:

-Ötzi the Iceman dies near the present-day border between Austria and Italy, only to be discovered in 1991 buried in a glacier of the Ötztal Alps. His cause of death is believed to be homicide.

-First pottery in Colombia at Puerto Hormiga (Magdalena), considered one of the first attempts of pottery of the New World.

-According to the legend, Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis. Thus begins the history of Egypt.

-First cities developed in Southern Mesopotamia. Inhabitants migrated from north. Early state apparatus appear, and the civilization present is considerably wealthy. Cuneiform script is invented.

-Skara Brae is constructed, and is a comfortable Neolithic village with buildings that makes every other house in the world look like shit.

-Stonehenge begins construction.

-World population hits 30 million.

-The Neolithic is generally accepted as coming to an end around this time, as distinct cultures with use of metalworking are now becoming prevalent.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-With the advent of looms and weaving, cloth can be used for a variety of uses. One such is to create large “sails” on boats. These catch the wind and drive it at considerable speed. Of course, you can only downwind with these boats. Nonetheless, it helps massively for fishermen and traders plying the coasts.

-The Spanish people expand mostly along the coastlines, doing so very rapidly. Unfortunately, progress inland is much slower, and is more or less dependent on population pressures forcing villages to split as opposed to colonists actively moving south. Existing peoples are more or less peacefully absorbed, although some resist. They are dealt with by the militias.

-A new religion arises following the concept of four gods. One for each "element" for the Spanish people:
Dios de la Tierra: The God of the Earth. He is who causes the earthquakes and who grants the people food.
Dios del Agua: The God of Water. He is who causes the floods and provides the rain.
Dios del Fuego: The God of Fire. He is who punishes the people. He is who leads the people in War.
Dios del Rayo: The God of Lightning. The lead god. The one who provided life to the first people.

-Methods to improve agriculture are piecemeal and take a great deal of time to spread or retain. However, two field rotation is finally widespread. The land is left fallow for a year, whilst animals graze on the fallow land. It is not much, but it finally prevents villages from migrating every half century when the soil is exhausted.

-People must report for mandatory military duty to protect their villages as a kind of ad hoc militia. They sometimes carry the fight to the enemy as well. This system helps keep the villages together and aids in expansion.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-A new type of bow is invented. Using composite materials, it is much more powerful. Use of string to make the arrow spin in flight also improves it, resulting in much better kills when hunting. It is found to be equally effective against humans.

-The few remaining hunters spread south and east, and to reduce population pressures, bring along farmers and other assorted people to settle these lands. The original persons there are eventually displaced. Excavations reveal shattered pieces of flint in skeletons from this time.

-With increasing population pressures, the tribe is forced to send large numbers of people out to establish new villages. Marginal lands are also brought under cultivation.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-Around about this time, somebody has the bright idea of taking the potter’s wheel and putting it on its side, before attaching it to a log. Nobody realizes that the wheels and axle are a single solid piece of wood and difficult to move. This will probably be resolved in the future. However, it does make carrying heavy items a lot easier, especially after getting animals or people you don’t like to pull the cart.

-Using their new carts, men are carried along to the battlefield. They open with volleys of arrows and throw spears, before meeting with daggers and thrusting spears close up. With imports of Bronze from their allies on the Isle of Man, they do considerable damage to rival villages and tribes, and expand north towards the sea, mostly to secure coastal access. They are stopped however by the presence of several fortified villages, which retard attempts to push north to the coast.

-Using bronze trade, the French also manage to bully a few southern villages into joining, in return for access to bronze.

BritannicaFlag
KriegsMar1ne – Britannica
Capital: Lundein
Culture: English (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Anglican Pantheon

-Around about this time, somebody has the bright idea of taking the potter’s wheel and putting it on its side, before attaching it to a log. Nobody realizes that the wheels and axle are a single solid piece of wood and difficult to move. This will probably be resolved in the future. However, it does make carrying heavy items a lot easier, especially after getting animals or people you don’t like to pull the cart.

-Using this shitty cart, soldiers trundle southwards. Since moving overland is a tad easier (despite the lack of roads) it allows conquest of the southeast of the Isle of Man to be finished. With knowledge that inland is secure, the combination of coastal raids and land expansion helps win the southeast coast. Some of the villages hold out for longer, as they have begun to fortify themselves with earthen ramparts or timber walls.

-Attempts to create a formal military come to no avail. Most people spend their time on the farms, and anybody interested in fighting is more interested in competing in duels or actual fighting.

-Centered communities based around farming are created called Voorfarmers. A dedicated community of farmers who work together to maximize farming potential. These are a natural progression from land clearance, as it is noted that communities work well together in agriculture.

-An Establish worship and church chapter is created. Those studying religion and help spread it are named priests or priestess's. Quite quickly they become the elite in these farming communities. They take a portion of harvests as a tax, which is then used to build magnificent temples and to keep their weights triple that of the common folk, thus starting a long tradition among many men of faith. They do at least establish some degree of learning, although available to only 1% of the population.

-Boats ply the coastlines, following Cornish traders. They eventually discover the Spanish people, whom take well to trading bronze. Some men wish to migrate to the Isle of Man as well, hearing rumors about the abundance of bronze.

-Priests are told to spread their religion, but they have little interest in doing so, instead giving tithes to the gods above, whom reciprocate with bountiful harvests.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Pre-Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-During this time, new methods of food preservation are discovered. Mostly by covering food in something and seeing if it doesn’t rot. Olive oil, salt, salty water, drying, boiling and smoking have been found to increase the time that a food lasts. However, it can make the food taste better or worse as well. Meats tend to do well along with some fruits. Jam is even invented as well.

-Raids continue throughout the seas, but the other coastal villages have begun to wise up after several centuries. Some are building walls around them and creating militias to prevent ease of raids. Expansion nonetheless continues, although only along the coasts, and barely any gain is made inland. Since bronze working is common by now, bronze armor and weaponry can be used by these men for various purposes. The common farm tool is still made of flint, wood, or bone however, and so for the farmer, life is much the same now as it was thousands of years prior.

-A small group of boats sail as far west as possible, but are forced to return for supplies after reaching an island with a volcano on it. It does look fertile however, and even has people who don’t know about war.

-Traders now must pay taxes to cross waters and lands controlled by the Turk. Although annoyed, they accept that paying a tax is better than being killed and robbed. They even keep away other pirates. Taxes are higher on heretics however; hence a lot of merchants take to pretending to be religious.

-Trading posts are established with small military garrisons. They help to drive away competition and allow trade to continue much as it did before. Even an informal navy has grown.

-Attempts to find other civilizations come to naught, save for the Egyptians and Phoenicians. Most boats cannot do longer journeys, and instead stop off at villages or small towns along the way.

-The gods of the Turkish Pantheon are however pleased by this devotion to war and attempts to bring them spoils, they bring them success in warfare.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Proto-Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-During this time period, towns and villages growing on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea have slowly begun to unify under the same rulers. The town of Byblos becomes the capital of this state. The people here name themselves Canaanites, derived from the Canaanite word for merchant.

-With knowledge from Anatolia having trickled from the north, Egypt from the south, and Mesopotamia to the east, the Phoenicians manage to develop a new type of advanced boat. Utilizing both oars and sails, it can move at rapid speed no matter the weather. It can also carry large quantities of goods for trade. Given the central position of these people between various kingdoms, they have become middlemen for much trade in the area.

-A military is also formed to protect the wealth of this new city state, and some soldiers on these trading boats are well armed with sharp bronze weapons.

-Contact is made with the Empire of Dagger and Egypt, even with Mesopotamia as well through merchants. Livestock is sent as a token of goodwill.

-The Phoenician merchants later set themselves up to trade a whole manner of goods, such as foodstuffs, metals, and other luxurious items. These travel frequently in the trade triangle consisting of the lands between the Empire of Dagger, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.

-Pathways are hacked into the soil and laid with stones around Byblos to facilitate travel. Irrigation channels are also dug to help with agriculture.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Drslava
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Pre-Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism

-Sometime during the 4th millennium BCE, a new language has begun to break off from the older Indo-European common tongue (which is already dying out). The speakers of this new language settle the center-east of this European peninsula, establishing farming villages unified under the same religious and linguistic ties. The Mrvians settled in south-eastern Moravia, creating the monarchy of Drslava and the capital of Velehrad, which is the seat of the monarch. They established territories near the Morava River.

-These people manage to invent a calendar. In earlier times, farming north of the Balkans was difficult due to predicting winter. However, with this new calendar, one can quite easily record the length of years, set dates for religious rituals, know the best times to plant crops, predict the weather to a degree, and settle disputes or win bets.

-The king, Vnislav I Otradovec, calls for the establishment of trade on the Morava and Danube. Traders from the Laubergian tribes manage to help establish that another political entity exists besides them. They also enjoy trading, and given ready access to the great river, it makes travel between the two considerably easy.

-As the population steadily grows, they colonize up and down parts of the great river. The priestly class begins to grow, and calls for the erection of stone megaliths for both practical and faithful purposes. These megaliths would continue to be fascinating structures for many more years.

-A small defensive militia is also established. They mostly consist of a few people to catch troublemakers, drive off wild animals, and to patrol at dark. They have no uniform save a feather in their caps.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Sitä rohkea hampurilainenkunta ja läpättääistan
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-The Taputtaailainen people end up settling Manhattan. They name it Juutalainen kaupunki, and begin to rub their hands in preparation of conquest and wealth.

-During this time, the bow and arrow is invented for the first time in North America. A useful device in hunting and war, it helps extensively with both.

-They then move eastwards to conquer the island they have begun on; although in some cases they persuade the peoples living there that they are truly working in their interests. Keeping aside food and using it for blackmail during famine is one such trick.

Turn 3: 3000 to 2500 BCE

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CreationofCenturiesTurn3PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 3

CreationofCenturiesTurn3CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 3

CreationofCenturiesTurn3ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 3

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41628672#post41628672

Events of the years 3000 to 2500BCE:

-Humans continue with their curious activities. The first appearances of mega architecture, imperialism, organized absolutism and internal revolution are now around, with the Bronze Age fully in swing.

-Mesopotamia gradually evolves into a series of volatile city states competing for power.

-Egypt passes through the first four dynasties of pharaohs. Priests become powerful towards the end of this period.

-The Indus valley civilization appears, with sophisticated urban centers and a great deal of trade and activities going on, including a form of writing invented.

-Some organized civilizations with urban centers, organized religions, and centralized power structures with defined hierarchies begin to develop in East Asia.

-Prehistory is ending as writing disseminates and develops to the degree that accurate records of historical events are now being kept.

-Europe seems to be certainly changing. As lands become slowly scarcer in fertile areas, and the population grows, there are only two ways left, to innovate, or invade. The latter is easier, given that you could choose between spending 10 years draining marshes and cutting trees, or killing a man and moving into his hut, which takes about 30 minutes.

-Hillforts begin to become more common at this time. Archaeologists and ancient historians believe it is correlated with the rise of interstate warfare.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-As people move around, they tend to bring knowledge of the wider world and curious objects back with them. Either due to knowledge or acquirement, a new type of composite bow is invented. Although it does poorly in wet or damp, it is extremely powerful and capable of driving arrows at great speed into unwilling targets. The use of string to induce spinning, and firing in unison, also makes groups of drilled archers terrifying to face in battle.

-As the villages of the Spanish grow, bud, splinter, and otherwise spread outwards, eventually a rival polity consisting of a fortified town and satellite villages is discovered. It uses a strange construction of massive stone and earth walls, preventing anyone from easily raiding the village. A protracted siege eventually brings it down, and the Spanish archers make short work of the opposition. The vassal villages surrender without a fight, and whilst some soldiers are content with looting, some ambitious men are increasingly making themselves rulers of these new villages.

-Boats sail along the coasts and eventually meet with sailors from other civilizations. Those from the so called Isle of Man, and those who name themselves Frogs. Trade links are set up, although these civilizations barely contact each other beyond trade.

-The faith is also taught to some people. Given that local religions tend to be similar, it mostly involves the former religious elite in conquered areas simply changing a few nouns.

-Extensive tin deposits are discovered. With some access to copper, and arrival of the art of bronze working, this area is becoming one of the bronze age trading hubs.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-As the culture and religious beliefs of these people develop, an early caste system seen as “ideal” is developing. In this hierarchy, farmers and warriors come primarily well off under this. To be a warrior also confers a hereditary title. Naturally, as lands and titles begin to merge, a landowning warrior class is slowly evolving.

-The class system is structured as follows:

  1. Chief
  2. Chief's Personal 'Cabinet' (house of elders)
  3. Elder citizens
  4. Warriors
  5. Farmers
  6. Workers
  7. Servants

-The class system is divided among these ranks. The lower classes cannot progress, but higher classes can be knocked downwards as ordered by the chief (usually from dishonorable actions).

-Within a few centuries, the Elder citizen and Warrior classes end up merging, whilst servants become increasingly composed of, and treated like slaves and second class citizens. Soon after, it becomes nearly impossible to move out of one’s social class.

-The Laubergians declare that they shall be peaceful, and go to war only rarely.

-Several years later, they requisition the land of a hilltop village, and after it rebels, the inhabitants are mostly murdered. The children and women are raped or sold into slavery, and the lands divided up.

-Expansion continues as a growth in population leads to gradual “colonization”, with the warrior class protecting these new farmers. It is noticed that expansion happens the fastest and most brutally in areas practicing Gavelkind succession.

-With copper extraction and trade now common, copper ingots become a form of exchange. Reasonably valuable, they help to integrate the area into economies further to the east, and help to grant it access to valuable bronze.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Pre-Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-Gradually, as the priests, merchants, bureaucrats, and other sorts need a way to keep reliable records, they end up slowly developing a form of writing, using carvings in stone, metal, and wood. Some even write down historical events, bringing an end to prehistory here.

-As coastal access is now paramount to control of the river, and much trade in the area, along with access to Bronze, the French try to bully these coastal villages into joining. Few accept, and mostly due to being diplomatically isolated.

-The French then engage in a series of bloody wars, using wagons full of men to travel to the field. The opposing forces have started to do this as well, but the organization of the French and ability to wage a war of attrition means that it wins in the end. A siege on a coastal town is noted for being the first recorded assault on fortifications in history, using ropes and ladders to climb up.

-All men must report for military service when the ruler commands it, of course, young sons are quite happy to engage in this activity, and do informal raids on the ruler’s behalf.

-As other villages are in French influence, they begin to redirect trade and pay tribute in the hopes they don’t get invaded.

-With coastal access, trade is starting to grow now that the French have control of the trade routes. At least they protect traders from ruffians, as that means they can tax them for more later.

BritannicaFlag
KriegsMar1ne – Britannica
Capital: Lundein
Culture: English (Pre-Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Anglican Pantheon

-Other than the usual events of society, little much else of interest happens. Trade continues as before, military raids occur, but no expansion is made, and internal colonization slowly occurs. This does give neighbors respite, and eventually hill forts begin to pop up throughout southern Britain.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Pre-Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-With such dependence on their ships, it would make sense to improve on designs. Shipbuilders add a whole myriad of various sails, strengthen the hull, add banks of oars, and carve intricate designs into the ships. The occupants of these vessels are the speediest in the known world, carrying both men and goods.

-A whole group of ships are collected along with raiders for a full out proper invasion. They decide to invade the peaceful island of Crete, and end up taking it over with considerable ease. Conquest does take a few decades to complete, with many isolated communities hanging on for quite some time. The peoples were seemingly to be in the process of developing a civilization before this interruption, with innovations like writing, palaces, and flush toilets. The new rulers meanwhile, are content with this new base for naval raids, rich agricultural soil from volcanic activity, and the trade abundant. A capital is created here, named Siyaset. The Minoan civilization passes into obscurity after a brief flash of existence.

-Apart from that, little expansion is made. Many other towns and villages are building walls and calling upon each other to aid in times of attack, given that these rascals and pirates from Anatolia are killing, looting, and raping without end.

-Slaves are used to pave roads throughout the Empire, worked to death in some instances to make these strange stone pathways. It does help facilitate movement however, and means that armies can march quickly in times of trouble. Some merchants even sneak along them and pay bribes or tolls for ease of travel.

-Monuments of pointless dimensions are constructed. Reaching high into the sky and made of rock, timber, clay, mud, and bricks, these structures are used for religious rituals or palatial homes for the rulers. Well-fortified and towering over the land, they remind the peasantry what it means to be a peasant.

-Due to how many young men wish to fight for glory and loot, conscription is unnecessary, but becomes a more ritualized and formal process. One must remain a virgin until they kill a man in combat. Heretics are also taxed heavily (termed the Cizye tax) for the privilege of being second class citizens.

-Missionaries that leave the comfort of the temple to preach the word of the gods tend to end up murdered, and so make little headroom in converting heathens.

-Trade with the Phoenicians begins to grow exponentially, especially after the conquest of Crete.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Proto-Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Annoyed at the crudeness of early wagons, the Phoenicians decide to directly nail axles to the underside of a wagon, and have the wheel spin around the outside. They also manage to hollow out parts of the wheel and make it thinner, along with reducing the weight of the wagon. These various improvements lead to carts becoming faster, lighter, less tricky to steer, and useful for even more purposes. Given the size and wealth of this city state, the invention becomes common within a few years, leading to a boom in trade.

-As galleys develop in the city state, somebody looks at the sharp prow and wonders if it could pierce a ships hull. A test is done with two aged galleys, but the impact manages to completely shatter the front of the attacking vessel, and both go down in the harbor. Many years later, underwater archaeologists would laugh after finding what looked like a ramming action backfiring.

-The slightly more structurally secure galleys go on to explore the rest of the Mediterranean Sea, where they discover the Cretans developing a civilization. They are conquered within a century of formal contact however. Other explorations and traders manage to push as far as the Adriatic Sea and the island of Sicily. They are helped considerably due to not pillaging the people they discover, and sometimes even set up trade links. The spread of the Empire of Dagger is causing damage to trade however. There are rumors of a tribe of Laubergians from the traders, said to be a people with access to Bronze, knowing yet another civilization beyond Laubergian lands.

-Trade routes are gradually set up and spread. Byblos is starting to become the hub for trade routes from all over the known world. Mesopotamia, Egypt, Dagger, Minoa, Spain, Laubergia, and even goods from further afield sometimes appear. The Indus Valley and the Mrvians seem to produce items of worth.

-Most trading villages and towns begin to align closely with the city state of Byblos, enjoying the good trade deals to be had.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Drslava
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Pre-Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism

-The Mrvian people seem unusually inventive. After discovery of tin deposits this naturally makes them able to export tin at premium prices down the Danube river and also southwest towards the Adriatic. However, moving it overland takes time and one Middle Eastern invention eventually finds its way here. It is the wheeled cart, which the Mrvians improve on after noticing ruts forming in the ground from the wheels. They start making axles of uniform width, and pave the ruts so as to create crude wagonways. This helps considerably when moving heavy tin ores and goods overland.

-To celebrate the newfound local monopoly of tin, a defensive militia is named the "Albatros", and are given special bronze armor, to differentiate it from any future militia that might be made.

-Horses are also brought over, and used to pull carts, although it is found that oxen are better suited. Horses seem too weak and small for the job, although they do travel faster with light loads. Some people try to ride them, but the weakness of the horse and lack of a seat makes this considerably difficult.

-The king requests that a building called a "Skijola" is to be constructed in a village. When built, people would head to this building to be educated in the multiple ways of the kingdom, such as the language of Mrvian (through oral tales and legends), farming, to train priests for calendars and the human body. These all interlink in an almost religious manner, and the religion of these peoples is gradually solidified through this communal and popular system. The King wants religious freedom, but his subjects find this absurd and fear that he will anger the gods by this.

-Settlements continue to spread along the rivers of Central Europe, mostly on a southeast trajectory through the Danube river basin. Fertile soil allows for dense population concentrations as well. Contact with the Laubergians grows to the extent that they are seen as a distinct people, rather than half legends and stories from travelers.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Sitä rohkea hampurilainenkunta ja läpättääistan
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-Quite amazingly, these near savages manage to invent a crude form of writing. Given that they consist of a few thousand people hunting and farming using little more than wooden sticks and their own shit this is surprising. They invent a script which can record down messages, and at the very least, prevents good ideas from passing away into oblivion. They then finally establish this entire island as ancestral homelands, having driven away or assimilated all other competing cultures.

-The people here, given that their religion is about figuring out how the world works, decide to spend their free time thinking about things and writing them down. Some crude pictures of the skies show that they manage to work out the movements of various planets and stars, plus they even manage to apply this knowledge to hunting and agriculture.

-Manhattan islands total GDP for 2500 BCE is 40 dollars (adjusted for inflation).

Turn 4: 2500 to 2000 BCE

CreationofCenturiesTurn4PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 4

CreationofCenturiesTurn4CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 4

CreationofCenturiesTurn4ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 4

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41653683&viewfull=1#post41653683

Events of the years 2500 to 2000BCE:

-The wheel spreads to almost every agricultural society in Europe. The spoked wheel meanwhile is independently invented throughout much of the Middle East and the Indus Valley.

-Writing is now widespread in most sedentary societies. The Phoenician alphabet covers any areas that have not yet invented their own.

-Trade in the Adriatic begins to decline, along with the towns there. Having previously profited from the movement in bronze southwards, the Danube is now the center of this trade. Many towns shrink back into fishing villages and contact with the east ceases.

-Trade routes in the Near East have begun to fluctuate between the Phoenicians and the Empire of Dagger. Pirates are near gone in those areas, but many city states favor the Phoenicians due to their lower taxes and less belligerent foreign policy. Roughly speaking, Mrvia, Empire of Dagger, Laubergia, and Greece, all are roughly in the same trading zone. Phoenicia trades throughout much of the Near East. An overlap exists over Greece, Southern Anatolia, and Crete.

-Egypt collapses and then reunifies under a new kingdom. Food production is increased by conversion of swamps to farmland.

-The Akkadian Empire forms, created through the work of Sargon of Akkad. It then collapses. Later, it is replaced by Sumer.

-Urban areas in China are forming for the first time. Along with Bronze usage and record keeping, there are guesses that Chinese civilization began at the end of this period.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-Trade with the east begins to gradually expand. Traders bring back the idea of writing, which gradually diffuses over these centuries to become a tool for record keeping. Eventually, these symbols start to represent sounds rather than ideas or objects. Some people are even recording the events of kings, famines, disease, and rarely even everyday life.

-As a way to capture coastal villages, galleys begin to have decks full of archers on them, firing volleys into the villages from the sea. This initially works, until people start setting fire to arrows. The boat builders respond by covering the sides with wet hides. Unfortunately, due to the poor design of the boats, they can only become so big before they collapse from the weight of archers, or capsize due to attempts to put towers on them.

-Inland expansion is harder, as fortified towns require to be besieged before an assault can be made, if ever.

-Nonetheless, the available records tell us that this culture continued to spread, mostly down the Atlantic coastline, with some limited pushes inland nearby fresh water and good soil.

-Traders heading around also notice the availability of carts. They bring the idea back with them, although they are already spreading pretty rapidly, and within a century of introduction, have already spread into Northern Africa.

-The Spanish find out the story of the Phoenician galley incident, and promptly laugh.

-Spanish missionaries spread outwards to spread the faith, but there is little interest in their gods. The reply is “we already have enough gods thanks”.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-With improving leatherworking techniques and use of cattle, somebody decides to invent a leather cuirass. It is able to usually deflect blows from sharpened flint and sometimes even bronze, and the nobility take to it with earnest. Boiling the leather also improves the strength of it.

-Trade is now well established with the Mrvians, whereby copper is sold to them in exchange for tin. Trade however, begins to decline to the south and with the Mrvians to an extent. Travel down the Danube is easier and faster, bypassing the need to sail via the Adriatic. Eventually, Laubergia can only export copper to the Mrvians, as all trade southwards is now effectively dead.

-Earth and timber ramparts begin to be built around villages as a form of protection. Engraved bronze ingots are found buried in them as a religious charm. There is also evidence to suggest that they are reaching uniform weight and size, and have seen extensive use as a means of exchange.

-Evidence of Tin and Copper ingots is now also common, moreso in the area close to the Mrvian culture.

-Bands of warriors now patrol the “borders” of the Laubergians, hoping to deter any nasty sorts. They do not do much minus round up ruffians and prevent livestock from straying however.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-With demand for precious and utilitarian metals naturally rising, it makes sense to improve mining techniques. Hardened pickaxes using bronze, whilst costly, do improve production. The heads are also shaped to be used for multiple other uses (like killing) so as to increase the functionality of the tool. Rock crushing, sifting mud and rocks through filters, improved ovens to smelt copper and tin, plus other methods, are used to try and boost production of copper and tin. A few scraps of pure iron are found as well, and used to make small ornaments. The exchange rate of iron to silver is about 1:40.

-With increasing sophistication and wealth, along with a want to control coastal trade, the French move westwards, seizing coastal villages with little opposition. However, men come down from hillforts to do constant raids and it takes many years for them for eventually give in. By 2000 BCE, most places have some kind of earthen or stone ramparts.

-However, peaceful expansion is just as common, and as time goes on, increasing populations leads to migrations, and in turn, to settlement. Unfortunately, most of these areas are of poor quality soil or require marshes to be drained and forests cut down. Many other villages are fortified and put up some resistance, or try to screw over newcomers with various tricks.

BritannicaFlag
KriegsMar1ne – Britannica
Capital: Lundein
Culture: English (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Anglican Pantheon

-With little happening, the Kingdom begins to decay from within. The Beaker people are spreading through the area now, and beginning to undermine the religious and cultural values of the English. By 2000 BCE, it begins to lose power over the furthest borders.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-In response to the development of strong defensive walls, the first siege weapons follow. Ladders are an obvious invention, but more resilient towns require battering rams and towers on walls. Raids are less feasible unless in large numbers, but it allows assaults on fortified areas to proceed much more easily.

-With the advent of these, they begin pushing into Anatolia. Raids on the Greeks occur, but no permanent conquest can be made due to the more warlike peoples living here.

-The campaigns in Anatolia go exceedingly well with the use of a strong centralized state and powerful, hard hitting armies.

-However, people are sick of these invasions, and have responded with trying to form military alliances and trying to push back these invasions. When counter-raids are common, the Empire responds by constructing large walls around their settlements.

-The capital of the Empire is now importing food from further afield, paid for by trade tolls and conquest loot. It is massive, with a population in the tens of thousands. Meanwhile, smaller farmers are having their lands slowly confiscated by the new lords made rich from war. They keep many of them as slaves and build magnificent palaces for themselves.

-The ships of the Empire hunt down pirates throughout the area, and also try to subtly divert trade towards them. This has come to annoy the Phoenician merchants significantly. However, diverting trade is difficult, as trade tolls in Phoenicia are lower, and the city states believe themselves to have better luck with a less warlike people.

-The first schools are established. These schools are established mostly to educate the religious elite, although a few nobles’ children or mercantile types are seen in them as well. The basics of literacy and mathematics is taught. The Phoenician alphabet is now also here, and sometimes pops up in common use.

-During this time, massive coastal raids are attempted on Egypt. The Egyptian records tell of a “Sea Peoples” contributing to great calamity in the lands. These sea peoples demand tribute, but the Egyptian state is already in turmoil. 5 dynasties pass in a small period of just 40 years. The “Old Kingdom” collapses and decentralized polities rule as the kingdom is divided. The raiders never get their tribute. When the kingdom finally reunifies, it makes a strong effort to hunt down these raiders and to push them from their lands.

-Mrvian and Laubergian metals have to pass through this Empire, so it naturally forms a monopoly on them. To the South and East of Crete, the Phoenicians control trade.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Proto-Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-During this time, the Phoenicians hear about the various alphabets of the foreigners they trade with. Seeing the advantages in creating their own, they invent a script using a rather sparse number of symbols to represent sounds. Alf, bet, gaml, delt are the first four symbols. They are very successful, and begin to spread through trade links. Any civilizations without their own alphabets, very quickly adopt this flexible one.

-Trade galleys now travel in convoys, so as to ward off pirates. Mock wars with old ships are also done to prevent laziness, and efforts are made to make them faster.

-A great stone wall is constructed around Byblos, and all new buildings outside must be constructed 100 metres away from it. Given the security of staying inside, many buildings begin to grow taller or convert farmland into housing. By the end of this period, all agricultural activities have moved outside the walls.

-Gold mining also begins, and a large new port is constructed with many wharves for large trade ships. This trade hub is growing rich, yet attacks by pirates are repelled due to the strength of the navy.

-Other coastal towns and cities states are asked if they wish to become protectorates in return for protection of their trade routes. They agree, and a league of cities begins to grow on the wealth of expanding trade.

-Competition with the Empire of Dagger begins to increase as their ships and trade laws try to divert trade routes towards them.

-Contact with the Empire of Dagger is made, but without talking to the ruler of the Empire directly, no diplomacy can occur.

-Expeditions continue to travel westwards. Contact with Italy occurs, but it has little of value worth trading. Greece by contrast, is doing far better, to the extent that they are now developing sophisticated civilizations.

-Laubergian traders are now known by people, although they live a considerable distance inland. Representative of them are the merchants, whom actually rank poorly in that society. Declining trade in Laubergia also means that by the year 2000 BCE, hardly any Phoenician traders go that way anymore.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Drslava
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Pre-Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism

-Seeing that trade is essential to the wellbeing of the Mrvian people, new river boats are built. With flat bottoms, sails, oars, and a light weight allowing them to be dragged overland by teams of animals or men, they are very flexible. They manage to sail right down the Danube River and into the Aegean and Adriatic seas. What’s even better, is that trade no longer needs to travel southwards through Laubergia. Trade increasingly moves eastwards.

-A new section is given to the "Skijola" called "Zikludne vlcvik", where people that join the militia are given instruction by elders.

-In light of the Laubergians declaring themselves peaceful, the king announces that the kingdom shall be peaceful as well.

-With the staggering popularity of the "Skijola", the King requests that more Skijolas must be built in the kingdom, including one in the capital. Eventually, one is now in almost every village, as a kind of shrine to all the gods.

-Farmers are told to attempt to create the hybrid between an ox and a horse. It is assumed a joke, although a dim farmer is reported to have sworn an oath to deliver the king one. Records of the event are damaged beyond readability in Mrvia, but contemporary records from Phoenicians, Laubergians, and the Turks mention this event. The Mrvian records appear as though they were chipped with a pick in an attempt to erase them, and the marks also indicating that whoever did this, was in a hurry.

-Archaeologists discover a horse skeleton and ox skeleton together when digging in a Bronze Age farm in the late 20th century, buried at the bottom of a pit. The top is full of curses on people whom disturb the site. Both skeletons are badly mangled. Chipped and snapped bones are seen, and perhaps most curiously, evidence that they healed and were damaged multiple times, indicating that whatever happened to cause this damage, was over a period of several years.

-The bones are quietly removed to the basement of a university after a recreation of events is constructed using 3d modelling. The short film is leaked to the internet, but is banned in all countries.

-An economic alliance is made with the Laubergians formally called the "Bronze Alliance". Tin is given to them, in exchange for copper. However, the Danube trade mostly makes this moot, with the result that more travels in the Mrvian direction than towards Laubergia.

-Following expanding trade, trade posts and villages spread down the Danube into the Pannonia basin.

-After hearing that his subjects consider religious freedom absurd, he attempts to pray to the gods, in regards of this topic. He sees them and they tell him that "They have chosen Drslava to be the safehaven for every religion in this world and, if he revokes the kingdom's god-given freedom of religion, that the kingdom will suffer to no end". After he stopped praying, he tells his subjects what had happened.

-The people assume that a pantheon of gods of varying powers must exist. Therefore, in order to avoid calamities, all should be listened to in case those gods are real. The people are still wishing that the king do sacrifices to the gods and give support to the establishment of temples and rituals. Most importantly, a name should be given to the Mrvian pantheon of gods.

-Tin ingots are adopted as a form of currency, although Bronze and Copper ingots are used likewise for similar purposes.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With the advent of strong textile cloth, somebody has the bright idea of attaching it to a stick and then putting that stick on a boat. Quite quickly, one can travel on this sailing boat and move goods and people around with ease. Rowers can help speed it up as well, or go upriver.

-The people change the name of their tribe to Valittu kauppias mailla, partly as acknowledgement of their new heritage. The culture meanwhile changes to Kauppiaat during this time in a gradual shift. Some adhere to the old ways, but these do not survive long.

-Jetties and wharves begin to be built in natural harbours around Long Island, used as staging points for boats to stop off. Due to the small concentration of peoples, they all tend to know each other well, and have good and reliable information networks. The advent of the sailing boat improves the feasible range of these networks over into the mainland.

-Settlement of the mainland slowly begins. The locals are already well known through trade, and they are happy to allow them in. Bribes of local rulers and gifts also help seal the deal.

-Through extensive trade and barter, these traders manage to discover of new hunting methods, bows and arrows, various flint tools, etc, but little else. Agriculture is incredibly primitive still, given that they are the only civilization with it in North America. Nonetheless, due to the inability to farm for extended periods of time, it forces movement around, particularly up the Hudson river. There is little distinction between hunter gatherers and these islands, although their farming methods are now spreading beyond their borders.

ZuluFlag
Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-The Bantu migrated southwards with considerable speed in the past, reaching South Africa by 2000bc. They settle down, and form the Zulu Kingdom.

-Agriculture is introduced, and in order to prevent the soil being worn out, a crop is grown on one patch of soil, and the next year, cattle is grazed on it. By rotating this yearly, one can allow the soil to regenerate, and to allow for the rearing of many cows along with growing grains and grasses as secondary food.

-Cowhide shields are made, with short stabbing spears as a weapon. Men are made to march barefoot to maintain discipline amongst them. They do well in raids on opposing tribes, capturing many heads of cattle or humans.

-All the old elders are killed and their chattels given to soldiers, in what looks like a small scale coup. Whatever happened, these people are on a different path now.

Turn 5: 2000 to 1500 BCE

Zimerman plays Chopin Ballade No09:18

Zimerman plays Chopin Ballade No. 1

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn5PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 5

CreationofCenturiesTurn5CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 5

CreationofCenturiesTurn5ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 5

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41680716&viewfull=1#post41680716

Events of the years 2000 to 1500BCE:

-Volcanic eruptions during this time cause global cooling and destroy many towns in the Aegean and Italian areas. This seriously damages trade and agriculture, with the result that many crop failures or diminished harvests lead to an exacerbation of initial problems caused by the eruptions.

-As a result of declining demand for bronze, reduced agricultural productivity, volcanic eruptions, and migrations of hungry peoples, political instability is now rife. These all lead to knock on effects on trade, meaning that a decline in bronze and farming output is having a knock on effect on other activities. Piracy returns as navies generally become less well funded and weaker, with trade also weakening from piracy.

-Central Asian peoples migrate into the Middle East, Europe, and the Indus, displacing the native inhabitants. Speaking Indo-European languages and bringing strange new inventions called chariots; they bring many problems for the natives, and end up creating their own states. The Greeks are one of the migratory peoples, who begin to displace the original inhabitants of Greece as they push southwards.

-The Indus valley civilization declines with the invasions of the Aryans. By 1700 BCE, they are gone completely, the cities left in ruins. Climate change also aids this decline, forcing migration to the east, mostly due to changes in monsoon weather patterns as a result of cooling weather.

-The mammoth goes extinct. The last group dies as a pygmy version of the once great creatures in Wrangel Island. The blamed cause is cooling of the climate, leading to starvation as food becomes scarce.

-Glass is invented in the near east. The element mercury is also discovered.

-Failed harvests, political instability, economic decline, and migrations; lead to the collapse of the Egyptian middle kingdom. A resurgence and then later expansion result in the addition of large parts of Judea.

-The first fragments of carbon steel are made in central Anatolia, although more of a rarity than the start of iron manufacture. By the 1700s BCE, the first evidence of Iron smelting and manufacture is underway, although the metal is actually weaker than Bronze and rarer, mainly used for jewellery. With the focus on Bronze anyways, there is little economic incentive for iron until much later.

-The Xia dynasty in China collapses, to be replaced by the Shang. Agriculture is introduced to Korea and Japan.

-Hammurabi forms and rules over a majestic Babylonian empire during this time. He writes the first code of laws in history. His empire is later destroyed by the Hittites by 1500 BCE. Elam, Babylonia, Assyria, and the Mitanni form in the wake of the destruction.

-The Mycenae peoples are ruling in Greece during this time.

-The Euganei of Northern Italy are displaced by the Laubergian peoples.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-With growing populations in urban areas and the rise of inter-state warfare, the need has come for strong buildings, roads, bridges, and defensive structures that are not meant to last mere decades, but potentially hundreds of years of continuous use. Masonry is developed as a trade during this time, with masons taking on apprentices and being paid to help design and construct large buildings rivalling anything the ancients of the Neolithic built.

-The Spanish continue to expand, although diplomacy and blackmail factor into it more. Sometimes it is advantageous to trade with towns and villages (many of which are well defended and populated by angry persons). Inland expansion is still slow, especially due to the difficulty of ploughing new soils, deforesting areas needed for agriculture, and general expansion of the population. Nonetheless, expansion still occurs.

-Trade begins to decline. Whilst demand for bronze and local goods is still common in the west, hardly any ships go to the south any longer. Talks of nobody buying bronze anymore in the Far East are common. A move back to agriculture or fishing is now underway.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-The horse is domesticated to its full potential at this time. Selective breeding results in them growing larger. Improved harnesses and the advent of saddles allow them to be ridden and to drag carts. Soon enough, the nobility of Laubergia fight from horseback, with some merchants able to hire them to deliver letters or small goods.

-Taxation is introduced for the first time, whereby a portion of harvests are collected from each village and used for the upkeep of soldiers, maintaining religious buildings, and various other communal projects.

-Demand for copper mysteriously begins to drop, and now the Laubergians are suffering from the decline in trade pretty badly. Many traders move back to farming, and the social system stagnates.

-Almost no expansion occurs during this time, so people instead begin internal colonization on a greater scale. A combination of deforestation, declining southern trade, cooling climate, and erosion leads to many farms being abandoned in the south of Laubergia. Weak control of the south and economic decline there leads to the state unable to assert their authority any longer, paving the way for migrations.

-The migrations begin, with people splitting off from the Laubergians and heading south in search of new homes. This results in the displacement of Euganai peoples. They also intermix with them, adopting some of their culture and religions.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Proto-Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-Continued improvements in agriculture occur in this productive land. Vegetable gardens pop up with increased frequency as various new plants spread around the continent. They help to supplement the diet well. Herbs are also grown along with early orchards, and the diets of people are slowly becoming more varied and healthy. Of course, this is assuming that harvests are rich, which happens some years. Continued sacrifices and rituals or deals continue with the local deities. Of course, the local wolf goddess of the French people is claimed to hold back harvests some years, much to their annoyance.

-Cooling climate and declining trade leads to many difficulties for these people despite these improvements. Deflation of prices occurs with a sudden drop in demand for bronze overseas leading to some Mannish or Spanish merchants cutting prices in a bid to offload now worthless metals. Some people are even using bronze tools in agriculture now.

-Expansion continues as in prior centuries. Villages are invaded, otherwise forced to join via blackmail, or even do well enough from trade that they willingly join in return for military protection.

-The Ruler dies of some uncertain causes. With his death, a new movement comes into play. They advocate internal colonization of marginal areas, draining of marshes, and deforestation. Whilst initially successful at slowing down expansion into contested lands, it does begin to reduce food yields gradually as the soils are poorer. Robbery and crime rates increase, with the result that villages increasingly employ local watchmen and thief takers. Any existing villages of opposing faiths or cultures are quickly integrated.

BritannicaFlag
KriegsMar1ne – Britannica
Capital: Lundein
Culture: English (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Anglican Pantheon

-Through internal struggles, economic decline, displacement by new or competing cultures, and war, Britannica fades away into the annals of history. They have definitely left an impact and legacy however, and the peoples here are by no means no longer trading, warring, or otherwise engaging in other such activities. The cooling climate and declining bronze trade finishes it off for good.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-Much of Crete and other coastal areas are badly damaged by the eruption of volcanoes in the Aegean. These places, dependent on trade for their wealth, don’t recover. Declining agricultural output and trade means that the naval bases here aren’t even repaired a century after the eruption. Piracy begins to resurface around Crete, and control of the island begins to weaken.

-The Emperor declares a war on the Hittites. These are newcomers to the area, having settled in central Anatolia and displacing the Hatti people.

-Migrations are set in motion however, with refugees and raids flooding into the Empire of Dagger. The wars with the Hittites do not go as planned. No naval battles can occur, for the Hittites are based inland. With this in mind, overland attempts at conquest routinely fail, mainly due to declining quality of the army.

-The chariot is introduced to the Empire. It is adopted by the army for use in warfare, and by the nobility for travel and hunting.

-The motto of the Empire becomes: "If it looks at us funny, invade it."

-Cemal, chief architect builds a Military Academy in the capital. It is used to train future generals, because throwing burly men at each other is not the only way of doing things.

-Linear A, a native Minoan writing system, is adopted as the official script of the Empire. The rival alphabets are discouraged.

-A diplomatic treaty is signed with the Phoenicians: Reduction of tariffs and taxes on merchants operating under both states. Phoenicia will subsidize the Daggerian navy and armies.

-However, the Daggerian economy starts to go into decline. The ports begin to gradually become quieter and trade slackens. With the cooling climate and declining demand for bronze, tax revenue and agricultural output goes down and with it, the ability to maintain the army.

-Many of the great cities see a dispersal of peoples to the countryside. Greek barbarians are pushing from the west and many great old buildings fall into decay.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Proto-Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-With the spread of iron working from the Hittites and other such traders, the Canaanites eventually develop iron working for their own uses. Originally for jewellery and the rich, improvement of it slowly occurs over the course of several centuries. Whilst as strong as bronze, it is also more plentiful (albeit needing a hotter furnace). Demand for bronze begins to decline and imports of copper and tin from Crete, Mrvia, Laubergia, Spain, and Mann, also decline.

-Records of battles begin to be kept, mainly for histories or as reference to for later people engaging in naval warfare. The vowel appears suddenly in these records, and the alphabet continues to evolve.

-Naval resupply vessels are introduced, whereby a friendly vessel can sail out to meet one low on supplies and restock it. Of course, this requires a network of well supplied bases. Whilst expensive, it helps contribute to reducing piracy. However, the system breaks down with the bronze trade collapse.

-Unfortunately, the decline in trade makes it hardly worthwhile. Put under additional strain, the Phoenician navy cannot deal with the pirates of the Aegean. Declining demand for bronze means that there is little point to do so anyways. The Egyptians are suffering likewise, and trade further declines.

-Inevitable deflation also hampers trade as populations are culled through famines and war. The Phoenicians luckily escape, but are left with large numbers of bronze and iron in stock. The concept of a bank is invented as a place to store these. Starting as blacksmiths lending to poor farmers unable to buy the tools themselves, they repay in the form of harvests. A proliferation of iron tools results.

-The Egyptians eventually arrive near the Phoenicians. However, the remaining cities trading with Phoenicia quickly submit vassalage and raise a huge army to intimidate the Egyptians into backing down. The Egyptians do not dare try to attack such a confident league of wealthy cities, especially ones armed with iron.

-Expeditions head outwards to try and work out why the situation is overall crap. Heading to Mesopotamia, to the Mrvians on the Danube, and to Sardinia, they do not learn much minus an affliction to crops and poverty brought on by declining use of bronze. They do find areas suitable to colonize however, particularly along the North African coast, Sicily, and Sardinia. Hardly settled and good for farming, it is thought these can have colonies established for purposes of trade and food.

-A diplomatic treaty is signed with the Daggerians:
--Reduction of tariffs and taxes on merchants operating under both states.
--Phoenicia will subsidize the Daggerian navy and armies.

-Horses are imported from the peoples of the Pontic steppe, and used by the nobility.

-The Writings of αηιραμ the Elder, circa 1900 BCE:

Phoenician people worship not only their gods, but their wares. And as Phoenicians worship a myriad array of gods and practice myriad religions, there are myriad goods passing through Byblos. Sheep, Trinkets and Incense often sit within 4 or 5 cubits of each other at market, and they are normally sold within a short amount of time. And bags full of these goods are sent on galleys to various destinations across the sea. And the sea is not the only place where these goods arrive from, oh no. Goods from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Dagger...
Last week I bought myself a small statue, around a palm in height. It is woman, with four arms. No-one I know worships the god that I assume the statue resembles, so I must draw the conclusion that it is from the east, maybe the north. However, this is typical of the goods that pass through Byblos.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Pre-Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-Understandly, people travelling great distances need to record landmarks, settlements, roads, and ways to understand where they are in relation to them. The first maps appear, mostly as heavily distorted scrolls showing roads and rivers, with little care to dimensions beyond recording distances. They are initially used by merchants and Kings. Some versions later appear that are like encyclopaedias, with fantastic beasts and peoples drawn on them.

-A new defensive militia called the "Grlnce" is formed, with the purpose of defending the "border".

-The king changes the name of the kingdom to Velkij Donaljea, in tribute to the Danube, source of the wealth and prosperity of the Kingdom.

-The king declares all territory to the east that the Danube passes through is rightful Mrvian territory. Expansion occurs along roughly that path, although the Mrvians branch outwards into the as of yet unnamed plains between the mountains.

-A letter is sent to the Empire of Dagger, informing them to stay away from the great river unless they mean no conquest.

-Seeing that the people still wish for the Mrvian religion to be organized, the King prays to the gods once more. He sees them once more and asks them what to do. They tell him not to worry and disappear, leaving a tablet behind.

-The King reads the tablet: It speaks of the five gods he sees appear in front of them: Cherlivgob, the god of chaos; Rudagest, the god of hospitality; Dunalvija, the god of water; Porenper, the god of thunder; and Dižbeg, the protector of the world and the head god. It also speaks of the female witch and rival of the gods, Bajba Ylaga, who was the controller of death. The gods do not approve of sacrifices and rituals, as they believe they are Bajba Ylaga's work.

-The tablet also states the land of Drslava, the birth land of the gods, must always stay a place for religious freedom, to keep the religious purity of the land that the gods remember from their youth, and will crush any foreign nation that attempts to establish a specific religion in the state.

-The king once more tells his subjects that the gods have spoken to him once more and that, for those who wants a religion of the pantheon of gods the Mrvians have, can have it, but to not anger the gods, Apatheism will stay. The information on the tablet becomes the Mrvian religion of Pržk (the start of Slavic paganism) and the tablet itself is named the Lesch.

-However, poor agricultural output leads to many people migrating along the Danube to search for less exhausted lands. They end up pushing out some of the original inhabitants in the process. It is rumoured they are heading south.

-Relative decline of trade has brought further problems as well. Not only does trade ties with Laubergia weaken, but so too do they with the Empire of Dagger. Boats are broken up to be converted into housing, and many traders chance their luck elsewhere.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With people looking at the skies more frequently, correlations are noted down and eventually large stone monuments are built for use as calendars. Religious elites come into being as they can accurately predict the best times for agricultural activities and festivals. They can also record messages as well, and thus within a few centuries end up allowing agriculture to take advantage of the varied seasons. Expansion can now reliably occur. Two field rotation is introduced as a means of ensuring the soil does not exhaust itself. Agricultural output grows, and the forests begin to be cleared to make way for farms.

-The lack of earthworms and bees makes agriculture actually quite difficult. However, wild rice is successfully cultivated as a staple grain, it being the only grain for use so far. There are also no domestic animals save for dogs.

-With this in mind, expansion continues onto the mainland. Forests are slowly cleared and wild rice paddies are constructed. Pretty soon, the rice strain mutates and is selected for until the grains are sufficiently large. However, this ends up displacing hunters gradually over time. A few fights occur, but inevitably the farmers win out.

ZuluFlag
Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-The wheel is invented by the Zulu people. Quite quickly, carts are invented to be dragged by cattle. With this aid, the Zulu can migrate around much more easily, packing up their possession and storing them on a cart as they can follow the herds. Some people even build small houses on them, made out of sticks and hides.

-Using large flanking manoeuvres and encirclement, the Zulus intimidate tribes by appearing much larger than they actually are. The use of carts for rapid movement and splitting up the forces also aids extensively. Many enemy persons are captured in battle along with their cattle.

-Eventually, via snowballing and acquirement of wealth, rival tribes are assimilated. Movement by foot however, restricts communications considerably.

-Attempts to increase wheat production do not go too well. Farming is still Neolithic here, and the only way to grow more is to expand the amount of land under cultivation. A series of cool years also diminish harvests as well.

-Migrations occur more frequently as pasture suffers from cooler than usual weather. People pack up and farm less, for now.

WeeabooPantsuFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Proto-Japonic)
State Religion: The Great Pantsu Totem

-In the middle of the Bronze Age, Japan was still populated by hunter-gatherers, and civilization seemed far away on the timeline. But then, a group of strange, tall, large-eyed people appeared off the coast of Honshu island, their leader carrying a giant wooden totem on his back, which resembled a woman’s lower body dressed in knee socks, skirt and striped panties. They impressed a local tribe with their religion and taught them the ways of agriculture, metal working, writing, sailing, currency, and wearing underwear. In record terms, a small civilization appeared on the archipelago, and now they desire to grow…

-Iron smelting is invented in the Japanese Archipelago by the Wapanese people. Newcomers from Korea, they begin to displace the Jomon and Ainu peoples. They are the first farmers, metal-workers, and have a lot of mainland influences from Chinese culture. The lack of iron does not deter the Wapanese however, and they make good use of what little they have.

-A mixed army of spearmen and archers are used to safeguard the first colonial attempts on Honshu, beating back the hunter-gathers in raids, and often taking the fight back to them.

-The Shimapan Guard is assembled, tasked with guarding the Pantsu Totem. The Great Pantsu Totem is in the central square of Akihabara, surrounded with a fence and having The Shimapan Guard stand around it, not responding to anything unless it’s an apparent threat to the Totem

-An order of elite warrior monks/secret police called The Nice Guys is established. They are celibate (they swear that they shall have no wife other than their Wai-fu) and wear crude straw fedoras. They are also not allowed to shave. Many get around the celibacy rule by inviting young virgin girls to stay at their temples for varied reasons.

-As these newcomers multiply, they construct rice paddies, engage in fishing, worship shimapans, and are wishing to domesticate a small carnivorous mammal. Unfortunately, the closest cat to them lives in Syria. Harvests for some reason during this time are very low for a few years.

-On the Pantsu Totem religion: The Pantsu totem, carried into the land by The Great Prophet Fatto Moefaggu, is believed to be a representation of the lower body of the goddess Wai-fu, who lives in the mind of every male believer and manifests herself differently to everyone. She is believed to be the goddess of love and the protector of humanity. The followers of the religion believe that if they live a virtuous life they will be rewarded with spending the eternal afterlife with their idealized version of the Goddess.
The great Book Of Moe is the primary sacred text of the religion, which describes rituals and commandments to true believers, which include the following:
Every man must make a pilgrimage to the Great Pantsu Totem, where he and other pilgrims must perform rituals and ingest a hallucinogenic substance which gives them visions of their Goddess approaching them. Also, they must acquire a Wai-fu figurine to use for worship.
Every man should find and marry a woman that most resembles their vision of Wai-fu, and the woman must do everything possible to look and act like her husband’s vision of Wai-fu.
Any man, whose advances were rejected by a woman, is encouraged to join the Nice Guys.

Turn 6: 1500 to 1000 BCE

Troy Soundtrack06:06

Troy Soundtrack

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn6PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 6

CreationofCenturiesTurn6CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 6

CreationofCenturiesTurn6ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 6

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41714536&viewfull=1#post41714536

Events of the years 1500 to 1000BCE:

-The usage of Iron has now spread throughout most of the European and Middle Eastern world, save for many peripheries such as Spain, the Great European plain, Scandinavia and the Isle of Man.

-This period, along with the earlier few centuries, is colloquially called the “Dark ages”, it covers the transition from bronze to iron. It also represents the collapse of many bronze using civilizations in favour of ones that migrated from the Asian steppes. Generally speaking, most of the peoples of Eurasia end up migrating from one place to another.

-A Greek King is dismayed to find that his wife has run off with a Hittite noble. He gathers up all of his allies, most of which are in it for the spoils of war. They invade western Anatolia and besiege a city there for ten years. The war ends up consuming both parties in the war, depleting the treasuries and armies. Eventually, the city is captured when the Greeks sneak inside via a horse. They soundly sack the city and murder the entire high nobility of the Hittites, bringing a political crisis. The combination of famines and economic decline weakened it, but this war was the coup de grace.

-The king is pleased. He returns home where he finds his kingdom being destroyed by the Dorian Greeks. The Dorians then proceed to ethnically cleanse his people.

-It is discovered that disruption of trade routes, increasing use of iron, and the Hekla 3 eruption (which cooled the climate for two decades) may be mostly to blame for these migrations and low agricultural yields. The switch to iron also shows that trade has largely decentralized. No trees grow for 20 years it is said.

-Palace economies are collapsing, in favour of decentralized villages. These villages are characterized by use of iron, heavy ploughs and farming equipment made of metal, poor literacy, and use of Indo-European languages. The areas of Greece and Anatolia are prime examples.

-Israel forms during this period, becoming a powerful regional kingdom and able to push out the Egyptians. They remain on good terms with the Phoenicians, on account of common language and control of trade. Some cities in the Phoenician league pay tribute just to be on the safe side. No attempt at invasion is made, given the Phoenicians power.

-Egypt is in the so called the “New Kingdom”. It begins to break down near the end of this period as it is flooded by wars, attempted invasions from “Sea Peoples” and Lybians, plus a loss of the Levant to the Kingdom of Israel. It holds onto its homelands, but never fully recovers.

-The Kassites overrun Babylonia and found a dynasty there. They are then overthrown by the Elamites.

-The Olmecs appear in Mesoamerica. Agricultural societies are also growing in the Andes and parts of the Caribbean and its coasts.

-The Hittite Empire conquers much of the Middle East. By the year 1200 BCE however, they collapse, and the Kingdom of Phygria ends up taking root in central Anatolia.

-Writing is invented in China, along with the Chariot. This is attributed to the so called “Yellow Emperor”.

-The Dorians are on the move. They push into Greece and destroy much of the Bronze Age civilizations there. The art of writing is lost, and disruptions in the bronze trade lead to the adoption of iron as a substitute. Eventually, city states begin to grow throughout Greece, particularly Athens and Corinth.

-Hinduism is now widespread throughout northern India.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-The calendar is invented, and with it, astrology. The priests of Spain chart the heavens and begin to make forecasts and predictions. Sometimes bollocks, sometimes correct. They do manage to end up finding an excuse to build more temples though. Farmers sometimes ask the priests for advice, and in one such temple you can apparently speak to the gods yourself. A ruse is uncovered when a priest is found hiding behind a grate. He was discovered when he smelt the feet of a dung gatherer and vomited.

-Expansion is now increasingly slower. The nobility are increasingly decadent and stagnant along with the priesthood. With a decline in trade, they don’t even have any desire to engage in exploration or financial pursuits. Eventually, they retreat to their villas and palaces, content with watching more peasants being forced to opt into the palace economy when their individual harvest fails, and the market is controlled by the local lord, blackmailing them into giving up their land.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-With the situation deteriorated, the new King announces a series of raids on the peoples to the north. These are Indo-European migrants. They are spreading throughout Europe, displacing many older civilizations. Laubergian warriors raid the smaller tribes and carry off a great deal of loot. Rape and burning of settlements occur as well, and the once weakening borders to the north come under firm control once more. Counter raids are also common, with the result being migration to the south. Eventually, the migrating people are forced to go around Laubergia itself.

-Various warriors and horsemen accompany the migrations south. Whilst agriculture steadily improves again, it fails later on in this period due to more erosion and cool weather. Some lands are permanently abandoned, and the centre of population begins to shift south as famine grips the land. The King attempts to reassert his control over the Southern Laubergians, but succeeds at only securing the eastern half. This portion is gradually extended westwards over time. Other Laubergians continue to settle in the peninsula, moving into the Po valley. However, control over the south Laubergians is temporary at best. Unruly and becoming increasingly influenced by the people they are mixing with, they begin to ally with the Villanovan peoples to assert their own independence. Iron working is introduced by the Villanovans, bringing an end to the Bronze Age. Soon afterwards, trade reaches its minimum.

-Traders march out westwards, looking for others to trade with. They more or less spread around the Alps and Northern Italy, but find little minus agricultural products. Grapes are grown here, and pressed into wines. After some taste tests, the merchants begin selling bronze to these simple farmers and export the wine back to Laubergia. Bronze is declining however, as these farmers seem to cherish bronze only for trinkets. They make their own iron tools and weapons. This wine is popular however, and is drunk by many wealthy people.

-Later, with expansion into the Adriatic, several fishing villages end up growing into ports. The development of a new type of sailing ship also aids with moving goods around, although growth in trade is slow. Few shipwrecks are discovered on the seafloor from this period, and most of them tend to be half empty, carrying wine jars or remains of fish. A little bronze or rusted iron is also seen, evidencing to the tiny volume of trade.

FranceFlag
Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-With poor weather causing some lean years, economic decline brought on by a collapse of trade, and migrations causing all sorts of conflict, when a strong leader is needed most, they do not appear. Many people pack up and leave in search of better lands, whilst the nobility are content to stay in their comfortable homes. The king ends up losing a lot of power during this time of decentralization, and with the advent of iron many villages are fortifying themselves and openly refusing to pay him tribute. His own weakness prevents him from making any actions.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-With spreading use of iron metalworking, the Dorians and Hittites with the Phoenicians end up quickly spreading use of ironworking to here. The Daggerians also invent the first “roads” in the modern sense. A plumb line is used to line up level areas with packed earth, and then laid with large stones. This immensely improves travel, as now you can travel along routes without them degrading into muddy quagmires when wet, or dusty clouds during dry times. Of course, these roads do help, but not so much when repeated invasion eats away at the empire.

-The Emperor declares a retreat to the core lands. Many former towns are abandoned to be conquered by the Hittites as the cost of retaking them would be too great. The new army rearms itself with iron weapons and armour, before pushing off the Hittites in a series of wars. Eventually, the Hittites collapse, but the Kingdom of Phrygia steps in its place. The wars calm down for now, but tensions are still high.

-Money is heavily taxed from the nobility, of course, this results in a series of rebellions and civil wars, further shrinking the borders of the empire. Eventually, the money is used to completely reform the army and buy the loyalty of the peasantry. The nobles lose many of their large landholdings, which are broken up and “redistributed to the people”. The state controls these estates, and uses the finances to rebuild roads, defensive structures, ports, and eventually finish military and naval reforms. This is considered the end of the old Empire.

-Ships now sail to the volcanic islands, scooping up ash and storing them in jars or sacks. It is discovered they can be used as fertilizer, and when introduced to peasants with their new iron tools, agriculture makes a splendid recovery. The cold weather hampers this, but recovery is truly underway by the 11th century. The Dorians are also keen on importing this ash, in return for goods such as olives and olive oil.

-The western part of the straits is colonized by various outcasts, traders, and impoverished farmers. A fort is eventually constructed to help control the straits.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Moving around goods and organizing debts is difficult, and of course, so is bartering. Use of metal ingots is common as a means of exchange, but the Phoenicians are the first to take the creation of such monies seriously. They make bronze, gold, copper, or silver ingots, with a special mark stamped into the side to show that it was supported by the state. Of course, they are worth more or less the actual item itself. It takes a while before stamping the value in it becomes commonplace, and even longer for it to disseminate and become commonly used. However, now that wages and lending exists, the first banks and investment into businesses can occur, with the result that trade is now flourishing after the collapse of the bronze trade.

-The navy begins to shrink and have higher standards. Ships are being fitted with bronze or iron to strengthen them, and more rowers to increase speed in the water. Eventually, large rams are affixed to the front, and enemy vessels are rammed before boarding, as an excellent method of dispatching the enemy. Of course, shipwrecks are discovered more often now.

-A cavalry force is established for protection of the city states. With equipment (save for the horse and bow) paid for by the government, this means that anybody who owns a horse can join the army. Soon enough, this new force becomes the cream of the nobles and sons of the wealthy who prefer war to trade. Travelling fast and lightly, they decimate armies with hit and run attacks. It is no secret that the Kingdom of Israel is terrified of them.

-Bronze and iron is now commonly used by people for armour and weapons. Whilst bronze is on its way out, people still make helmets or breastplates from it, whilst soldiers use iron spears and swords. Of course, military reforms or organization is rare, as the Phoenicians rarely go to war.

-A search for cold resistant crops is underway, as now the merchants realize that such crops will be a boon in colder areas or during winter. They eventually manage to find such strains. They travel around selling them to people, and marginally manage to increase land under cultivation. These strains eventually begin migrating north out of the Phoenicians comfort zone, reaching deep into the Eurasian plains.

-A code of laws is introduced. It is mostly the same as the Babylonians, although translated and edited to fit the peculiarities of a merchant republic.

-Composite bows are one of the goods imported, whilst gold, spices, incense, and other metals precious or not, and alcohols, end up travelling throughout the trade routes of the republic.

-The state begins to collect gold in reserves as a rainy day fund.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-With a need to record maps and the world around with increasing accuracy, the art of geography comes about. Using records salvaged or copied from other peoples, and a library within which to store them, a group of people are selected for the task of documenting the world. Eventually, they manage to create not only an archive on every civilization past and present, but records on the world itself and even a world map.

-The King encourages his subjects to be hospitable, so that foreigners decide to come and live in our kingdom. Of course, when foreign migrants come looking for food, this causes problems. Not only do they speak funny languages and have different gods, but they compete over land. This ends up forcing the unlucky bastards to move once food stocks dwindle. Fights break out, and migration southwards is underway. Trade along the Danube dies as the bronze trade comes to an end.

-The King proclaims Moravia as rightful Mrvian land, which will be colonized after the eastern Danube territory is fully colonized. Unfortunately, it’s already full of people who don’t like being ruled by him.

-Danube expansion becomes less of a priority as people move out into the Pannonia basin, seeking out fertile or warmer lands.

-A new city called Aqinca (OTL Budapest) is built, where the religion of Pržk is has a site of pilgrimage located, the first Pržk church is built here. Of course, it is no city, having a population of a mere two-thousand. It does have a smaller village on the opposite side of the river too, as of yet unnamed. It is said that it is a part of Aqinca as well.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With expansion of these simple farmers now underway, the demand for flint tools is steadily increasing. The first mines and quarries are established, and they even manage to find tiny amount of native copper or iron, cold worked to make trinkets or some sorts of tools. Whilst expensive, it does help to develop trade as minerals are now travelling over the North American continent. Given that these people are also traders, they manage to spread the concept further afield as well.

-Following the traders are the farmers. Of course, given that farming is so useful, some neighbouring tribes are abandoning hunter-gathering in favour of agriculture. The clearing of forests also has contributed to this, and people are increasingly dependent upon grown foods. Rice, and eventually fruits and various vegetables are grown. A shortage of meat is a constant problem, given that the only such animal capable of being domesticated for that purpose is a flock of turkeys in Mesoamerica.

-There are now no doubts that the New World is now in the midst of an agricultural revolution.

ZuluFlag
Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-The Zebra is domesticated for some strange reason. They are too unpredictable to be ridden well, and so centuries of selective breeding must go underway for them to be of any use. Eventually however, zebraback riding is now common amongst the Zulu. With the use of carrying most of their possessions with them and travelling quickly, the first true horde has appeared in Africa. It makes its living by war, in the manner of the men of Eurasia.

-Travelling southwards, many tribes are subjugated or annihilated in a series of wars intended to secure access to the sea. This is managed in the space of a mere generation, but infighting over succession and the lack of any real state apparatus means that gains are just as easy to lose as gained.

-Road building is underway. The low population density makes these almost pointless, but real gains and improvements are noted through simple changes such as packing the ground or erecting signposts. Eventually, a network of simple dirt roads covers the Zulu Kingdom, allowing fast movement of a strike cavalry force. The rest of the time however, the roads lay disused minus for what little trade goes on here.

-Sedentary agriculture is rarely practiced, so selective breeding of grains goes poorly. Most effort is focused into pastoral animals instead, breeding cattle and zebras.

-Understandably, holding onto lands is a problem as a nomadic tribe. A system gradually develops whereby the conquered tribes are to fight for power and prestige with a series of staged wars. Infighting is formalised through this method, being used to ensure the stability of the Kingdom.

WeeabooPantsuFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Proto-Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-No culture is complete without their art. Great attention is to be dedicated to development of the arts, first religious (people's renditions of Wai-fu), but then it spreads to other genres and styles. Art is used to impress the more peaceful of the primitive locals into submitting themselves unto the Great Wapanese Empire. Visual art develops during this time, with a focus on strangely large eyes, dyed hair, pale skin reminiscent of the original hunter-gather peoples, and often overdeveloped secondary sexual attributes.

-Emperor Shinji I (The First) Moefaggu, distant heir of the Great Prophet and first Emperor Fatto Moefaggu, starts an ambitious campaign to unite the people of the Honshu island under his rule.

-Of course, most scholars realize that these early tales are of an island dominated by petty kings that eventually unified. The Moefaggu are not above rewriting inconvenient records however, in order to prove to people that they are divine rulers.

-Of course, military force is used as well. Although iron is scarce, spears can be reliably mass produced, whilst swords are kept for the elite nobility.

-The state religion becomes colloquially known as “Waifuism”.

-The Nice Guys are to be tasked with internal security and religious propaganda; they should seek and convert non-believers and those weak of faith close to home and in newly-acquired territories.

-Wapanese Macaque monkeys are tamed and kept as pets by the Wapanese. A story is eventually written about them:
While out walking, a crab finds a rice ball. A sly monkey persuades the crab to trade the rice ball for a persimmon seed. The crab is at first upset, but when she plants and tends the seed a tree grows that supplies abundant fruit. The monkey agrees to climb the tree to pick the fruit for the crab, but gorges himself on the fruit rather than sharing it with the crab. When the crab protests, the monkey hurls hard, unripe fruit at her. The shock of being attacked causes the crab to give birth just before she dies.
The crab's children seek revenge on the monkey. With the help of several allies — a chestnut, a mortar, a bee, and a cow pie — they go to the monkey's house. The chestnut hides himself on the monkey's hearth, the bee in the water pail, the cow pie on the dirt floor, and the usu on the roof. When the monkey returns home he tries to warm himself on the hearth, but the chestnut strikes the monkey so that he burns himself. When the monkey tries to cool his burns at the water bucket, the bee stings him. When the startled monkey tries to run out of the house, the cow pie moves and trips him and the mortar falls from the roof, killing the monkey.

-With agriculture and iron working now spreading throughout the so called “Honshu”, rival polities are appearing as minor nuisances to the Emperor. The biggest losers are the hunter-gatherers, who are forced to migrate north into the wooded areas or to give up their former lifestyle.

Notes: Each turn will now last 250 years instead of 500. The next year will be 750 BCE as opposed to 1000 BCE.

Turn 7: 1000 to 750 BCE

Rome Total War Music- Divinitus01:50

Rome Total War Music- Divinitus

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn7PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 7

CreationofCenturiesTurn7CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 7

CreationofCenturiesTurn7ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 7

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41775258&viewfull=1#post41775258

Events of the years 1000 to 750BCE:

-Various Indo-Aryan kingdoms pop up in and out of existence in India. Panchala, Kuru, Kosala, and Videha.

-The Zhou now rules China, although many of the stories told of it are often exaggerated or distorted. Eventually at the end of this period it is ransacked by barbarians and splits apart into a series of petty warring kingdoms.

-A political crisis results in the breakup of the Kingdom of Israel. It is thought it is due to a succession crisis, although the main source of information is full of contradictions.

-The city state of Sparta is founded, and the first gold hats are also invented.

-The prophet Zoroaster creates Zoroastrianism. His philosophical influence spreads throughout the Middle East along with his religion. It has a major influence on the religious beliefs of the people of the Levant, including Semitic religions.

-The Israeli Kingdom and Egypt begin a long relative decline as foreign powers invade, along with internal political problems leading to civil unrest. Egyptian cities eventually are abandoned and much of their civilization and culture is lost.

-The Celtic language and culture is now spreading throughout Europe, with ironworking technology spreading into the parts of Europe further displaced from trade routes. By 750BCE, the Celts and Iron are now widespread in the Isle of Man, Iberia, and Germania.

-Two new groups of peoples form in Italy. The Hellenistic Estrucans, and the Laubergian Estrucans. The former speaks Italic languages and has some mild influence from Hellenistic culture, settling mostly on the west coast and Corscia. The latter has more Laubergian influences, most notably in religious faith. They predominantly are settled in the Po valley and throughout the northwest, bordering Laubergia.

-The first historic solar eclipse is recorded in China.

-The English of the isle of Mann begin to be displaced by the invading Celts. Their culture and religion begins to melt away.

-The Olmecs begin to decline, with many urban centres becoming depopulated.

-The first Olympic Games are held in Greece, between various city states eager to compete and show off their own states achievements. The Greeks also adopt the Phoenician alphabet (modifying it heavily) and establish colonies in Sicily, Italy, and Anatolia. They heavily influence the Etruscan peoples, particularly in the south.

-The horse trade, going south from the Ukraine, is well established and is now considerably profitable.

-A group of Estrucans and various other peoples in seven villages around a river decide to form a city state. They name it Rome.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Italic)
State Religion: Four elements

-Ironworking is introduced to Iberia, and quickly becomes used for a variety of weapons and armours. Soon it even becomes used for shovels, ploughs, axes, and other such simple tools. Forests are cleared more easily, the land broken up for cultivation, and agriculture generally improves.

-Horseback riding is also introduced, with nobles now breeding horses and riding them. Sometimes they go to war as well. Wars are pretty slow going through, as most nobles are concerned with living comfortable lives on their estates. The King demands a shake-up, but nothing really happens. He is quietly ignored.

-Sailing expeditions begin to travel further afield. Some reach down the west coast of Africa and discover an island full of a most savage people. They eat unrefined grains, live in thickets and caves, and wear furs. They use flint tools and have no farms or large buildings. Other islands are also spotted, but are found to be uninhabited. They are very warm.

-Berber peoples are also discovered in Northern Africa. They know some tastes of civilization, and are happy to trade. Ships also travel north and eventually re-establish permanent contact with the Mannish and French. Agricultural goods, with some metals such as tin, copper, and iron are moved.

-Foreign ways are tolerated considerably now, so much so to the extent that now Mannish religions are allowed in Spain, although it’s mainly practiced by traders uninterested with preaching.

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Zillamaster55 – Tribe of Laubergians
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Proto-Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-The raids on the north expand, but are less frequent. Of course, this does nothing but annoy the inhabitants. They eventually begin to construct large hillfort defensive structures and whenever the Laubergians arrive, they run inside. Since the raids are not meant to capture land, gradually the Laubergian raids bring back less loot or goods. No tribute is demanded either, so people take to either fleeing or fighting.

-The Laubergians struggle to create a system to keep agriculture in check, trying to find various crops that are good for varying forms of topsoil. They fail horribly, and are forced to replant trees, and abandon depleted soils until it recovers. Walls are made to try and prevent erosion, whilst ditches are dug to drain off water. The population has still risen beyond the carrying capacity of the land however, and many people continue to migrate or try their luck at other opportunities as agriculture fails. Many smaller farmers are eventually swallowed up by great magnates who have the resources to maintain the land and a surplus that allows them to blackmail small farmers.

-There is a great focus on trying to improve trade, but with little imperative from above, there is no clear idea of what to do. Eventually, roads are packed, ports rebuilt, and traders encouraged to travel further, but this does little to boost trade. It still remains on a local agricultural basis with some small movement of luxury goods.

-In one desperate attempt, the influence of the priests is curbed. Many of them lose their lands, tithes are removed and swapped to a voluntary basis, and many temples now must pay a tax. Needless to say, this represents a virtual coup, and a civil war erupts before it is quickly quelled. The great lords have now risen to power. Although the removal of the taxes allowed more gains for the peasantry, the lords used the civil war as an excuse to grab power. Eventually, money falls out of usage, and the poor farming opportunities results in a decay into a feudal system. They keep their own armies, own much of the land lost by bankrupted farmers, and are in favour of decentralization.

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Eli45 – France
Capital: Paris
Culture: French (Italic)
State Religion: Frogism

-As the Kingdom is met by various Celtic tribes, eventually the political system begins to break down. These tribes eat away at the lands of the Kingdom and eventually displace the ruling elite. Civil wars and infighting makes it worse as the ruling dynasty becomes ineffectual through inbreeding and an inability to adapt to changing times. Their people still survive however, their culture and religious beliefs having spread considerably. Some of them move around to settle new places, whilst abandoning old homes.

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KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Proto-Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-With populations rising in urban areas and farms needing ever more irrigation, sanitation and water supplies are of utmost priority. A sloped bridge several kilometres long is constructed, in order to supply water to the capital. It is such a success that the government embarks on the construction of several more, and soon they are built throughout many cities. Water supplies improve drastically, even for rural peoples, who can build smaller scale versions for agricultural estates.

-The Emperor realizes that he needs a proper war to shake things up. Motherwell rules. He assembles a fleet of frenzied soldiers, paid with the promise of loot in Egypt. A large force is sent and they easily ransack the weakened country. The Pharaoh is deposed and a client state is established with the express intent of funnelling taxes to the Empire of Dagger. Using this money, large scale public works projects and military reformation can take place. Of course, the Egyptians rebel often, and the country is becoming impoverished through years of neglect, war, and crushing taxes.

-The Cretan reforms are introduced. The army is now a citizen’s militia, rather than using the armies of the nobility. The citizens are raised during times of war, although they have to pay for their own equipment and lodging most of the time. The nobles become the heavy cavalry and officers of these armies. To allow such a thing, many horses are imported from the steppes of the north, and soon enough a reliable trade is now underway supplying well bred horses to the civilized peoples of the south.

-A peasant’s bank system is introduced. A farmer can apply to borrow some money from one in return for agricultural tools, seeds, animals, etc with the purpose of repaying it back at a later date. This operates well in the countryside, and interestingly enough, smaller families tend to use this system more often, and families in which only one child lives long enough to inherit the land tend to use it the most. High interest rates also tend to cripple many farmers, or disincentivize many borrowers.

-Merchants quickly steal the idea of the land bank as a means of borrowing and lending money amongst themselves. Both systems still suffer from a lack of reliability in business however, and one way of cheating banks emerges. One could borrow money for a ship, take out insurance on it, let it sink, and then claim the money.

-With slaves caught or bought in Egypt, a road building programme emerges. Large, straight, well drained, and well maintained roads are constructed between the major cities of the empire, and are readily adopted by travellers and the army for rapid movement.

-Diplomats are sent to the King of Phrygia to call him a “wannabe hobnocker”. Enraged, he allows raiding parties to visit the empire. Most don’t penetrate very far, and tend to only focus on the smaller villages.

-Ad-hoc diplomats, tending to be former and experienced merchants, are sent throughout Greece and Italy. They manage to acquire permission to dock the empires naval vessels there, and sometime later, the naval sailors also enjoy visiting the brothels at these docks. Some even desert. Finding people to work in the navy is difficult, although a practice has emerged where some men are willing to press-gang them into service, in return for money of course.

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Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Some merchants, record-keepers, writers, and other such peoples are demanding new materials to write upon. Somebody has the bright idea of shredding old rags of cloth, then mixing it in water before setting it in a frame. Once complete, it creates a strong paper perfectly suited to writing on. Suitable fibres can be from almost any source imaginable, and since it can be recycled and is made from typically waste products, this helps with lowering the price. Although still somewhat costly, it does help make it accessible to most merchants and state bureaucrats, who use it extensively for documentation. Some survive for centuries before sitting in museums or being recopied. Cloth production and cultivation of plants also expands.

-With this finally in order, a giant library is constructed in Byblos. The merchants meeting decided on a vast library to store all financial records of note, histories, philosophies, epics, and other noteworthy tales for posterity. Anybody who arrives in the city, is duty bound to bring his text to the library so it may be copied.

-A bureau de change, where foreign monies can be exchanged for Phoenician ones, is established. It is mainly run by a guild of jewellers and goldsmiths, who recognize the importance of measuring weights, checking the purity of metals, and overall exchanging them. The earlier reserves set up come in handy. By checking the flow of metal reserves, one can also crudely measure the trade surplus or deficit of the trade league.

-Colonies are established in Lybia and Sicilia. Some of these traders meet Greek merchants along the way, and thus trade routes can be set up and expanded. During these 250 years, the sphere of the near east quickly expands west. Traders are now travelling as far as the Balearic isles and Southern France.

-Trade routes now also extend to Italy, whereby their lovely wines and other agricultural goods can be bought. Olives are also popular, along with olive oil. Eventually, luxury goods from the East are now travelling to Northern Italy often. Similar happens with the Greeks, where trade is expanding now that the city states have settled down and are visiting Italy often in conjunction with the Phoenicians.

-Relations with Israel improve after taxes on the happy merchants are lowered. They are grateful allies, although the decline and breakup of their kingdoms means that warfare with the Phoenicians is unwise anyways now.

-The individual cities are still mostly independent, although the establishment of the library and the metal reserves in Byblos means that this city is starting to predominate over the others.

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Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Proto-Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-Improved agricultural methods are being introduced to the Kingdom. Some are piecemeal inventions popping up randomly, but some are foreign imports. They include iron ploughs, improved animal harnesses, and the proliferation of village blacksmiths, specialized in their trade. Somebody also has the smart idea of using bonemeal, ground up fish, manure, and other such rotted items as a form of fertilizer to improve yields. Of course, this requires extra imports, and so barges now travel up the Danube, full of rotted fish bought cheaply from fishermen on the coasts.

-State taxes are introduced for the first time on a systematic and wide scale. They are levied on everybody, taking ten percent of all their earnings. A new type of farmer is introduced called the "Prtaksz". These farmers are exempt from the tax, on the condition that they produce food which is bought for the same price by the state. This ensures a minimum price for food, and encourages them to expand production. Naturally, many people wish to join this group, rapidly progressing into minor gentry.

-The king, seeing his subjects expanding into the Pannonia basin, claims it as rightful Mrvian land. He also asks the peoples of Moravia to join his kingdom. They refuse, preferring instead to be ruled by themselves. They, or their leaders or any particular class for that matter, refuse because of the lack of incentive to join.

-Diplomatic contact is made with the Greek city states, which recognize the existence of the Mrvians, and are willing to trade. Some even offer the rotted fish and bones that the Mrvians seem so keen on importing.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With hunting becoming problematic with the spread of rice paddies and basic agriculture (fruits, vegetables, and trees are now being cultivated or kept in groups), somebody has the bright idea of inventing traps. Using ropes, boxes, strings, sharp sticks, bows, and other sorts of crude contraptions, many wild animals can be caught and eaten. People have also started to breed dogs, given that they are the only domesticated animals around. They are bred for a whole variety of working jobs, and even for meat. Some are also bred to be large and to drag travois (a type of frame on which to carry things) around.

-Expansion of these Neolithic farmers continues, although without much impetus from above, little but the same happens. Some little trade and pathways are made, villages grow and split as they spread, and trade routes grow, but nothing much else happens. There is no clear direction as to expansion either, and now asserting political control is increasingly difficult as you must travel further and further to maintain borders against annoyed hunters or rival villages.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-Bronzeworking is finally introduced to the Kingdom of the Zulu, mostly through interaction with traders and increasing demand for suitable armour and weapons. It is mostly ceremonial at first, before slowly trickling down throughout the soldiery as a means of making weapons that aren’t made of flint or bone.

-A special bodyguard is formed of heavy zebra cavalry. Their role is to crush rebellions and internal dissent, so also acting as a form of secret police as well. They are brutal, killing revolting people before they even rise, and keeping the vassals in check. They grow in power and eventually displace the nobility, working almost as a personal arm of the king.

-The kings focus on centralizing power in his hands further drives this, and the state eventually becomes himself and his bodyguard. The bodyguard even form the first bureaucracy, taking some taxes for themselves and living considerable lives of luxury. Of course, most places they take over are Neolithic or using Bronze. Expansion is still somewhat restricted by existing geography, so many take to burning forests or villages whenever they get in the way of the zebra hordes.

-The state becomes increasingly stable. Art is encouraged, but it is merely a passing resemblance to existing art, with little innovation or boundary pushing.

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YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Proto-Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-Increasing architectural sophistication is now being utilized. Despite the heavy presence of timber and skilled working with it, there is still a problem of making truly strong buildings that not only can withstand heavy assault by man or weather, but are also fireproof and impressive. Large quarries are set up along with dedicated masonry workshops to build and maintain strong stone structures. Large temples/schools are constructed, along with basic roads and walled fortifications. The Wapanese are of course lazy, and tend to build their fortifications into hills rather than making tall and thick stone walls.

-Fishing and trading ships are being used to help transport soldiers along the west coast as expansion proceeds smoothly. Some rival chiefs or villages resist, but are eventually overpowered. The seas on the other sides of the island are well known. The rulers wish to expand their holdings here, seeing control of coasts as vital.

-With cold climate much of the year, especially to the north, fishing becomes an integral source of food. Around this time crabs and octopi become part of the Wapanese cuisine.

-A legend appears, in which the evil octopus god Tentakuru wanted to marry Wai-fu, and when she refused he raped her. To avenge her, the first Emperor Fatto Moefaggu had slain the godly beast, but Wai-fu was already defiled and gave birth to millions of ugly children which now live in the sea as octopi. Believers are encouraged to catch, kill and eat the octopi to further avenge their goddess. Of course, the Octopus has an extensive range and over three hundred species. Nonetheless, this doesn’t stop the Wapanese from trying to eradicate them.

-With local lords the only ones powerful enough to build fortifications, they are well placed to rule individual villages. A feudal system is encouraged and develops, with the Emperor seeing it as a way to expand quickly. Eventually, small stone forts are popping up everywhere, and peasants pay their lords a tithe in the form of rice. They are also obliged to serve in his armies and the Emperor grants his vassals land in return for military service. Some manage to get away with an informal “cowards tax” where they pay somebody else to fight on their behalf. This class eventually is named the Samurai, with the lords being Daimyos. They are still weak however, given that the Empire is small and the Emperor powerful through use of a strong personal army and extensive road network for rapid movement, alongside his secret police “The Nice Guys”.

-Missionaries begin to spread outwards, even beyond the borders of the Empire. They seek to spread their faith to the unconverted heathens on the rest of the island. They have little luck with the Ainu or Jomon, who tend to kill them. Success is more likely on the rest of the island amongst the settled peoples. Eventually, expansion northward halts as it is too cold or desolate to find willing converts who don’t want to kill them. They do wildly successfully in the west though, converting many outside of the Empire, although raids by Samurai and growing power of the Empire means that by converting many can keep their lands and rule as beforehand in much the same way.

-One of the Nice Guys writes an illustrated story about four Waifus sitting around, drinking tea and playing music. It becomes widely popular and the author writes a sequel, where one more Waifu joins the club. Since literacy levels are still low and copying texts by hand is hard, mass readings of these stories are held in schools, temples and monasteries. They also use a strange Chinese invention, where text is recorded on wooden or bamboo strips.

-Following this publication, scholars argue whether there is one Wai-fu or many, and they come to the conclusion that there are many Waifus, who are part of the one great Wai-fu, that are responsible for different aspects of life and nature. Waifuism becomes polytheistic, which also aids with conversion somewhat as the faith can adapt to local peculiarities.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Irreligion

-General Ulysses, the chieftain of a large tribe, marched with an army to the western side of the gulf. Through negotiations with the leader of several other tribes, they massed a large enough army to wrest control of the gulf and the land to its west.

-The Xerxes tribe, having farmed Manioc, fished, hunted, and even dabbled in trade and contact with various other peoples since time immemorial, are settling down. They are the first people in the area to invent the concept of using stone in building, using quarries to gather stone, flint, and other such basic minerals for use. They use the stones to create small mounds around their ancestral lands, with low walls of rubble and dirt. With men stationed on top, they can ward away many angry foreigners.

-To impress the tribes and maintain control, parades of the best warriors are held in the central village where the chief lives. Using this show of force, he can very often intimidate his lesser and blackmail visitors. This is used to force tribes nearby to allow traders and travellers to use paths without molestation, and to maintain them for future use.

-Trade routes eventually are clearcut and the pathways clearly defined as a means of improving travel and by extension trade. This is still very much a Neolithic society however, with low population densities. People rarely settle down or store food in bulk, but they do at least have the ability to grow manioc. Unfortunately, whilst it is a good staple crop, it possesses less calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and fibre than most grains (maize, rice, wheat). Cyanide poisoning can occur without proper processing of toxic varieties too. After harvesting, it rots quickly.

Turn 8: 750 to 500 BCE

Ancient Roman Music - Synaulia I05:53

Ancient Roman Music - Synaulia I

Turn music

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Political map of Turn 8

CreationofCenturiesTurn8CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 8

CreationofCenturiesTurn8ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 8

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41812187&viewfull=1#post41812187

Events of the years 750 to 500BCE:

-Anglican paganism begins to die out in the Mannish isles, along with the English culture, as Celts displace it. The original inhabitants begin to migrate to Iberia; it is thought that some of them directly assisted in the formation of Portugal, or so the stories say.

-The Assyrians create a massive empire, laying waste to the Elamite Empire, Israel, Syria, and Babylon. They slowly subjugate the lands around Phoenicia as well, before invading it outright. They are in turn replaced by the Neo-Babylonian Empire, followed by the Persians. Cyrus the Great is responsible for the initial growth and reform of the Persian Empire, which stretches from Anatolia and Egypt into the far Indus. He agrees to however leave the aged Empire of Dagger and the city of Byblos alone along with some Greek cities, due to exhaustion and the promise of tribute from the Greek cities, some of which allied with him. He is forced to suppress revolts anyways, and cannot dedicate too much resources to a prolonged conflict.

-The hanging gardens of Babylon are constructed.

-Confucius formulates his ethical system of Confucianism, which proves highly influential in China.

-The Persians declare Zoroastrianiam to be the state religion of the Empire, it soon becoming widespread and one of the first truly successful major religions. It later goes on to heavily influence Jewish priests living under the Babylonian and then Persian Empires whilst Israel is under foreign rule. They eventually finalize their liturgy and organized belief systems. When the Persians conquer Israel, some Jews move back and construct a large temple, and begin to preach their variant of the ancient Semitic religions as the true faith.

-The Kushites invade Egypt and displace the former rulers, and in turn are displaced by more foreign invaders, the last of which are the Persians. Hieroglyphs also begin to fall out of usage in favour of Demotic, a script easier to work with and used with paper.

-Phoenician papermaking is adopted by the Persians, with it later spreading throughout the Empire. It is considerably rapid, with discovery of a cache of government papers found in the Indus as early as c.470 BCE. It continues to spread over successive centuries.

-A climate change affects all the Bronze Age cultures in Europe with colder and wetter climate, and tribes from the Scandinavian Nordic Bronze Age cultures are pushed downwards into the European continent. Ironworking is introduced to Scandinavia at around the same time that these migrations take place. Whilst having little impact outside of Scandinavia, it is enough to create problems in central and northern Europe.

-The Greek colonies are now rapidly growing, with the colonized area being named Magna Graecia. Phoenician colonies are also growing at around the same time as well, albeit further to the south. It is during this time that the Phalanx comes into military use. Thales of Miletus and a series of other philosophers also appear, marking the start of Greek philosophy. Athens introduces democratic reforms,

-Trade suffers temporarily in the Mediterranean due to the raiding activities of the Empire of Dagger. A heavy response from the Greek city states eventually forces them to back down. This process reoccurs with the rise and wane of various Empires, although the Persians manage to restore peace and prosperity after many miserable years.

-Gautama Buddha attains Enlightenment, and begins his ministry. He founds Buddhism in India. In India it is also the Age of the Mahajanapadas. 16 great kingdoms rule India: Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, and Kamboja.

-First archaeological surveys of the Arabian peninsula by Babylonian King Nabonidus.

-Sunshu Ao (孫叔敖), China's first hydraulic engineer, creates an enormous artificial reservoir by damming a river for a massive irrigation project while employed in the service of King Zhuang of Chu (died 591 BC).

-Lost-wax casting is spread to Ancient Greece.

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Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Four elements

-The Spanish one day realize that knowing mathematics might help them a lot in day to day life. A philosopher finds out that the sides of any right-angle triangle obey the rule that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the other two sides, thus allowing one to calculate the length of a side given that you know the lengths of the other two. A student takes note and begins to think heavily on this, looking more closely at the implications of this theorem. Later on, he suggests that you cannot express a real number using a ratio of a/b (where a and b are integers and b is not zero), when he is examining his former work. Doing this manages to piss off the inventor of the theorem so much he calls his former student “A fucking retard” and then drowns him in the sea. These discoveries still spread however, and both men are widely venerated for their achievements.

-Trade routes continue to expand, especially with the newly established Portugal. They now stretch as far as the Jutland peninsula, and eastwards around Iberia. Beyond common goods movement and little initiative from above, minus rather vague directions, there is no real improvement beyond natural expansion. However, trade is now becoming linked with the Phoenicians and Greeks, even some Estrucan traders and the Celts. With this in mind, the Iberian Peninsula is now drifting into the sphere of the major world, with trade routes reopening and ports growing along the North African and Iberian coasts. Ships can finally stop off at Phoenician and Greek colonies for supplies and to sell goods brought from as far abroad as Scandinavia. Of course, this means they can access not only Phoenician and Greek markets now, but their libraries, philosophers, and soldiers.

-Traders also try to get down the coast of Africa, but few places to resupply, hostile natives, and poor weather means it’s impossible to get further south than the uninhabited coastal islands off the west coast. Well, on their way back they discover hunter-gatherer nomads on the island, who worship large dogs. They gift the sailor’s wild canary birds to take home.

-Iberian paganism continues to seep into Spain, mainly through traders and aggressive evangelizing by Portuguese missionaries. The old religion seems to be increasingly sidelined and forgotten, much to the annoyance of strong adherents to the old ways. Inter-religious violence begins to rise, and various members of the nobility shift into action to convert or play off competing interests. The new faith, a Mannish import, takes root in the coastal towns and cities. It is no surprise that their ornaments are made of tin, a metal from the homeland of Mann.

-Similar to the Daggerians in the prior centuries, early banks are set up to lend out seeds, tools, and other agricultural services to farmers. Investment into them is also possible. These banks are most popular among Mannish immigrants, mostly composed of entrepreneurial types. They invest into land and begin to make considerable fortunes from supplying coastal cities. The rise of trade also allows them to grow wine and olives for commercial purposes, and these crops are popular. Of course, their money buys influence, and they begin to displace the Spanish and compete with the nobility for power. Some cities are even becoming Iberian and speaking a hybrid of English and Spanish.

-As expansion of lands becomes essential to maintaining influence, those who feel threatened by the immigrants and rise of Iberian paganism decide to expand outwards, without direct approval from the King for wars. This weakens his power as infighting between different factions boil underneath his Kingdom, but does help expand the Spanish domain, with them rapidly spreading inland to conquer and quickly displace people. This brings them into conflict with the Celts however.

-Somebody also realizes that making sure doctors aren’t whackos is wise as well. Limited legislation and policing results in doctors clearly intended to con people out of money are jailed or have their bollocks cut off if they refuse to pay a fine. Many others escape by the as of yet unexplained placebo effect, but at least it prevents people from being conned, and encourages doctors to work out how the body works. Cutting up humans is looked down on; so many try to work out how humans work by cutting up cows, monkeys, and cats.

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Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-Warriors who are not in combat are now made to turn back to hardworking jobs instead of being professional soldiers. Gradually, the warrior class melts away into just those able to afford it (such as the nobility), and most soldiers become standard levies, drummed up whenever a war goes on.

-In order to help fertilize soil, trade links to the south are set up to acquire valuable manures, fish, volcanic ash, and other such useful additives to the soil to induce fertility. Smaller farmers are unable to afford it however, and so often rent their land from a landowner or engage in communal farming where they can pitch in to buy the needed goods.

-As the age of the warrior class ends, a new one emerges. The humble blacksmith is now more necessary than ever if the world is to keep humming. Tools, weapons, nails, bridles, belts and bolts are all manufactured by these hardworking men. They rise in social status, and eventually form guilds, where they can take on apprentice blacksmiths and look out for their common interests. Naturally, this also results in a labour cartel and good influence throughout Laubergia.

-The rulers of this country begin to increasingly reform the civil and military administration as his society becomes increasingly complex and introduced to foreign influences. He disbands the old tribal system and reforms Laubergia as the Kingdom of Laubergia. The first King is named “Otto the Great”. He declares that the land of the priests shall be given to the smiths for their hard work, claiming the former to be decadent and degenerate. The smiths become an incredibly powerful class, and lift restrictions on most other trades to encourage amateur blacksmiths to go elsewhere. They keep a tight grip on control of the blacksmithing industry however, which eventually extends into mining and foreign trade involving it.

-The old religion begins to fracture and decentralize as the priests weaken and the state is uncaring about it. Eventually most villages end up doing religion their own way.

-Hearing of the Phoenicians, Greeks, and Estrucans success with banking, the goldsmiths of the blacksmiths guild are given the right to set up and operate banking institutions for the lending of credit and to facilitate investment. Naturally, this results in giving them a lot of control over finances as well, and eventually even wars. The successors to Otto are lesser men. Manipulated by the guild they end up going on a series of wars to the south, expanding their holdings. Many foreign blacksmiths are killed in the wars, and the guild extends their control to here as well.

-In direct opposition is the high nobility, characterized by heavy land ownership and agricultural wealth. They are hostile to the blacksmiths, often setting up secret smithies or trying to weaken their powerbase. The monopoly on iron mines and relatively low production of iron, along with low trade volumes assures the guilds stability however. The nobles eventually take to controlling the forests themselves, trying to control timber supplies needed by blacksmiths. Heavy price inflation of timber occurs, and many people begin to switch to building in stone.

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KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-In order to help increase comfort when riding a horse, and to improve fighting in battle, the first function built saddles and stirrups are invented. They are by all means crude, with a small wooden frame with a felt or leather covering as a saddle, and leather or rope loops for the stirrups. The first protection for horse’s feet, where leather padding is placed, is also introduced. No metal parts exist yet. The cavalry of this empire is much improved however. They start to heavily raid Phrygia before the Kingdom eventually falls apart. One bizarre treatment is to steal women and to pour molten gold into their mouths.

-To also avoid retribution by powerful people, the Empire takes to naval raids on Magna Graecia and even some Phoenician colonies. They respond by building thick and high stone walls, and gradually the raiders are forced to prey on less well developed colonies further afield as time goes on. Pirates eventually attack them along with other navies, and the lack of resupply bases helps increase attrition rates. Eventually the Greeks in the motherland decide to put a stop to this, and raise large navies to deter the Daggerians. With control of naval bases and increasing wealth, the Greeks are able to fund their navies well.

-The Emperor asks the Greeks to politely stop expansion in Anatolia. When he hears of the many replies of all the varied city states, some outright refuse, whilst others are more conciliatory. He spits in the faces of the Spartan delegates, who return home to raise an army. They wait for a fleet to land in their Italian colony of Tarentum, where they ambush the raiders and slaughter all of them. This happens three times before the raiders stop coming.

-The Empire sends colonists to the Balearic Islands. With low supplies, hostile Phoenicians, and Greeks constantly harassing supply ships however, the islands remain rooted in subsistence agriculture for a long while until a port is established. The native inhabitants are found to be excellent slingers, trained from childhood to sling stones or metal balls with considerable force and accuracy. They are willing to be mercenaries, albeit demanding good wages and holiday schemes.

-With funds stretched and naval ambitions thwarted for now, the Empire takes to improving fortifications along the eastern borders of their empire. Wars with the Phrygians initially results in a long stalemate, but the Empire wins out in the end due to their well-timed cavalry reforms. The Kingdom of Lydia succeeds them, which is too involved in eastern wars to defeat the Empire of Dagger. The Persians eventually wipe out the Lydians and establish a satrap as ruler of the new kingdom. The Empire itself went to war with Dagger, and took many provinces before slowing down as the Greeks and Daggerians began to stop fighting and become more openly hostile towards the Persians. The defensive works would take years to reduce, and the tired Cyrus sued for peace.

-Refugees end up settling the Balearic Islands and southern Thrace in increasing numbers in order to escape warfare.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Now that paper is more common, some merchants are finding it annoying to use cumbersome ink blocks and reeds, especially as they can be messy and fragile. Somebody decides to boil a feather and shave off the feathery part, before cutting a notch in it. A liquid based ink is also developed, made from soot and/or tar. Wax tablets are also invented for note-taking, which can be scratched into with a stylus. With these inventions, merchants are starting to place ever more importance on literacy, putting their children into religious schools. They not only become literate, but begin to learn philosophy, and most shocking of all, begin to ask painful questions. Greeks often visit Byblos and vice versa, seeking to exchange thoughts.

-Bad news for the Phoenicians. As power and trade begins to gradually shift west, the Phoenicians are still heavily decentralized. They do not bother much about protecting a far off city which has little power over them. The Assyrians attempt to conquer the Phoenicians, but initial wealth and strength allows them to initially deter the Assyrians, before then they have a massive invasion and attempt to reduce the city of Tyre. It takes a gruelling half decade before it eventually falls. The Assyrians cannot celebrate their victories however, as soon afterwards they collapse and are replaced by a Neo-Babylonian empire.

-Later on, the Neo-Babylonian Empire forms and begins to push on Phoenicia, hungry for conquests. The cities attempt to repel the Babylonians with the Seher'Seher and peasant levies, using the peasants as a distraction. They try to let them retreat but many of them rout anyways due to poor discipline. The Seher’Seher manages to harass the Babylonian supply lines and enact a Fabian policy, gradually wearing down the enemy army. They destroy isolated small enemy elements with the cavalry, but stay clear of pitched battles. A book is written on the subject by an angry Babylonian, called “On the coward’s war”. The Phoenicians write a similar book, but titled “The art of metagaming".

-The Babylonians respond with large scale sieges and pillaging the countryside, forcing people to take up residence within the city walls or to flee by sea. The colonies are all too happy to accept these refugees, with them not only swelling in size but power. Trade and commerce is badly hurt by the wars, and several cities are eventually lost to the Babylonians. It is but a pyrrhic victory. The Babylonians are forced to pull back from the war after the Persians invade their homeland. War exhaustion eventually brings it tumbling down, and the Phoenicians, whilst they manage to recover, will take many years for their Levantine cities to recover, some of which were completely depopulated and ravaged by the wars.

-The Persians eventually reach the Phoenician cities, and in more campaigns manage to reduce even more cities. The Persians also start rebuilding the old ones, and eventually abandon their attempts to take the hard core of Phoenicia when the city of Byblos and their navies prove impossible to crack. That is, for the time being. Many old cities have been successively lost through salami tactics, and three powerful empires with much initial impetus are able to take more land each time until the Phoenicians are left with a rump state. Their colonies are doing successfully, away from all the war and taking in many refugees. Cyprus meanwhile is conquered after a coup by the Greeks is contested by the Persian Empire. The invasion is never fully completed, with it split in half between the two parties, each wishing to assure Cyprus they are there to restore their independence. They remain for centuries.

-To resolve these issues, a new reform is drafted and pushed through. Many of the tired cities weary of war agree to it if it means security, at the cost of giving away from freedoms. Every city now must elect representatives from the male, landowning/wealthy population, which then not only rule in each city, but in Byblos as well at the central senate. Concerns can be issues which are binding to all cities. Given the preferential treatment of Byblos, this is an excuse to bribe these men (who are unpaid nobles or merchants sons) and influence them into levying taxes and organizing a standing army for the protection of the cities. Whilst this takes time, the Persians see it as threat enough that Cyrus the Great agrees to a treaty. He will allow them their independence in return for an annual tribute to the Persian Empire. He even allows them to resettle some of the ruined cities, although with populations in the mere hundreds they will unlikely recover.

-Receipts come into common usage, as a means of ensuring that a merchant will compensate somebody for goods of a poor quality. Eventually it is integrated into law, and is more humane than previous punishment. If a merchant was found guilty of selling poor merchandise, his nose was drilled through as punishment. With increasing international trade dependent on a working legal system to ensure trade can run smoothly, this makes foreigners ever happier to trade.

-As the colonies expand, there is now settlement in Algeria and Tunisia, although they manage to discover a group of native inhabitants speaking their own language who are very perplexed at the arrival of these foreigners rudely settling in their lands. To the far north, Phoenicians meet friendlier people, and gift them paper making tools in return for their fine hospitality.

-A strange new development comes about. The Phoenicians introduce a system where you can buy part of a business, where the local government will keep track of your share. The owner of the business is obligated to pay out some of his profits to these “shareholders” in return for investment into his business. It is already piecemeal in existence, but the recent legislation change has formalized it and means that outside of a single city, it is recognized by all people in agreement with that law. It expands upon on the earlier peasant banks, some of which rent out land now. Income is deathly low however, so only people with a great deal of land or large businesses can afford to get the ready connections and willing backers to develop their business.

-Slave usage expands from all of the ongoing wars, many of which are bought by merchants or nobles to work for them. Of course they don’t need paying, which is one way the wealthy can avoid the rising cost of “free” labour.

DrslavaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-Mathematics is formally introduced, mostly by learned men needing to figure out ways to record numbers and do complicated sums that require more than their fingers and toes to count with. And so the abacus was invented, and the concept being so simple and easy to reproduce that within a hundred years almost everyone owns an abacus. Merchants are very pleased, and teach their children that when they carry the two, it turns out that the person they are dealing with actually owes them money. Much later, somebody also states that: “Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.” He then is so excited by the discovery that he ran through the streets naked (as he did not have time to dress), shouting for a horse or ox to ride (so he could get quickly to the king to tell him of his discovery). This story was originally part of his memoirs, but later destroyed for unknown political reasons. As such, it was only retold in foreign countries.

-A curious new law is introduced, one that is certainly a novelty. The age of marriage is to be introduced to 18, meaning that one cannot start a family or have children beforehand, without the support of a landed person. Whilst the law is often flouted, it eventually becomes a cultural norm in the Kingdom, with the other effect of paedophilia being increasingly looked down on and becoming socially inacceptable. Another affect is that families tend to become smaller as one as less time before dying to give birth. The number of children shrinks a little bit, but with less land to divide up between their inheriting children, it is noticed that wealth stays in the family for longer. Reinvestment into land increases by a tiny amount as a result, seeing it as something to be worked over for generations.

-The King offers the people of Moravia the following: That the kingdom will protect the people of Moravia under two conditions, they must respect the rules of the kingdom and accept the king as their superior. If accepted, they would be autonomous, but would legally be part of the empire and Mrvian citizens. Some people in Moravia see it as a chance to get access to lucrative trade deals or to sweet talk and influence the royal court. A fair number of villages and towns with their respective chiefs join, and then bicker with their rivals (who consider themselves old blood as opposed to these new upstarts) over holding of offices or taxation laws. Most nobles end up exempting themselves from taxes by abusing the privileges of the special farmer, causing the burden of taxation to fall on their vassals. The residents of Moravia are also keen to join after hearing that fierce peoples of the north are moving because the gods made their land cold. The Northmen will apparently try to take their lands, although the Kings army will intimidate them to leave.

-Diplomatic contact is made with the Estrucans. Oddly, the King wishes to speak on favourable terms to the Roman King, lording over a minor city in Latium. Contact is disrupted when a revolution throws him out and establishes a Republican system.

-Trade with the Greeks expand, and with Laubergia as well, as the roads and ports steadily recover and improve. The Greeks have begun to catch onto the advantages of using fertilizers, but there is still plenty for export. Shellfish, fish, volcanic ash, bones, and refuse are all gladly bought. Some men even try eating the oysters as a delicacy, and bring them back as freshly as possible in barrels of water. They are enjoyed by the Mrvian aristocracy, who see them as lowering sexual inhibitions and allowing them to engage in much debauchery. Some even attempt coitus with dangerous things, if the presence of a shattered pelvis in a royal tomb suggests.

-A map is made showing off the "borders" of the kingdom, when the kingdom gains the entirety of the Danube, Moravia and the Pannonia basin.

-In 671 BC, a man named Palat took the Phoenician alphabet and went around the kingdom, asking the people to pronounce the foreign alphabet. He then took the most common errors made in the pronunciation of that alphabet (and there were a lot) and reshaped many of the letters to compliment the errors (in a sense making the errors part of the alphabet he made). He then released a book in 656 BC called "Ricnilkv z niradnod", containing the alphabet he has made. This alphabet is known as the Mrvian alphabet, but more formally now as "Palataca". It also contains a series of short poems and some closer looks at varying concepts. It is noted that the words for “horse” and “oxen” are also bizarrely structured so that pronunciation of a compound version of the word is both nearly impossible to pronounce and regarded by scholars as grammatically ugly.

-A delegate is sent to Phoenicia, to ask about the instructions of how to make paper, to allow the Mrvians to create it themselves. The Phoenicians are all too happy to share, and eventually a dedicated paper mill is established in the capital. It is initially rare however, and even collecting rags from around the kingdom does little to improve the matter.

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Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-Construction of large buildings is now possible now that large stone quarries can be established with professional masons. They plan out the construction initially of large communal buildings in the villages. Starting with temples or palace complexes, eventually some people even build their houses out of them in areas short of wood. Wood shortages there are aplenty in the more populated areas as well. With forests cleared to make way for carefully irrigated rice paddies and the need to make pathways and buildings which do not sink into the soft mud, complex and intricate large constructions are made to allow a degree of safety and comfort when walking around or sleeping in a house assured not to sink into the mud below. Canals are dug as well, and busy markets have shops built into boats, where a merchant can happily moor and set up his wares for sale.

-With the arrival of the temple building phase, many smaller villages begin to consolidate as the manpower and resources required to build these temples is immense. The priestly class which emerges then begins to tax the farmers and use these tithes to live lives of comfort. They even build roads or canals sometimes, and can afford to keep food stocks in reserve for lean years or armies.

-The first recorded “wars” begin here, as now the first armies can be supported for prolonged campaigns. Actual wars of conquest or extermination are now underway throughout the Hudson valley, particularly on the smaller tribes. They begin to try and raise their own armies or federate as well now. Agriculture is spreading with considerable speed up and down the east coast, and has now begun to adapt to local conditions where it can be supplemented with existing native plants.

-Most expansion is still confined to rivers or areas with a great deal of water nearby, so naturally expansion is gradually migrating towards the Great lakes. Whilst heavily used for trade, beyond them the land is unsuitable for rice agriculture. Native copper working and ornaments appear in increasing numbers at this time.

-This “sphere” of common trade routes, plants, peoples and technology is now rapidly adopting a great deal more plants or supplementing existing ones. The Taputtaailainen now have access to chenopod, marsh elder, squash, sunflower, erect knotweed, littlebarley, maygrass, and most importantly North American Rice (an offshoot of wild rice). However, most of these crops are of marginal importance and tend to be grown in gardens, and do not transport well or have few markets. They are very tasty however.

ZuluFlag
Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-A bout of stagnation, interspaced with civil wars and rebellions is mostly happening during this time period. The Kings lose a great deal of control, and most of his successors are too inept or unwilling to reverse the situation. Eventually, control over the outer parts is increasingly weakened, and now people are even refusing to pay tributes. The knowledge of working with metal, agriculture, zebra domestication, and many other innovations and discoveries continues to spread however, mostly to the north.

WeeabooPantsuFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-Horseback riding is introduced to the Wapanese islands after imports from the continent prove successful. Ridden bareback, it is a very rare specimen, all the more so due to little pasture. It is highly prized by the nobility and kept as a sign of social status.

-A string of forts is built along the northern border to protect the inhabitants from raids. Population density up there is extremely low, and so the forts tend to be smaller and most scattered, barely even more than a strong stone tower with a few watchmen to keep an eye out for the savages to the north. Most people tend to head to the south or west, colonizing the lands more suited to agriculture. They till the rich soils and water their paddies.

-Emperor Naruto III Moefaggu pays for the upkeep of philosophers and is a known benefactor of the arts. They are grateful to him for this, and with a secular source of income, they can begin to focus on secular topics for the first times in philosophy and art. The first philosopher to think about the world without referring to explanations from mythology appears.

-Education is now available to most middling and wealthy people. There is little incentive to do so however, as most tend to go into religious matters or trade if they learn to read or write. For a peasant, these skills are useless save for being able to recognize legal documents. Most peasants at most know how to read or write 20 or so words of Wapanese.

-Selective breeding of macaques is now underway, with selection for more docility and more ascetically pleasing traits. Of course, some horrible mutations and genetic diseases happen now and again. The most successful breeds tend to be those bred for work in entertainment or robbery.

-Diplomatic contact is made with China for the first time. Of course, it is a series of warring states constantly infighting, and so finding a representative of all these peoples is difficult. They do find a man claiming to be “Zhou” Emperor, although his demesne is small and the history of the past too legendary to hold true to. They give him a gift of a beautifully illustrated copy of the Great Book of Moe in Chinese, with a rich, gilded cover of finest woods and silks. It is poorly translated however, and the Emperor misinterprets their religion as creepy.

-Naruto III Moefaggu sends politely-worded letters to the settled lords of the Honshu, proposing them to enter the Weeaboo Empire peacefully as Daymios and Samurai if they convert to waifuism (if they haven’t done so yet). They can retain a large degree of autonomy and pay minimal tax and owe minimal levies to the Emperor. The people of their lands can continue living their old ways as long as they don’t conflict with teachings of Waifuism. Also, they must let The Nice Guys build a monastery in their province. These monasteries end up being taxed as well.

-The lords, having already converted, are keen to join a prosperous and peaceful empire if it means allowing themselves access to the markets and temples of the Empire, where they can also influence particulars and improve their own social standing. The first dynasties of importance begin to emerge, often subtly influencing the royal court to support their dynasty and changing policies as time goes on. These families often are in heavy competition with each other.

-Trade and missionaries intermingle with the Chinese peoples, although their conversion rates are less than successful. Maintaining a centralized and organized religious bureaucracy so far from home with so few resources is exceedingly difficult, and many missionaries are forced to take up jobs themselves to support their meagre efforts. Even then, suspicious lords sometimes banish them.

-The Island of Shikoku is colonized for the first time. Trade fleets also meet some Ainu tribes in Hokkaido willing to trade, and too far from the wars south to be bothered by the Wapanese.

-Emperor Naruto III Moefaggu, a favourite of the people, had 4 healthy daughters and one stillborn son, thus leaving no heir to the Moefaggu dynasty. This made him change the inheritance laws to what was later known as agnatic-cognatic primogeniture: females can inherit if there is no male heir to the title. Thus, the first Wapanese Empress, Konata I Moefaggu came to power and performed quite well, which calmed many of the voices against females in the position of power. However, she found out later in her life that she was homosexual, and, for completely unrelated reasons, decided to go celibate. Thusly she produced no heir at all, and her younger sister Tsukasa I Moefaggu, a shy woman with a lisp, inherited the throne. She was happily married to Ruffy Onugoingu, a brave but slow man. They had a son, Zoro I Moefaggu, ruthless and cynical by character, who became Emperor when his mother died of being in the palace toilet when it spontaneously exploded. Legend claims that after this Ruffy appeared before the assembly of lords with a speech, declaring that Zoro was actually of the Onugoingo bloodline rather than Moefaggu because (as he believed) the inheritance law meant that the child is always of the father’s dynasty. It is said that after these words were said, a prominent daimyo approached Ruffy and slapped him in the face, saying “nigga dats bullshit”.

-With increasing troubles in the royal family, the great dynasties make moves to consolidate their power and to keep the other dynasties down as long as possible. They are collectively all named “kuge”, meaning “court nobility”.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Irreligion

-Very little happens to the peoples here during this time. Population growth is steady, but low, and trade routes slowly fan outwards to cover more ground as now simple canoes and small sailing boats are being used for coastal travel. Change is so slow that life is much the same now as it was 250 years prior, save for fashions, language, and stories.

PortugalFlag
Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Iberian Pantheon

-The Kingdom of Portugal is founded in Southwest Iberia. There is little clue as to the origin of these people, but the presence of Anglican paganism and heavy cultural influence from Mannish traders and the Spanish (a closely related culture) lends the theory that these people are composed of Mannish and Spanish expats is lent a great deal of credibility. They establish a busy trading town called Lisbon, found a new religion, and then make incursions into the nearby lands to subjugate the peoples there. Linguistic evidence also suggests that many loanwords were borrowed from the homeland as well.

-The Longbow is invented. Made from a single piece of wood and as tall as the user, it requires a strong user and years of training. Once in the hands of a capable man however, it is a horrifyingly deadly weapon with long ranges, high rate of fire, and the ability to pierce most armour. A small group of longbowmen accompany a nobleman whenever he goes to war, and they are used to pick off men from the walls of smaller hillforts before the assault.

-Given their extreme proximity to Spain, common trade routes, common heritage, and even the Spanish tolerance of foreign religion, many technological advances can leak into Portugal, and is practically in the same economic zone.

-Of course, the Portuguese do not return the Spanish tolerance of religion. Many men are sent north to convert the heathens, and the Spanish government seems to tolerate them enough that they don’t even bother stopping them from building large temples and knocking down heathen ones. It is realized conversion by force is unnecessary, and so the faith begins to rapidly spread northwards with little opposition.

WizterbienFlag
Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-Out from the lands of Africa, the Tozholleronese emerge as a distinct ethnic group and political state. They settle the coast sometime after meeting the Phoenicians and Greeks in prior centuries. They trade not only goods but ideas, and soon enough are confident to establish a coastal town supported by trade, fishing, and agriculture. The power and peoples of Al-Cido Monts grows, adding satellite s around it in a widening web, until it is ready for the world stage.

-The religion of the Tozholleronese peoples is "Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim", meaning worship of the great dead in their language. It is a polytheist religion in that it is widely believed that each and every spirit, which are typically called Styajaid, Mollastuahd, or Gujajaisten depending on their role and duty, are deities who are the driving force beyond all that is natural life. Public festivals are held every three decades in order to hold great respect for the dead, often parading through towns wearing elaborate costumes and then some. Privately, families are expected to have a household shrine dedicated to their ancestors and pray for good fortune.

-A branched off wayward sect, Maggaqarisim, holds the belief that practicing infanticide will appease ones ancestors and ultimately bring good fortune in life. Maggqarists also believe that upon death, all their sins accumulated in life will be forgiven, and they will be taken to the Promised Land where lust and wealth beckons.

-The city state forms a camel fighting force called the Shariyyah, composed of handpicked noblemen whom act as the king's personal retinue. They are experienced from years of travel and having to fight to put down revolts or bandits.

-In times of war, men without any means of income must oblige to serve in the armies of his king. In addition, the ruler may see fit to conscript any and all young men into the military. Of course, with no wars going on, this is effectively ignored. For the time being that is.

-As port towns mushroom on the North African coast, this city state profits well by setting up caravan routes between the towns. With the camel’s ability to travel unwelcoming terrain, it also means that missionaries can make good use of them for conversion missions. Over the course of several decades after their initial founding, the religion spread, followed by political control as these heathen villages are shown the light and brought under dominion of the King.

-Bronze ingots are introduced as a means of exchange or currency, an idea borrowed from the Phoenicians and Greeks that come to trade with them. Schools are also set up in the same style as the foreigners, which also adopt the Phoenician script for lack of an existing script. Children are educated in how to administrate their flock, on how to read, write, mathematics, philosophy, and foreign languages.

-The practice of Maggqarists is most curious, but it does result in a disproportionate amount of influence given their numbers. As they practice infanticide, it results in that fewer children exist to divide up their lands amongst. They not only keep their holdings together, but are more incentivized to reinvest into their lands as they will tend to stay together and in the family for longer. Eventually, through family management and larger than average landholdings, these families are starting to rise in power throughout the land, eventually hiring their own workers or renting out land, and building agricultural estates.

-Eventually, boats are bought or constructed, and sailed to visit the Phoenician or Greek colonies. The Etruscans are also met, along with a minor city called Rome. Trade is established and contact is frequent.

-Many new technologies and discoveries are introduced during this time. Ironworking, composite bows, and agriculture intended for large scale production and export. Dates are grown and enjoyed, along with olive oil. Vinegars, honeys, fish sauces, and all sorts of various and flavoursome condiments are either made here or imported. One treat is to mix olive oil with vinegar before soaking bread in it.

Turn 9: 500 to 250 BCE

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate II06:53

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate II

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn9PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 9

CreationofCenturiesTurn9CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 9

CreationofCenturiesTurn9ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 9

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41851010&posted=1#post41851010

Events of the years 500 to 250BCE:

-The Grand Canal of China begins construction. Confucianism expands throughout China and along trade routes, soon becoming a major movement. Cast iron is also invented in China, used for a whole variety of weapons, tools, and armours. The Chinese philosopher Li Kui writes the Book of Law (Fajing, 法经) in 407 BC, the basis for the law codes of the following Qin Dynasty and partially that of the Han Dynasty.

-The Chinese state of Qin eventually manages to unify the western portion of China at this time, and at the end of this period, Qin Shi Huang takes the throne, vowing to unify China for the first time in history.

-The crossbow is independently invented in Greece and China at around the same time. The first donkey-powered mills are also constructed in Greece.

-The city of Babylon is finally abandoned.

-The Greeks invent the Anchor with flukes. The Greeks also start to use shear-leg cranes for construction and loading of ships, and invent linear perspective.

-Buddha dies, and Buddhism becomes an organized belief system. It becomes the state religion of the island known as Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

-The collared peccary becomes fully domesticated around this time, and begins to spread into the Caribbean area. American rice is also now spreading into the Midwest and Southeast, with many farming societies starting to develop. Guinea pigs and Moscovy Ducks are also being domesticated throughout South America, but are restricted to agrarian societies. This is also the period where we see complex societies finally emerging in greater numbers, such as the American Northeast, Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, and in the Andes. Manioc has also spread into the Andes and the Amazon, whilst Maize has spread into what we now call Columbia and Northern Mexico.

-The Persian Empire goes into terminal decline. Initially attacked by confederations of Greeks, Phoenicians, and the Empire of Dagger, they exhaust the resources of the state and have little to spare for revolts in Egypt, Caucasia, and the Indus. The Egyptians later declare independence to form the Fourth intermediate period in Egypt, ruled by the native dynasties. The Maurya Empire also eats away at the eastern portions of the Empire. Eventually, the Persians fracture into two halves. The Pontic Empire, and the Parthian Empire, succeeds it. Armenia becomes an independent kingdom, whilst the Israelis constantly rebel. Many Israeli people are angry that the Persians stole their land, and demand it back.

-By the mid-3rd century BC, the Romans had secured the whole of the Italian peninsula, except Gallia Cisalpina (Po Valley). Over the course of the preceding one hundred years, Rome had defeated every rival that stood in the way of their domination of the Italian peninsula. First the Latin league was forcibly dissolved during the Latin War, then the power of the Samnites was broken during the three prolonged Samnite wars, the Greek cities of Magna Graecia who were unified after Pyrrhus of Epirus finally left Italy, requiring the Greek Cities in southern Italy to submit to Roman authority at the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. Sparta assisted Rome as an ally in the Pyrrhic war, although its long decline led to its support of Rome being more out of opportunism than actual attempts to gain influence in Italy.

-The decemviri come to power in the Roman Republic. They enact the twelve tables, the foundation of Roman Law. The Southern Estrucans are gradually assimilated by the Romans, and go into terminal decline.

-Greece is gradually split between 3 major factions. Sparta, the Delian League, and the Macedonians, Macedonian expansion was opportunistic, mostly preying on unaligned cities. However, with the Delian League and Sparta not going to war with each other, it allowed the Spartans to focus their military efforts on Macedonia, especially as the Empire of Dagger used their military to threaten them. Macedonia remains a fairly large and powerful Kingdom, but competing states means that it does not willingly break out of Macedonia. It looks to expansion elsewhere, most notably in southern Thrace.

-Eastern Sicily is thoroughly colonized by the Greeks, who begrudgingly accept that western Sicily now belongs to the Phoenicians. The Greek city of Helike sinks into the sea causing the death of its entire population.

-It is the golden age of Greek culture. The Greek playwright Aeschylus completes the Oresteia, a trilogy that tells the story of a family blood feud. The plays will have a great influence on future writers. Euripides presents his first known tragedy, Peliades, in the Athenian festival of Dionysia. Herodotus completes his History, which records the events concerning the Persian War. Democritus proposes the existence of indivisible particles, which he calls atoms. Anaxagoras tries to square the circle with straightedge and compass (he fails).

-The Greek physician and philosopher Empedocles articulates the notion that the human body has four humors: blood, bile, black bile, and phlegm. First performance of Sophocles's Oedipus the King. The city of Rhodes is founded.

-The Jomon people die out in Wapan.

-The Statue of Zeus at Olympia by Phidias, one of the seven wonders of the world, is completed.

-The Celtic peoples invade Ireland and have settled the entirety of the British Isles by this stage. Anglican paganism is now a minority religion.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Four elements

-With increasing sophistication of society, the state, and economics, it is no longer feasible to hope that problems resolve themselves. A civil service is set up to administer taxation and the funds of the state, that being its primary role. Secondary roles include paying for the upkeep of the army and effectively establishing local and regional governments that relay back information to the top. The Spanish state is not only centralized, but with many arms and branches of government that to rule and administer their lands. Roads, water supplies, food storage, barracks, armouries, trade, ports, navies and education are all under some degree of control from the state.

-A large army is assembled and lead to the southeast of the country, besieging towns and cities as the Spanish seek to dominate the peninsula. They eventually control a vast area of land sweeping south-easterly, quickly setting up effective regional governments and bringing in much desired tax revenue and trade tariffs.

-Spain and Portugal seem to be getting along. The rulers of both countries eliminate border tariffs, effectively integrating their economies and allowing people to operate businesses in each other’s respective countries. The ebb and flow of trade sometimes annoys their own citizens who see foreign competition as bad, but overall it does more good than harm. Iberian paganism is also spreading throughout Spain more rapidly, especially as the old religion is losing state support. The King of Portugal also wishes for cordial relations to improve to become a military alliance as well.

-When the bureaucracy was reformed, the priests were not included. This is but one small part in the decline of the four elements. Riots and murders often take place in areas that tend to have poor harvests, little trade, and nobles fighting for control. Many people switch from one religion to another for practical purposes.

-An expedition is sent down the west coast of Africa. They manage to revisit not only the islands discovered before, but also get past the dry lands of the north to find a wetter, hotter land, populated by a fierce people. The navigator Hanno names them as “gorrillae” and kidnaps 3 women to take home.

-Expeditions also proceed into the Mediterranean, where they discover the Balearic isles and meet several Greek and Phoenician city states. Trade is formally established and knowledge exchanged as now traders in all these parts are aware of cities and towns further afield, meaning many new markets.

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Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-Guard patrols are set up along the western borders of Laubergia, in order to deter Etruscan raiding parties. As Hellenic influence spreads northwards, the Etruscans are settling down to create city states anyways, albeit with a similar cultural and religious background as the Laubergians.

-Laubergian traders and diplomats head to Rome and Greece, to proclaim a declaration of peace, in order to open up the possibilities of trade-routes between the nations. The Romans are quite pleased that a far off and powerful Kingdom recognizes it as an equal on the world stage. The Greeks are likewise happy with the establishment of trade between their respective countries. Initially by land, trade is carried by ships travelling through the Adriatic, stopping off in many places along the way. The treaty signed in 497 BCE is seen as the start of the period where urbanization got underway in the Italian and Dalmatian areas.

-Laubergia also offers Rome an economic alliance, whereby tariffs are not imposed on goods, and merchants in both countries are able to operate freely without harassment.

-Priests receive a small benefit of tax income, to keep the ancient traditions alive as various religions spread inwards. This tax is raised from a levy in each village or town, and used to help prevent incursions by peoples professing another faith.

-Blacksmith rankings are divided by income and wares, rather than a singular class. This is to help separate trade, and stop single-family monopolies from owning an entire bloc of trade routes. Unfortunately, this results in the blacksmiths forming more specialist guilds, often collaborating, although less than before. Goldsmiths, bronzeworkers, ironmongers, armourers, etc are all separate guilds, and now that they collectively hold less power, the nobility are starting to try and undermine them further through more reforms. The rankings later become meaningless anyways, as the richest smiths control the guilds, whilst increasingly poorer ones are left with smaller slivers of wealth.

-The first true paved roads are introduced. With moving armies over vast distances always being problematic, the solution seems to be to excavate and pave flat, straight roads, with good drainage and rising above boggy or dusty land. Merchants and travellers also pay tolls to use these roads, and eventually the Etruscans build their own networks, with one that even leads to Rome.

-As the Roman Republic becomes larger, mostly due to the efforts of Laubergia, they end up taking over many former Etruscan cities and expanding to unify the Italian peninsula in a series of wars. The Northern Etruscans petition to Laubergia to form a coalition, on account of shared culture and religion, plus a desire to maintain peace in Italy.

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KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-With the recruitment of Baleric slingers, somebody decides that the basic design along with the shot can be improved upon. Long staffs are shaped, and a sling attached to the end of them. With this, one can throw a projectile that is heavier, further, and with more speed. Small furnaces are also built or maintained by the army to melt lead in, which are made into round balls to be thrown. Lead mining becomes a quick necessity, and soon lead is one of the many imports of the empire. When well drilled, groups of slingers can chuck volleys of lead bullets at people with devastating effect. They can even damage the weaker sorts of buildings, and easily bash through brittle armour.

-Raids are conducted on the Persians constantly during this period, with many men operating in an almost guerrilla-like fashion. Whilst it does not stop their large armies, it does help to annoy their supply routes and to damage their smaller groups of men. Horses are also being bred to be heavier, and to carry riders with heavy lances. When brought to charge against Persian light infantry, they are devastating.

-A series of large battles occur during this time period involving the Persians, Dagger, and often other powers. In one such battle, the Persians brought elephants. Whilst they terrified the cavalry and looked as though they were to crush the Dagger army, a large group of heavy slingers focused their fire onto individual elephants. The sickening sound of fist-sized lead balls shattering bone and the pain caused the elephants to run amok amongst the Persian army, until their lungs were pierced by their splintered ribs. Other shots are luckier and hit the head or legs, disabling the beast entirely.

-For some reason, it is bizarre how Dagger had managed to beat the Persians. However, a quick look at their treasury tells a different story. The coinage is being debased, and for the first time in history. A type of loan called a bond is sold to wealthy members of society, who see it as a way to support the state without being called up for military service. Finally, the Phoenician cities are subsidizing Dagger, allowing them to practically buy up every slinger and cavalryman they can find, training them to work as units, and then devastating Persian light infantry and cavalry. The Persians try to respond by adopting archers, but the range between both armies is roughly the same. An imbalance in financial resources allows Dagger to even reclaim lands, although indirect assistance from other rivals of Persia also helps. By the end of this period however, Dagger is left with heavy war debts, and a shattered economy and country. Only their unique placement for trade allows them to continue.

-Dagger and most of the Greek cities gradually become rather cordial towards each other, with Dagger promising to end shipping raids, and the Greeks sending military help and some financial assistance against the Persians. Greek fire is also exchanged during this time, although Dagger quickly claims it for itself. It is put into small clay pots and lit, before being thrown from a heavy sling. It is particularly good at setting fire to things.

-During this time the Phalanx formation and new ship designs are adopted from the Greeks. Large ships are rowed by multiple banks of rowers now, allowing them to ram vessels with considerable force and ease. Onboard are heavy slingers to attack enemy vessels, and small towers are built on the ships to provide a firing platform.

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Mallow234 – Phoenicia
Capital: Byblos
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Woodblock printing is invented at this time, as a way of reproducing pictures quickly and cheaply. Of course, making the initial negative takes a lot of time and skill, but when ink is rolled onto it and then is pressed onto paper, it creates a uniform and perfect picture each time. The sale of illustrated books skyrockets as people who cannot read can often enjoy them. The only real prohibitive cost now is paper, but many often use cheaper materials of poorer quality as a way of cashing in. Pictures of battles, mythology, and cities are all too popular. Some authorities even use them as a way of printing out the laws of the land, by showing various offences and their punishments on public noticeboards. Other official notices also appear, and a few words of Phoenician usually are on each one, detailing one event or another. Quite quickly, the printers also come under control of the government, lest they print unfavourable material.

-Iron plating is trialled on ships, but it is too costly and they often rust quickly anyways. It is found to be more useful to use the iron to brace the structure of the ship. Whilst costly, these ships also can be built larger and suffer less from the wood warping. They are always salvaged when they come to the end of their life, and are often suitable for ramming due to their improved strength.

-The first aqueducts begin to appear in Phoenician cities, mainly as a way of transporting water to urban centres from far afield. Poor architectural design often limits their practical use however. This period also sees a great deal of port expansion, in order to accompany the larger ships, along with the establishment of great granaries for times of famine. Food surpluses are easier to build up, although rodents and preservation are constant problems.

-There is an introduction of a system of courts, with judges and juries, to bring justice down to the local level. Many magistrates in the cities were inundated by the increase in crimes and laws that had to be managed, and so established specialist courts and juries to specifically deal with the matter. Judges may work on their own in the case of petty crimes. The senate is reformed to give more power to far-off city-states, mostly to administer their own courts and appoint judges. In return, Byblos has control of higher governmental functions, such as control of law-making and diplomacy.

-Tariffs are overall lowered. The Phoenician government begins to suffer from a lack of funds, and is forced to borrow money from private lenders, along with raising taxes on land, rents, and incomes. This does help trade significantly however, and many merchants and some people are pleased that they can now export lead, buy pottery, wine, and olive oils. Money is also sent to subsidize the Greeks and Daggerans in their long campaigns against the Persians, which is another drain on the Phoenician treasury. One of the great problems is the inability to raise taxes from far off parts of the trading empire, forcing Byblos to be dependent on mostly itself and donations.

-A colony is established on the mouth of the Danube River. Once having finished construction of the city walls, it is handed over to the Mrvian Empire. In return, the Phoenicians hold fleet basing rights. The abacus and the riverboats of the Empire are also brought down to the city, where many are bought and then spread throughout the Phoenician cities, which rapidly adopt both inventions. The longbow is also introduced during this time, when traders visiting Portugal bring the invention back with them.

-Most Phoenician colonies expand to considerable sizes, gaining land in the west. Of course, the financial and power centres of the league continue to shift westwards. Byblos is increasingly losing control over the area, is having shrinking revenues with which to spend on policies, and even military power as well. Some of the cities in the west are even larger than Byblos, particularly Carthage.

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Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-The segmented arch is invented through years of experimentation in architecture, masonry, and engineering. By laying stones or bricks into a semicircular shape, it is found that the weight they support is pushed down and into the sides. This allows for buildings to be built with thinner and taller walls with more space inside them, and for higher roves and buildings in general. The concept can also be applied to bridgebuilding, where very strong bridges can be built over rivers (at considerable expense). The full implications of the arch have yet to come about, but already arched roofs are starting to be built.

-A navy to protect merchants is established called the “Uystricvi”. Composed mostly of small galleys sailing up and down navigable rivers, they protect traders from pirates and enforce the payment of tolls. They do not go to the Black Sea or beyond, for it is too far to resupply from (unless one has basing rights) and the Daggerians tend to cover the waters from that point on anyways.

-To celebrate the increase of the kingdom, the king declares that Velkij Donaljea is now an empire. A new flag is introduced as well to show that the transition has happened. The Kingdom is now a passing memory, hopefully along with an incident involving equines.

-In an attempt to stop Moravian nobles from abusing the privileges of the special farmer, the special farmer cannot own more currency than is needed, meaning nobles have to give up a majority of their money to gain the privileges of the special farmer. Of course, this definition is hideously skewed as the years go on, all the more so due to inflation and deflation of various goods and services as people have little understanding of it. The landed get around it anyways by storing their money in kind form (such as large stocks of gold, especially in hidden or foreign banks) or spending their money quickly before the tax man arrives. Some reinvest it into their land, introducing large ploughing equipment, improved farming tools, and the hiring of labour. Such things are not easily taxed.

-Formal diplomatic relations now exist between Mrvia, the Estrucan city states, Rome, and the various Greek polities. The Empire formally names itself “Protector of the Greeks”, seen as a formal binding alliance to them. During the many wars, the Empire often sends mercenaries at low prices to be hired by the Greeks, along with other indirect but supportive measures such as subsidies, loans, and galleys.

-An angry letter is written to the Emperor of Dagger, stating how he has no claims on his European holdings and requesting him to give it to the Greeks, at one point writing "remove kebab from the premises" in Mrvian. This is despite the fact no Greeks have ever lived in Dagger, and that these European holdings have been held by Dagger before the Greeks even existed as an ethnic group.

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Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With the move to settled societies, complex trade, and above all, a need to move heavy things, somebody comes up with the smart idea of inventing the wheel. Initially a crude wooden disc, there is nothing large enough to pull large wagons. The existing travois is modified so that light wheels are attached. Soon afterwards, larger ones start to appear, pulled by teams of heavy dogs bred for the job of hauling them. Smaller ones are used for single riders, although the harnesses used for the dogs are considerably crude and put strain on their bodies. However, it is an improvement nonetheless, and the system rapidly spreads. Traders are now using them to carry goods between rivers and lakes, or overland. Roads begin to slowly widen and more trees are consequently felled. Dog breeding is also good business, and rice is always needed in bulk to feed both man and dog.

-The “basic law” is introduced. Written as a number of short and obvious laws, they detail how to manage the most common crimes (theft and violent acts), along with property and managing who owns what, the role of the state, religion, and various taxation rates. Universally applied to every populated area, it also requires a “Marsalkka” backed by military force, who upholds these laws and collects taxes. An extra tithe is introduced on the clergy, seen as wealthy people who have money. This annoys them, but a few strategic murders and public executions silence them.

-Expansion mainland continues along the waterways and now the appearing trade routes, along which traders and travellers are increasingly moving. The appearance of the dog-cart helps with this considerably, and boats are now plying the St Lawrence River. Of course, moving bulk goods overland is hideously expensive, and boats are used wherever possible. Some villages and towns are starting to assert their own independence now, and military force or political and diplomatic manoeuvring has to be increasingly used.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-Exchanging things for other things is a real bother. That’s why the Zulu invent money. Using pieces of bronze or other useful metals, one can represent wealth in physical form and much more easily buy goods and services. The Zulu state is quick to get in on this, by stamping metals with their seal and mandating that they are the official ones. With this, trade has begun to expand and now merchants are busy loading up Zebras and trotting around looking for people to trade with.

-With reassertion of control by the King, he not only brings in the prior mentioned monetary reforms, but also uses the army to crush dissidents and bring back stability to the country, along with booting out troublemakers from his court and reforming the tax system to take peoples new wealth into account.

-The first prison is established, where troublemakers and people with different opinions are locked up. Tribes are also contacted to help the Zulu King regain power in return for positions in court and new lands. Despite this, little expansion of the Kingdom takes place. Villages continue to grow however, and the development of agriculture in many parts is starting to result in the rise of a new class who own grain stores as opposed to heads of cattle.

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YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-As Wapanese people are lazy and wish to find ways to make their lives easier, some educated fellows who had the ability to access clerical schools and have a workshop to themselves, begin to make simple plans and diagrams of various pieces of complex equipment and machinery. They identify simple machines such as levers and gears, and during this time, a selection of odd inventions comes into being. Included are rotary querns, drawbridges, pulleys, gates, water clocks, and other simple mechanical devices.

-An educated, horse-riding samurai called Shounen Jampo, who is said to have ground his loins into uselessness from all the riding, comes up with the genius idea of putting a piece of leather onto the horse to dampen the impact to one’s balls. The same samurai comes up with the idea to put slippers onto horse’s feet, but that idea failed horribly as the horse slipped, fell, crushed Shounen under its weight and died.

-Horse archery is introduced as a formal sport, and as a means of combat in warfare. Nobles can easily fire off volleys of arrows before retiring. They are an excellent skirmishing force, although inflexible when the time calls for heavy cavalry.

-Raids from the north begin to increase in numbers as the tribes now have a type of sailing raft. Doing hit and run raids on coastal villages, they can do a lot of damage.

-Professional horse breeding stables are established as a way of introducing desirable traits to horses such as speed, size, and agility. Of course, they are still mostly kept for the nobility, with stock that could be culled is instead sold off to the wealthier merchants or farmers.

-A giant stone statue of Fatto Moefaggu overlooking the Akihabara bay is constructed. The first Chinese language school is also built in Akihabara, mainly populated by the retainers of Chinese merchants.

-Through trade with the Chinese, some books on Confucianism make their way to the Weeaboo Empire. The Emperor Claudo I Moefaggu and the 12 most prominent religious scholars study the books, in order to learn and borrow from Confucius’s teachings and adapt some of them to Weeabooism, particularly the parts about loyalty, discipline and respecting your elders. Using this knowledge they write The New Great Book Of Moe, where they describe a set of virtues, following which will guarantee that your Waifu will like you better when you come to her in the afterlife, and not following them will ensure an eternity of your Waifu giving you blue balls. Women are said to (partially) be of divine nature because of their resemblance to the Wai-fu. If they lead a virtuous life they are promised to be reunited with the Wai-fu in the afterlife, but she will reject them if they lived a life of sin. They tell the people that they have been visited by their Waifus, who told them to write this new book. The Chinese find it interesting that the Wapanese adopted these teachings, and agree to keep trade links open.

-To prevent the country from centralizing too much, the Emperor commissions a construction of a Winter Palace in one of his westernmost parts of the newly acquired lands on Honshu. Half of the year he resides in this Winter Palace, and the other half - in Akihabara. The town expands and becomes a bustling trade hub with China. The Emperor renames the city to Konata, after the first Empress. Unfortunately, Akihabarans are soundly annoyed, seeing that the move will lessen the importance of the city.

-Another wave of missionaries is sent to China with the New Great Book of Moe, provided with financial support. They bribe, cajole, blackmail, or otherwise convince some of the Chinese lords to allow construction of Waifuist temples and monasteries. Interestingly enough, the Chinese end up assimilating the new religion and integrate it with their existing belief systems. Back home, the religion begins to slowly lose state backing as the Emperor decentralizes power. Many priests are at the mercy of the lords.

-Expansion westwards continues, especially as the Emperor seems not to bother much about centralization. He doesn’t even collect tax much of the time. The standing army diminishes in quality, and eventually the daimyo s begin to build up their own private armies and end up fighting each other over many matters. Since joining the Empire allows ones economy to be integrated into that of the Empire and to find many allies within it, most daimyo are doing so for pragmatic reasons instead of the traditional system. Eventually, the Samurai rise to become a dominant class, and begin to compete actively with the merchants and religious leaders. All want various policies, and few wish to give ground on them.

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Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-New methods of animal domestication and breeding have come about. Due to a lucky fuckup some many years ago, the Collared Peccary is possible to domesticate, and so they are by the people of Xerxes. Keeping mixed genders inside pens and castrating the aggressive or small males, they were selectively bred to become more docile and fatter. The peccary performs a role somewhere between that of the pig and the goat of the Old World, eating waste in the villages and fruits and nuts in the forest like a pig, but also exploiting grass seeds and soft-bodied plants like a goat. The ability of the peccary to exploit plants that are useless to humans and tolerate heat and arid conditions meant that they are somewhat more efficient to raise than the Old World’s pigs, despite their smaller size and slower reproductive rate. A vital source of protein can fill in the vitamin deficiency from manioc, and they are the only domesticated animals save for dogs.

-Leading bands of warriors around villages, raids can snowball into small invasions when many young men young in with the parades, with the result that an opposing tribe can be quickly taken over. Of course, the same holds true for the other tribes, and many wars break out. The low population density and primitive nature of the peoples here means that they are often brutal wars, but with this new agricultural system, the more nourished Xerxes often have more people and resources at their disposal for wars.

-A religion organically grows, based on honour and service to the country. People who do good service to the country earn passage to the Court of Titus as a servant. Those who go above and beyond as to affect the country in a substantial way become nobles of Titus's kingdom. Of course, this mostly means warriors and noblemen. The farmers who domesticated the new and tasty animals got the short stick!

-Farms do begin expansion however, with land being cleared to plant manioc (along with other secondary plants). Domestic animals are also being kept on these farms, and provide a valuable source of protein which manioc failed to provide. The Moscovy Duck and Guinea pigs are also domesticated, and reared for their meat (or eggs in case of the former). The collared peccary rules supreme though, and where they go, so do can farmers. Fishing also begins to gradually expand as well, although the biggest problem is preserving food or finding a source of food which keeps for long periods of time.

-One way of helping to integrate tribes is not to attack them, but to present them with a large gift of fresh meat and eggs. Well received, clearly one way to get loyalty is to through the stomach with a grand feast.

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Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Iberian Pantheon

-A long type of spear is invented by the Portuguese. Called the “Sarissa”, it is a pike that is 6 metres long and has an iron point, plus a bronze butt-spike. When used in large formations, the pikemen are not only presenting an impenetrable defence, they can also be used for the offense. Subsequently, many battles are won by well drilled pikemen. The elite soldiers advance on the right hand side, aiming for the weakest part of the enemy lines.

-Spain and Portugal seem to be getting along. The rulers of both countries eliminate border tariffs, effectively integrating their economies and allowing people to operate businesses in each other’s respective countries. The ebb and flow of trade sometimes annoys their own citizens who see foreign competition as bad, but overall it does more good than harm. Iberian paganism is also spreading throughout Spain more rapidly, especially as the old religion is losing state support. The King of Portugal also wishes for cordial relations to improve to become a military alliance as well.

-Using the new pike, along with income from trade, the Portuguese notice the expansions of the Spanish and seek not to be outdone. They expand southwards, destroying enemy armies with the new techniques and weaponry, plus raiding villages of towns that refuse to surrender. An arms race eventually occurs, with the result that many towns in the last independent corner are now drilling their own armies of pikemen, supporting them with skirmishers, and using cavalry to charge the side and rear of opposing armies.

-A more militaristic society begins to gradually emerge, where children and young men are expected to be ready for war, and practice frequently with their weapons. There is a strong promotion of honour and service to the state.

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Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-An improved form of potter’s wheel is invented. Whereas early versions were slow and clumsy, the new device has a crankshaft and a pedal powered by the feet. The wheel spins at considerable speed, and allows the potter to quickly shape pottery of uniform shape and size in short periods of time. New kilns and potteries have also been built to store and fire vast quantities of pottery as well. With this, prices crash and many small craftworkers are forced into other occupations or to join a large pottery works. Ships are also exporting pottery across the Mediterranean, with prices steadily dropping. Demand is always high though, as many amphorae are needed for wine and olive oil.

-Seeking to annoy people, raiding parties are often sent out to attack random villages. They respond by raiding trading routes and preying on trade. Merchants start to go by sea instead. Towers are later built as watchposts to try and protect the routes, although the guards are often murdered.

-Annual archery contests are held to find out who is the best at archery, naturally these men are given good positions in the army and become an elite force as well. Some men are even practicing by doing it atop camels, and so groups of mounted archers are also appearing. During peace, many of them make their living by being paid mercenaries for traders and to protect trade routes. Others raid the inland villages.

-Maggaqarist priests are prohibited from crossing over into Phoenician territory and preaching the forever damned, helpless lost souls. Very few of them are annoyed at it, and mostly because they see it as a prime place to draw money from to pay for temples and their dinners.

-The King patronizes the clergy in order to create an official alphabet, formerly called "Senexises Toholzeron", borrowing words from Latin and Phoenician. Oddly enough is the decision to take words from the language of a minor city state in Italy.

-Ecekdorisim is seen as a minority religion in danger. Priests try to convert people to its slightly different beliefs, but the Maggaqarists are afraid of the imbalance in power as the former grows stronger. Strategic murders, bribes, and a great deal of political intrigue go on behind closed doors. This has yet to spill out onto the streets.

-Roads are cleared and resurfaced along the major trade routes on land. Stones and scrub are removed, bumps dug away and holes filled in. Ditches are also dug to try and improve draining, with low bridges built over streams.

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Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Greek Pantheon

-Uniremes, biremes, triremes, and quadriremes are developed, and gradually multiple rowers are issued to the same oars. The ships become faster, although diminishing returns are noted with increasing size and banks of rowers. However, as they can now grow to considerable sizes, it permits the building of artillery platforms (such as ballistae) and allows a great deal of soldiers to be carried onboard. Used in naval battles, they become the capital ships of the ancient world, and often can be used to crush the smaller sorts of vessels by directly ramming them.

-Key Delian league city-states, most prominently Athens, reache out to Sparta and asks that it join the league and bring its Allies with it. To ease Spartan trepidation, Athens offers to share the leadership with Sparta, giving up control of the land forces and keeping control of the navy. The Spartans and their allies agree to a nominal alliance, but not to join the league outright, wishing to retain their own independence and viewing Athens with a measure of distrust. Athens assembles the united navy of the league and begins widespread naval warfare against the Persians, attempting to destroy and scatter as many ships as possible. Indirect assistance on land, the weakening Persian economy, and financial and naval assistance from Phoenicia helps to wear down the Persian navy, until eventually heavy blockades and wholesale destruction of their navy begins a spiral of economic collapse.

-The league divides its military resources in two, sending hoplites from its southern city-states across the Adriatic to bolster Greek colonies and also help the Phoenicians fight off the Persians. The northern states send their hoplites up the coast to defend the Northern-most city-states from incursions. The Spartans also assist in these wars, if only to ward off the Persian menace. They even start to build a significant naval force and at times contest Athenian naval supremacy. This is especially so due to the growing power of Athens once it makes itself the leader and centre of the Delian League.

-However, the system is run very much similarly to that of the Phoenicians. The Delian league allows autonomy to all city-states involved, only requesting military assistance and integration into the Delian economy. For easier organization, the league divides itself into several sections, with each section having a regional power-house city-state that oversees the league's decrees in the area.

-Each part of the League is also given a number of representatives to send to the Athenian congress based on their military contributions to the League. This invariably results in an arms race, and constantly changing numbers of delegates, many of whom are often bribed. To handle this increasingly complicated system, a new academy springs up in the heart of Athens, training young men in managing this new complex mess. Ictinus and Callicrates also finish construction of the Parthenon, located on Athens' Acropolis.

-Trade tariffs are dropped on Phoenician traders in return for military and financial assistance in fighting the war. The Phoenicians gladly agree, and help them in the wars against Persia. Of course, Persia begins to fall apart in the late 4th century BCE, and when the Spartans prepare for war again, seeing Athens as a target, the Macedonians begin to attack their holdings. The Spartans later go into considerable decline after losing much of their citizens during several intense battles, and by the end of this period the traditional education system and Spartan society have begun to fall apart.

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BananaFoam – Ibolozi Tribe
Capital: Ibbus Sieciwiz
Culture: Siberian (Uralic)
State Religion: East Medith Pantheon

-The Ibolozi are a migratory people originally from Siberia. Legends hail that Yujek, a great Chieftain, was exiled from his lands. He followed a star to found their new home. The star, since named Yujek's Star, can be found on the people's sigil, contained in the "basin of the universe" that contains our world. Above the valley one can find the God of winter Utol, who represents the divinity of the Great Valley. It is the fabled land that all Ibolozi will supposedly enter and, with the help of the Gods, conquer under their own name. Since Yujek's Crossing, the Ibolozi have distinguished themselves by being the first in the region to use copper tools (but have yet to use iron or alloys like Bronze). They frequently trade in furs, shells, excess fish, and pottery in exchange for the better weaponry and tools of more southern peoples. They then use these weapons to conquer tribes to the North, allowing them to forge powerful allies in the South and take the sparse but open terrain of the North and only offending one side.

-Archaeologists and anthropologists along with historians are still trying to pin down the origins of these people. The evidence points to the development of large sailing rafts around this time in Siberia, possibly an inheritance from the Japonic and Korean peoples to their south. The advent of this raft does show that it was possible to sail across the Bering straits into the Northwest of the Americas, grounding the oral tales in some basis of reality. Of course, tribes also use it for hit and run raids, trade, and fishing. The tribe manages to control much of the western coast, although only loosely and it is difficult to proceed inland further.

-After Jutleg dies of fever, the Elders convene and elect the young man Uglik as the new Chieftain. Uglik, being young and ambitious, sees a bright future of conquest for his people. One night, he supposedly witnesses a vision of his tribe, far into the future, waging wars in massive scale with dark skinned people of the South. Seeing this vision, he knows his destiny is to lead his people to great military conquest. However, some of his fellow tribesmen consider his vision false and believe his ambition will only hasten the tribe’s destruction. Now, under the threat of civil strife, Uglik finds a way to rally his people. He stages an attack by killing a small village of his own tribe and blaming the Ghuyiks of the North. This rallies the people's support for him and spurs them into war. One member of the tribe goes insane, wearing a special fur hat “so that the chief does not access my thoughts”. He calls the attack on the village a false one, but is ignored.

-Uglik leads raids and attacks on the Ghuyik peoples. The natives have not seen these light skinned sea raiders and immediately believe they are a threat from the gods. Eventually, however, they are subdued by Uglik. Many of his people want swift retribution for the "wanton slaughter" of their village, but Uglik shows mercy, knowing such acts can only lead to more strife, and he must prepare for more conquest.

-Obviously, the small conflict between the Ibolozi and the Ghuyiks rages on. Finally, the fires are quenched and the Ibolozi turn a mind towards more peaceful methods of expansion. The lands to their East have not yet seen human settlers, so the Ibolozi Elders lead expeditions to penetrate the dark forest. Some are successful and other disappears without a trace, but enough villages are settled for the Ibolozi to claim the lands. Elder Pitic takes it upon himself to repair the relations between the Ibolozi and neighboring tribes. He leads trade caravans filled with livestock, pottery, and any food surplus, in exchange for weapons, tools, and ropes. These pieces of pottery are very crude but they get the job done.

Turn 10: 250 BCE to 1 CE

Rome Total War Music "Romantic Battle"03:18

Rome Total War Music "Romantic Battle"

Turn music

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Political map of Turn 10

CreationofCenturiesTurn10CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 10

CreationofCenturiesTurn10ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 10

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41883433&posted=1#post41883433

Events of the years 250 BCE to 1 CE:

-Two new small civilizations sprout up in the New World, located in Mesoamerica and the Mississippi respectively. They are the first to engage in significant volumes of trade, with trade routes stretching from the Honduras to the Bay of Fundy. Maize farming is also spreading out of Mesoamerica on a large scale, and the collared Peccary has spread northwest into Mesoamerica. Increasing sophistication is also now evident with the rise of bronze/copper trading routes over long distances and increasing adoption of agriculture. They both possess knowledge of basic metalworking, agriculture, and writing.

-The annual worldwide output of iron has hit 100,000 metric tonnes for the first time in human his-tory. 80% of this figure is produced by the Romans and Chinese respectively.

-A great coalition of disparate countries, tribes, cities, and Empires combine to invade the Roman Republic and destroy the threat that they pose to the Mediterranean order. It is not lead by any particular state, and is even composed of countries hostile to one another. However, they all intervene with the Roman Republic at various stages in order to arrest its expansionary vision.

-A counter coalition is created to combat this. Composed of the Romans themselves, the Mrvian Empire, the Kingdom of Laubergia, Macedonia and several Greek cities including Sparta, they are incredibly lacking in naval forces, but have significant land forces. Attempts to build a large navy are thwarted consistently, meaning that until the collapse of the war effort from Spain, Portugal, and Dagger, there is little gain made in the wars.

-During the first war, the forces opposed to Rome quickly win naval supremacy, blockading their ports. Laubergia, Mrvia, and parts of Greece are blockaded, with trade coming to an end for much of the war, or heading overland instead. One of the biggest losers was the Phoenicians, crippled so much by the cost of the war and decline in trade that it allowed Egypt to take Byblos without much of a fight.

-The war of the first coalition had 3 broad theatres. In the Iberian theatre, Spanish and Portuguese vessels destroyed the Roman navy and prevented them from moving overseas, but religious turmoil at home combined with the exhaustion of war brought the campaign to a stalemate.

-In Italy, the Phoenicians and Arhonians invaded Italy, forming the Kingdom of Tuscany as a client state before trying to take on the Roman armies. Denied battle, they were worn down by attrition until the arrival of the Mrvian and Laubergian armies forced them to retreat. Promised reinforce-ments from the Empire of Dagger were delayed and eventually had to retreat as the Mrvian Empire and Macedonia burned the great city of Istanbul to the ground. Hannibal, realizing that his men are demoralized and that the Romans are closing in, makes a hasty retreat.

The Romans and Mrvians managed to copy their riverboat design, and quickly mass produce them for a quick and cheap crossing into Sicily, where they established a foothold. After a gruelling cam-paign of 10 years, they brought the island under Roman rule, and also reconquered the Kingdom of Tuscany. Tuscany survives as a rump state in Corsica.

-In the Greek theatre, the Greek city states are embroiled in effective civil war, spilling over into the Roman wars as a whole. The Spartans are destroyed with the help of the Empire of Dagger and the Phoenicians, whilst the King of Epirus manages to invade Italy once more, but he is forced to retreat when the Macedonians return.

-As the period later continues, Rome manages to extend their possessions in Northern Italy and Gaul. They invade Epirus and Dalmatia, plus expand into Northeast Iberia. The Corsican rump state is eventually made a client state of the Roman Republic, and after a series of military reforms and campaigns puts control in the hands of the army, generals fight for control of Rome itself. The win-ner declares himself an Emperor, ruling over a considerably sized Roman Empire.

-The Maurya Empire in India falls apart, with the arrival of the Indo-Scythians. Former rump states and new dynasties and kingdoms carving out new lands pop up throughout southern India in a bid for power.

-The three kingdoms of Korea form, but because I can’t be arsed to fiddle around with extra colours and the constantly shifting borders between the Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, they are represented as a unified Korean polity. It is at least unified enough to prevent outright conquest by Han China or Wapan.

-The Qin dynasty falls, and the replacement Han dynasty expands the borders of the Chinese Empire significantly, along with building a great wall to deter the Xiongnu nomads. The Xiongnu later develop into a considerably powerful empire, sitting on top of the Han. However, given their societal structure, these empires often collapse within a few years of the death of a powerful ruler, waiting until another competent and ruthless warlord emerges.

-Kingdoms and polities on the Arabian and Somalian coasts are appearing with the rise of trade there. Profiting well by it, they develop into wealthy and stable kingdoms, with a great deal of cul-tural influence from India and Egypt, and by extension from the Hellenic world as well.

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Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Four elements (De facto Iberian Pantheon)

-With large scale engineering works being by the state for civilian and military use, there is a rising demand for trained engineers capable of designing and building these feats of engineering. The first professional academies are established in Spain, using geometry and specialized tools along with drawn plans. There must be order when building, for mislaid bricks are home to nothing but strife. Roads are cut to be well drained, smooth, and to efficiently move people from one location to another. This period sees an exponential increase in the number of bridges built, with many old designs little changed since the Neolithic replaced with fine carpentry or masonry work. This knowledge can also be applied to city walls, with many extensions being made during this period. Towers are now also built large enough to fit siege weaponry or cauldrons of boiling water, a sure deterrent for an attacking force!

-Construction of a large navy is now underway, as the Spanish state realizes it is horrifically vulnerable to maritime powers. A great deal of land is allocated to forestry, much to the annoyance of the peasantry who go into them to collect firewood. The cut planks are then stored in large warehouses and seasoned before being built into a fleet of impressive galley ships. Filled with many Spanish soldiers and many convicts or slaves to row them, the Spanish manage to rectify their naval weakness. Unfortunately, this doesn’t keep cheap, and compensating the owners of the land for the new forestry was troublesome as well. Another problem is that populations and by extension navies and armies tend to inflate over time, necessitating more land to be used for forestry or attempts to grow trees closer together. The price of timber also begins to rise, and whenever fires happen, it’s a huge disaster.

-The Spanish state forms a military alliance with the Portuguese on the condition that the Portuguese assist the Spanish in the training and use of the Sarissa. Soon enough, the Spanish army quickly adopts the pike, and soon the fighting style of the Portuguese as well. Stalemates are grisly to observe.

-Before the famous battle of Formentero, the King of Spain makes a stirring speech:
“You all know the mission, and what is at stake.
I have come to trust each of you with my life -- but I have also heard murmurs of discontent. I share your concerns.
We are trained for expansion; we would be legends, but the records are sealed. Glory in battle is not our way.
Think of our heroes; the Silent Step, who defeated a fortress with a single arrow shot.
Or the Ever Alert, who kept armies at bay with hidden facts.
These giants do not seem to give us solace here, but they are not all that we are.
Before the coalition, there was the fleet. Before diplomacy, there were soldiers!
Our influence stopped the barbarians, but before that we held the line!
Our influence stopped the Celts, but before that, we held the line!
Our influence will stop Rome; in the battle today, we will hold the line!”

-At the battle of Formentero, the entirety of the Spanish navy from the western Mediterranean assembles to beat off the Roman forces and to assert naval supremacy. A long and bloody battle ensues with the Portuguese using scores of longbowmen to rain arrows upon the Romans. The Roman navy itself is well organized, but the ships are poorly built, with many of them rammed or set ablaze during the battle. The Romans are eventually crushed, and the joint Spanish, Portuguese, and Phoenician navies start to blockade Roman ports.

-Wine begins to be made in increasing quantities in Iberia. Vineyards are steadily increasing in number, and require large numbers of slaves to tend and pick the grapes. Once pressed and fermented into alcohol, it is sold for domestic use or exported north. The inhabitants of the Isle of Man are particularly keen on importing it, with many Mannish men sailing over to load up on cheap wine, so termed a “Booze cruise”.

-The proliferation of Iberian pagans throughout Spain, along with their annoying tendency to convert people to their religion, has finally reached breaking point. Riots are frequent in the streets, and the use of Mannish tongues (the language in which the liturgy is written) is another cause for concern. Rival sects frequently fight with one another, and the old four elements religion begins to show fanatics and extremists turning to violent methods as they feel that their gods are threatened. Many nobles are also divided over the issue, and the inability of the King to control the situation or even favour one party is leading to more factionalism.

-A civil war breaks out, when a nobleman following the old ways attempts to visit the king in person. He brings soldiers with him, fearing attacks by Iberian pagans. A guard sees this as an attempted coup and raises the alarm. A Iberian pagan mob assembles and begins to attack the old believers, burning down and looting their temples. It spills out into general violence, and the country fractures. The Portuguese manage to help restore order for much of the south and the west, with many Iberian pagan nobles flocking to join their Kingdom. The old believers flee north and settle the homeland, seeing the King as too favourable towards the Iberian pagans.

-The navy and army of the Spanish begin to collapse when news back home arrives, and it is forced to retreat. The Portuguese are also forced to pull back to defend their homelands as religious strife spills over. It is revealed that the policy of impressing children rapidly spread and mutated as a rumour, until it was viewed as an attempt to kill children and drain their blood for Iberian pagan rituals. This makes defusing tensions considerably more difficult.

-A rival Spanish Kingdom now exists in northern Iberia. It has rejected a great deal of the Hellenising influences to the east, and the paganizing influences from Mann and Portugal. It declares itself the true Kingdom, and calls the other to be corrupted. They then proceed to violently chase out or kill many Iberian pagans in the north, before trying to emulate their forefathers.

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Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-As extracting metals is becoming more difficult, shafts often have to be sunk deep underground to reach the sources of mineral being extracted. To help, water pumps, horses, drainage channels, platforms, ladders, cranes, pulleys, wagons, and doors to regulate airflow are introduced into mines, so as to make it possible to mine deep underground and move the ore to the surface. Trying to regulate airflow also makes it slightly safer, although not much any more pleasant. Large smelters and blacksmith shops are built on site to process the ores into ingots or finished goods.

-Laubergian traders and farmers continue to spread north and east, mostly following the rivers and trade routes leading towards the Mrvian Empire. The land between them is becoming increasingly valuable, as trade and populations grow in the as of yet unclaimed land.

-Many priests, having lost a lot of former state support, are encouraged to travel east to spread the good word. Seeing that there is little else to lose, they eventually do so, covering much of the lands between them and the Mrvian Empire.

-The guild of goldsmiths is given increasing favour and protectionist measures for their trade and some of them begin to put in harsh currency controls. Good news for them, as they can profit by speculating on metal prices, but bad news for somebody who may find one day that the buying power of their money has dropped significantly. Many poor people are hit the worst as their wages often lag when prices change.

-Laubergian warriors posted at the borders disperse gradually, as Rome is less of a threat now that an alliance and trading treaty has been signed with them. The Roman senate is not composed of fools, and sees the aid of Laubergia will be useful in the upcoming wars. Over the next few years, the Romans and Laubergians slowly partition the Estrucan Laubergians between themselves, adding cities their respective countries every so often. They are stopped with the advent of the war of the first coalition.

-In this war, Laubergia mostly participates with the invasion of Tuscany, executing most of the major instigators and rebel leaders, before re-establishing control of their lands and then sending their armies south to force the Phoenicians to retreat. Later on in the campaign, they assisted in the invasion of Sicily and later the conquest of the rest of Tuscany, helped considerably by Mrvian reinforcements.

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KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Istanbul (burned lol)
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-A type of crossbow introduced from Greece is redesigned and improved upon. A trigger mechanism is attached, and the wooden bow is made short, but sturdy and powerful. Wooden bolts with iron tips are used. This is perhaps the first weapon that can be mass produced for common soldiers without requiring very much training. Whilst it has a shorter range than longbows or composite bows and a slower rate of fire, it can pierce most armour and is cheaper to field. The Empire of Dagger takes to them more readily than the Greeks, mass producing them for military use.

-Dagger goes to war with the Pontic Empire, hoping to capitalize on their weakened state. However, given that they also sent their navy to fight Rome and her allies, it leaves them vulnerable to a sneak attack by the Mrvian Empire. The Mrvians sail to Istanbul, push their riverboats over the banks blocked by the reserve navy, and then raid the city. Much of it is looted and then carried off back in the very same boats, and large sections of the city burn down.

-The Pontic Empire gives a good fight, but eventually, incursions by the Armenians and Parthians, followed by the Kingdom of Egypt, eventually bring the aged Pontic Empire down. The Empire of Dagger is exhausted however, and is unable to offer much resistance when a joint Macedonian-Mrvian force burn and loot the capital again before capturing many of their European holdings. Forced to sue for peace, the Empire is embarrassed and erupts into civil strife again. Their Anatolian holdings rebel and the armies are soon overstretched. The army sent to attack Rome is brought back to the capital to mount a desperate attack on Macedon, but the Mrvians and Macedonians burn down the entire city when meeting their enemy on the field. With the clouds of smoke billowing over the Daggerian army, their morale breaks at seeing the city aflame, and they are soundly routed. The Emperor dies in the battle and his family is reduced to holding Crete and the Balearic isles.

-In the power vacuum, a new Empire rises after the Macedonians (who conquered much of the old Pontic and Daggerian Empires) split apart. The Seleucid Empire is formed by the family of a rogue Macedonian general, taking power in Syria when Macedon was embroiled in a war with Epirus. It remains reasonably tolerant of foreign ways, allowing their cultures and religions to exist with one another. Zoroastrianism begins to go into heavy decline anyways, with people switching to favour the Hellenic pantheon instead, mostly for political advantage.

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Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-As woodblock printing is ever more popular, somebody comes up with the idea of cutting individual letters onto tiny blocks of wood or making small lead versions. These are then arranged on a board, fitted into a frame, and then has a piece of paper lain on top. A press then presses the paper onto the negative to reproduce a perfect copy every time. Of course, this also necessitates a standardized type being used, so a new version of the alphabet is also introduced. Finally, the first printer’s workshop is established in Byblos, slowly printing books and maps. Costs are still high due to the low production of paper itself, but the price of a book has now dropped down to a year’s wages for a clerk.

-Cotton seeds are imported from the Indus, and the first cotton plants are introduced. Spinning them is difficult, along with growing the cotton in the first place, as few places are suitable for the task. Since the work is menial, slaves are used to grow and pick the cotton.

-Hannibal is made general of the Phoenician armies. At around the same time, imported elephants from Syria or North Africa are tamed and used in the army. Of course, the Romans want to expand their influence at around the same time, prompting growth in the army.

-Working together with Spain, the Sicilian Greeks, Portugal, and Dagger, the Phoenician navy blockades Roman ports and tries to prevent their invasion of Sicily. The Romans respond by building a large fleet, but the fleet is crushed at the battle of Fermentero. The Phoenicians are unable to aid in the west however, due to the arrival of opposing Greek and Macedonian fleets. Large battles and skirmishing actions happen along the southern coast of Italy and Sicily, aided by the naval superiority of the Phoenicians and support from the Empire of Dagger. Greek fire is introduced, and some ships are braced with iron and bronze. These are the main capital ships, designed more to destroy ships outright instead of capturing them.

-The Spartan/Macedonian fleet is eventually destroyed, leaving naval supremacy to Phoenicians. They blockade the Spartan and Macedonian ports, followed by the Roman ones. This is later essential to the later outcome of the war, mostly involving the unification of the Greek peninsula.

-The capital is moved to Malta, with the island being rebuilt and a large senate constructed. The senate is now given control over all cities in the federation, with the power to raise taxes and soldiers without consent of the cities. The appointment of independently minded people to the Iberian cities was a bit of a mistake as well, as they declare independence after the senate moves to the city of Mdina in Malta. With the Phoenicians unwilling or unable to reassert control over them, and the collapse of the Spanish state during the religious wars, they end up developing into their own state, with the capital city of Barkeno. The senate begins to steadily raise taxes and trade duties, in order to pay for the costly military campaigns of the Republic.

-A vast army is assembled, and marches through Gaul and then the Alps, collecting many barbarian tribes along the way including the Arhonians. High attrition rates are a menace however, and then the army manages to march straight into Estrucan Laubergia. Many of the people there, recently conquered but still angry at betrayal by the Romans and Laubergians, take up arms and murder the Laubergians or Roman. A state erupts into existence named the Kingdom of Tuscan, which also sends significant armies to aid in the invasion of Rome.

-The Roman general Fabian is called on to lead the Romans against the invasion. He invents a strategy called the Fabian strategy. In it, direct attacks on the enemy force are discouraged, and instead their smaller skirmishing units are attacked and wiped out. Food is removed and bridges destroyed to slow down and starve the enemy. The avoidance of pitched battles by both sides, save for the siege of Rome itself is crucial in this strategy. When Hannibal arrives, his promised Daggerian reinforcements never arrive, and naval support begins to wither away.

-The Laubergians and Mrvians manage to collect reinforcements, and march into northern Italy before conquering the Tuscan state. They cut off the supply lines to the Phoenicians and then eventually, with supplies and troops dwindling, the Phoenicians are forced to make a hasty retreat with the Laubergian, Mrvian, and Roman armies slowly battering them down. They retreat by sea, leaving Italy in ruins in the process. The Romans spend the next few centuries going to war on and off again. The Phoenicians are never able to launch such an invasion ever again due to the increasing power of the Roman coalition and relative decline of the Phoenicians. Eventually the combined forces of the Romans manage to not only invade Sicily, but to conquer it in its entirety as well. The Romans and Laubergians also manage to expand into the rest of Italy, and Rome ends up adding southern Gaul to their conquests.

-Having lost the war, they also lose the ancestral capital to a resurgent Egypt. Egypt profits from the demise of Byblos, and manage to conquer much of the Levant. When Hannibal returns to Malta, he sells off his lands and titles in shame in order to help raise money to pay the war indemnities of the Phoenician. The Phoenician state goes bankrupt soon after, and it takes some years for the finances to be back in order.

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Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-Improved architectural design is now spreading in the Empire. With Hellenic influences brought over by traders, the Emperor has commissioned the construction of new large walls around the cities of the empire, and the construction of more isolated forts garrisoned by professional armies. Granaries are also constructed for the storage of food during sieges, and large towers are built into the already significantly tall and thick walls. Nobody but a madman would dare to assault them.

-A settlement policy is declared, whereby the banks of the Danube River are to be settled so as to bring the river in its entirety under control of the Empire. The Phoenician city remains mostly to itself, but immigrants often tend to come into it and then sail up the river, looking for a place to settle. A great deal of land is already owned by existing peoples, but military force along with forest clearing, marsh draining, terraforming, and new farming methods manage to stretch out and increase the amount of land under cultivation, along with improving yields.

-The nobility are pressuring the Emperor to close the gap between themselves and Laubergia. The increasing value of that land is becoming too tempting, and many see the establishment of control over them as paramount to the success of the Empire. Trade is very much indeed prospering in that area, along with agricultural output. Some areas are even building urban settlements and becoming more protective of their independence as well.

-Merchants, traders, ambassadors, travellers, and varied other sorts are increasingly bringing back innovations from the south, and with them, Hellenizing influences. Wine drinking, the wearing of Greek and Roman clothing, their varied philosophical musings, and architecture along with machinery and metallurgy are spreading into the Empire. Latin and Greek texts are being translated into Mrvian for posterity.

-Diplomats are sent to Rome and Macedonia to negotiate trade treaties. They also establish military alliances, with Rome and Macedonia spurred on by the Mrvians to ally with one another. The Spartans later join in the coalition with several Greek cities.

-In 12 BCE, the emperor, Alkse IV Otradovec, announced that he, together with his son, a cartographer who is also skilled in geography, his military captain and two other soldiers, would attempt to find the source of the great Danube river. And so, they spent years searching for it, while the cartographer maps it, before in 6 BCE they found it. However, while making their way back to the Empire, the group was attacked by an unknown amount of animals. Only the emperor's son and the cartographer survived, barely. When the two came back 6 years after discovering the source, they showed evidence of where the source is. Everyone was amazed that the mystery of the source was over. This event was so important that it is year 0 in the Mrvian calendar.

-The Mrvians become crucial in the war of the first coalition. Joining Rome, two armies are formed. One is to head to Greece, and another to Italy. In the Italian campaign they make good progress, recapturing Laubergian/Roman lands and then assisting in the ousting of Hannibal from the peninsula. Their attacks on the Empire of Dagger are also crucial in shifting the balance, especially with the sack of Istanbul. A second siege with Macedonian assistance destroys the city entirely, and their combined forces manage to rout the Daggerian army.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With copper working spreading throughout North America, rising populations, and increasing demand for improved materials, somebody has the bright idea of melting copper and mixing it with arsenic to create a type of bronze. Whilst making it is dangerous, it is useful for weapons and armour. The nobility and warriors start to frequently carry bronze weaponry when going to war, and sometimes people carry bronze or copper axes for use when out and about. Of course they require sharpening a lot of the time, and many native deposits of copper lying around are being exploited to their full potential. Eventually, the first shafts and pit mines are dug to extract copper. Trade routes to the south eventually introduce tin, which helps to improve the strength again, although it is still a costly material. The bronze trade route (heading from Mexico to the Mississippi, then up to the great lakes, travelling east down the Hudson) is especially critical.

-With the development of trade routes and increasing wealth, some regional administrators have been trying to run their regions like petty kingdoms with the erroneous idea that they can assert political independence. A series of informal and often shady laws allows these bureaucrats to be booted out of office whenever they step out of line, often violently. Understandably, this does not please them, and many simply line their pockets instead and start to build rather luxurious villas for themselves. Living comfortably, they see no reason to rebel, although tax revenue is down.

-With trade routes to the south opening up, more plant varieties are being introduced from the south. Among them are maize, and a type of cereal recently domesticated, the so called “little barley”. Whilst maize is very popular, it does not displace rice farming or barley, and is instead grown alongside them. Agricultural production continues to steadily rise during this time, with the risk of famine reduced somewhat by the use of multiple crop types. Eventually, alcohols start to be brewed, with rice wine and a type of weak barley beer being favoured.

-Vines began to be deliberately grown for their grapes now, with the juice crushed and then fermented to create a strange new beverage called wine. Raisins are also made from the dried up skins, and are a treat amongst the people of the eastern seaboard. It is around this time that the population begins to seriously grow, with the number of inhabitants in Valittu exceeding one million. Ceramics are improving in quality, becoming thinner and stronger, partly due to the pottery wheel.

-The rising population begins to slowly settle the Great Lakes area, pushing out the old hunters and foragers. The forests are cleared, fields tilled, large wooden houses built, waterways diverted or dammed, and the landscape tailored to fit the needs of the farmers. Fights often break out, but the agriculturists win out in the end.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-The King of the Zulu, sitting on his throne, is discovered one day that he wasn’t sleeping, but was actually dead. It is unknown how this turn of events came about, but for his subjects who peacefully farm and smelt metals and trade, they care little.

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YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-With fortified houses being a staple of the nobility (it isn’t as safe anymore to own a mere fancy house), there is a great demand for competent engineers who can design and build fortifications capable of withstanding long term sieges. Granaries are added to allow for extra storage, armouries for weaponry and armour, thick and tall walls to prevent use of rams or making it difficult to climb, ledges, battlements (which require a license to build), massive gates , even drawbridges and ditches. A class of professional engineers appear as a result, all offering their services to the highest bidder and establishing guilds.

-With much Wapanese culture and technology having been imported from China (although some may deny this), they are very quick to adopt something new if the Chinese already had it first. The Chinese crossbow is introduced. However, making the more intricate parts requires careful work, and mass production capabilities are limited by the little availability of extractable iron and generally low population and industrial capabilities relative to mainland China. However, it is eventually integrated into most private armies and that of the Emperor within a few centuries, although replacing lost or damaged ones is costly. Much larger versions are built to be used in sieges, but again they are so costly that the private and varied craftsmen whom must be used to build one means that the price tag is rather large. As of now, no large scale or integrated production facilities exist.

-After centuries of being killed by tribals and being pushed around by the Chinese, the Nice Guy missionaries invent martial art styles that use either a wooden staff or bare hands. This is considered both a martial and spiritual practice, and many people from all walks of life are eager to learn it, though few people outside of nobility, soldiers and the Nice Guys themselves get anywhere far in their training. On a side note, missionaries tend to die a lot less now.

-Emperor Gendo II Moefaggu does away with the double capital concept, leaving Akihabara as capital, and installing a loyal daimyo as the lord of Konata and the surrounding areas with the gift of the Winter Palace. Very quickly, this office becomes the most prized in the whole of Wapan, and whichever dynasty happens to be pulling the strings at the time tends to reside inside the Winter Palace.

-With missionaries and traders going back and forth to China, many new innovations and inventions are introduced. Among them are mathematics, the calender (with Wapanese religious festivals now marked on them), a grammar system, a table for the language (based upon Chinese calligraphy), the wheelbarrow, paper, crossbows, bells, forks, lacquer, silk, cast iron, pig iron, wrought iron, chain drives, simple chemical warfare, chopsticks, canals, hand operated looms, the mouth organ, drilling, heavy iron ploughs, ink, kites, the seed drill, natural gas as a fuel, pinhole cameras, pontoon bridges, the rudder, tea, tofu, trebuchets and nail polish.

-There is a rumour that the Emperor has secretly built hidden training grounds for an order of spies and assassins called “Shinigami”. These are supposed to be so secret and inaccessible, that finding one is in itself part of the initiation trials. Existence of these was not confirmed for quite a long time. It is said that the bulk of the organization consists of master thieves that were finally caught and spared by the Emperor if they agreed to serve him with utmost loyalty. It is rumoured that the organization encourages snitching and its members are rewarded for finding traitors.

-Quickly, a lot of daimyos begins dying for unknown reasons, although the people of Wapan all know who’s responsible. The families lose some power over the Emperor himself, but they still fight over the prestigious political offices.

-An embassy is established with the Han Dynasty, but the new Emperor declares that the Wapanese religion is undermining Chinese society, and thus he bans missionaries from preaching in China.

-Cats, brought from China are instantly an overwhelming success. People can’t stop repeating how “kawaii” they are, and many nobles start adding “~nyaa” at the end of their sentences. Cat ears made out of silk are now a popular accessory among richer women. Waifus with slight cat-like features first appear in art and literature around this time. Some samurai are even adding cat ears to their helmets. Cats are rare and expensive though, and so many people, particularly the poorer ones, resort to domesticating foxes for their slight resemblance to cats and similar ear shape.

-As the daimyos continue to expand their holdings to the west, there is increasing pressure to expand north nearby the capital. The Emperor declares war against the Ainu tribes, and with the use of cavalry and crossbowmen, plus fortified houses and towers to establish control, the Wapanese push north, establishing villages, clearing forests, and removing the tribes. The Wapanese have also managed to adapt to the cooler weather to the north, and slowly but surely the Ainu are pushed to the northernmost point of the island of Honshu. The farmers are still unwilling to settle further north for the time being however. Meanwhile, many captured Ainu are forced to work as slave labour to build rice paddies, houses, and fortifications.

-Expeditions to the islands north of Wapan reveal several with extensive iron ore deposits. They also find hostile tribes that know how to work native metals and have sailing rafts. The Wapanese send several thousand people to these islands over the course of a few centuries, wiping out the tribe and colonizing the islands. They set up extensive iron mines and a fishing industry. They are mostly dependent on importing their staple foods from Wapan, given that the climate here is too poor for traditional agriculture. These islands are also tenuously held, with the residents often surviving on the edge. Ainu raids are also a constant menace, along with rebellions by enslaved ones.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-Preserving food is a real challenge, especially when wishing to build stockpiles of it. Unless one has stockpiles of food that can be kept in storage without rotting, it is difficult to build a civilization. Three main techniques emerge during this time period, applied to as many foods as possible. First there is smoking, in which meat or fish is immersed in smoke so as to prevent attack by microbes. Drying is another method, in which the food is dehydrated and kept in a dry location. Finally, is to salt the food. Collecting salt is difficult, but with sea access, pots, and a fire, one can collect enough to preserve meat. These methods are often used in conjunction, and peccary jerky becomes popular. Manioc meanwhile is pulped and separated into two parts whilst also being dried, and then kept in longterm storage. This also goes a significant way towards solving the problem, and the first tapioca pudding is eaten. It is nicknamed frogspawn by children. With food processing now in place, and the protein issue resolved along with preservation, food surpluses are being traded for other important goods and services. Free time can also be spent working on projects of significant size.

-A new ideal in the religion begins to spread. Having one person in your family out of all of the children to serve honourably will be able to bring honour to your family. Therefore, when that person dies in service of Titus, it will help to bring the rest of the family up in his eyes, and allow them to enjoy the afterlife. Consequently, many families start to prepare their selected soldier for war, giving him weaponry and enough food that he can spend more time fighting than farming. Soldiers now begin to be trained specifically for the purpose of warfare. They tend to be the younger sons of people, where they are taught how to maintain themselves on long marches or wars. They must know how to salt and preserve their own food, and often hunt or forage along the way to add to their existing ration.

-Expansion is now undertaken by these new soldiers. Well trained and able to live off the land much of the time, they can go on lengthy campaigns with little logistical support. They can even surround a village, and if it refuses to surrender, do hit and run attacks or sneak in and murder key people. They also tend to capture peccary livestock or drive them away. Many of these domestic peccaries begin to migrate northwest towards Mesoamerica as a result. The soldiers also manage to bring these villages under rule of the Xerxes, and some even begin to put themselves in as petty rulers. Tributes begin to evolve into taxes, and the flow of wealth to the capital means that the first permanent buildings are now steadily rising, with markets being established as well.

-As the soldiers tend to conquer the wealthier villages, made so due to the number of Peccaries they keep and development of trade, they are also simultaneously following trade routes or introducing new ones. Salt is incredibly valuable, and one way of producing it is to dig large salt “pans”. Separated by small dykes (named for somebodies sister), they allow the large scale extraction of salt from the sea. Finding enough suitable locations to do it however, is a problem, and often it tends to be exported as well.

-Maize is introduced to Xerxes from the west. In some ways a superior staple plant, it is readily adopted and farms begin to grow it. Surplus food and labour can now be employed for an increasing number of uses, and villages begin to quickly expand during this time. This is the decline and fall of the hunter-gatherer, as trees are cleared to make way for tilled fields.

PortugalFlag
Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Iberian Pantheon

-Paper is either introduced or independently invented in Portugal during this time. Whatever the origin, it does not diminish the importance of this invention, as now a whole manner of records can be kept and stories written down for posterity. Rags are bought up in considerable volume and then pulped in paper mills throughout Portugal, before the book is tirelessly copied out by hand. Only really the rich can afford them however, whilst wax tablets tend to be used by everyone else. Merchants sometimes buy the paper on its own, often to write contracts on.

-The Portuguese state forms a military alliance with the Spanish on the condition that the Portuguese assist the Spanish in the training and use of the Sarissa. Soon enough, the Spanish army quickly adopts the pike, and soon the fighting style of the Portuguese as well. Stalemates are grisly to observe.

-When the Spanish go to war with the Romans, the Portuguese send significant numbers of men to help with their campaign, along with some ships. After the breakup of the Spanish state and the civil war however, the Portuguese also manage to take some cities and nobles under their wing during the confusion. Most nobles joined out of wishing to place security as a high measure, given the chaotic situation in the rest of the country. Religious homogeneity and proximity were also other key factors.

-As for the rest of the Portuguese, they expand southwards towards the Pillars of Hercules, crushing the unfortified or smaller settlements whilst besieging the larger towns and cities. The use of the Phalanx and longbows makes them devastating on the field, although much less is to be said for their prowess in sieges. As long as one can break up the Phalanx formation, their army is slaughtered. This happened in a town where the soldiers marched down a street and were pelted with rocks and javelins. A cavalry charge from the garrison down the street managed to scatter them.

-With the southern coast now strongly under their control, the Portuguese are in a suitable position to profit from trade heading in and out of the Mediterranean. Of course, the lack of developed civilization in northern Europe means that most of this trade is small scale and not very profitable, although trade from Gaul and Britain is steadily rising.

WizterbienFlag
Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-New mining and quarrying techniques are introduced as demand for minerals rise and the economy diversifies. Clay, lime, flint, and many other types of rock are extracted and then used to make bricks, mortars, and concretes so as to allow for stronger buildings, although the mortar sets slowly. Meanwhile, the mines begin to extract considerable volumes of the usual metals such as iron and copper, smelting them, and then casting them into ingots before being used domestically or for export. Mining or quarrying by-products also have a place in the pottery industry, which helps with marketing the product.

-The Tefullmorostanis stop raiding villages, instead doing full scale conquests. The former leader is removed and a soldier or noble is made ruler of the village. The raids start to die down, and as expansion gets underway, raids penetrate less deeply and become more of a distant memory. Outposts are gradually fortified so that they can stand prolonged attacks until reinforcements can arrive.

-Prisoners from these wars are sold into slavery, many of them going to the Greek cities or Rome. Some of them are able to assist with the taming of elephants, and although their numbers are low and they are difficult to train and breed in numbers, a sizable force of elephants is created. Small wooden platforms are built on their backs for archers and skirmishers to use as a firing platform. Many of these elephants are bought from Numidia, and a breeding program is underway to maintain stable populations.

-With the expansion of trade, especially with the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Romans, the Tozholleronese profit well from being well suited for a middleman role. However, with the coalition wars breaking out every few years, they suspend trade with Rome for the duration of the war. Whenever it was due to hostility towards Rome or fear of foreign retribution is a matter still argued over by historians.

-The clergy is reeled in to prevent them from preaching in countries with considerable military or political leverage. Instead, the clergy are redirected to the new conquests to the south, where towns and villages captured by Tefullmorostan are converted. To show that control is complete, a temple is constructed in every new town, along with a money lender. They introduce the new currency, which can only be minted in the central mint, with denominations in tin and gold. Tin is dropped due to its fragility and alloyed with copper, whilst silver eventually comes into use as well. No matter their metallic composition however, the people now must use those currencies, printed with the image of the Kings head.

-Very often, when it comes to subduing a raiding force or capturing a village, even a single elephant can terrify their enemy into surrendering. Since they tend to travel in groups with infantry and cavalry support, they become all the more terrifying.

-The economy often goes into severe depression whenever a war is on, since the market effectively dries up for their fancy pottery. Only Egypt and Phoenicia are willing to buy their pots, which have to travel overland on the backs of camels.

DelianFlag
Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Greek Pantheon

-With siege weaponry becoming ever more important, somebody takes a crossbow and makes it significantly bigger, putting it on a stand and using it as a heavy piece of artillery. They are made to support both armies in the field and can be used on ships during naval battles. Firing large darts that can skewer multiple men and smash through a ship’s hull, they become an essential addition to any armies’ arsenal. This comes just in time too, for the wars of the first coalition have begun.

-The army is re-assembled at Athens and bolstered with mercenary units from across the known world. It is sent to Sparta to destroy its army. Of course, since Sparta is allied to Rome and wishing to use the war as a pretext to re-establish control of Greece, they come out in force, bolstered by some Macedonians.

-To prepare for the war, the phalanx is adapted under the teachings of Epaminondas, with the hoplites receiving heavier armour, smaller shields, and longer pikes. They are also professionalized and wage earning soldiers, to spend their time in the military instead of farming or crafting whenever wars are not ongoing. Young noblemen are selected for new heavy cavalry regiments, being the only people with the money to afford the horses and materials. They are gathered from across the League and trained together to fight as the heavy cavalry of the Delian league. Their low numbers make them of limited effectiveness however, especially as imported horses rise in price due to trade blockades.

-The Delian League takes steps to implement a universal coinage, starting with the major city-states and slowly branching out to the smaller ones. The other cities, which would normally be hostile to such a subtle attempt to bring monetary control under Athens, are forced to agree in order to protect themselves from the Spartans. Realizing this, the Athenians move the bureaucracy and congress to the island of Delos, helping to defuse tensions somewhat. Once established, the first census is recorded, revealing Athens to have a population of 300,000 (including slaves, foreigners, and women). The congress also becomes more involved in economic matters, fixing trade prices and maintaining the flow of goods throughout the League. The merchants are very happy at this state of affairs along with the nobility, who profit from this and support the state. The bog standard freeman farmer or slave is still at the bottom of the heap however.

-As the army moves on Sparta, the League dispatches diplomats to Argos and Corinth to convince them to leave the weak Spartans and join the Delian League. They agree to do so only after hearing of the army of Hannibal crossing the Alps. They collect their arms and march on Sparta. The King of Epirus is also willing, sending an ambassador to the Delian league to announce their intentions and their plans to invade Italy and Macedonia.

-When the Athenian army sends a diplomat to the Spartans, saying that if the Spartans do not wish to lose their independence, then they best lay down their arms. The Spartan king replies “You are in the wrong court”.

-Sending their armies out to meet each other, the Delian Greeks, supported by some Daggerians and Phoenicians, manage to defeat Sparta with the clever use of siege artillery. A group of men with large staff slings, crossbows, and ballistae rain down heavy bolts and lead balls upon the enemy forces. The Spartan lines are broken, and then the offensive based Delians break the Spartan lines. Cavalry is used to cut down the survivors, although their strategic usefulness has been exaggerated.

-The naval battles proceed just as fruitfully. With extensive support from Dagger and Phoenicia, they manage to destroy the Spartan and Macedonian navies, before blockading their ports. The Spartans continue to fight on, and when the Delians arrive at their city, siege weaponry is used to light the city ablaze. Amazingly, the Spartans force slaves to put out the fires whilst they defend the city. Prolonged skirmishes eventually whittle them down and their families are forced into the centre. Only after their wives and children are hit by artillery fire and their great city has burned to the ground do they surrender. They are sold into slavery and the city falls into ruin, becoming abandoned by about 20 BCE. At the congress in Delos, the Republic is announced as having triumphed in uniting the Greek peninsula for the first time.

-The wars against Macedonia are more difficult, due to their support from the Romans and Mrvians. Only the timely arrival of the King of Epirus (who had been preparing his army for some years) manages to split their forces and to deny them entry. The Roman coalition instead marches on the lightly defended Istanbul whilst the Daggerian forces retreat. The city is burned and the Empire lost, but the Macedonians are unable to progress any further south. The King of Epirus meanwhile, manages to launch a successful invasion of Southern Italy, but is forced to retreat when the Macedonians return.

IboloziFlag
BananaFoam – Ibolozi Tribe
Capital: Ibbus Sieciwiz
Culture: Siberian (Uralic)
State Religion: East Medith Pantheon

-Throughout the American Northwest, the first sources of native copper and iron from meteorites are extracted. Cold worked and used mainly as a replacement for flint, it increases the efficacy of most weaponry and tools. Finding enough of the materials is difficult however, and most sources tend to be extracted from over long periods of time as opposed to being deliberately mined.

-Uglik's people continue their fierce conquest of the North. Some tribes, hearing tales of their exploits, surrender. They are forced to pay tribute and commit to military actions against the Ibolozi's enemies. Using their sailing ships from their heritage, the Ibolozi forcefully annex the sparsely populated islands, such as the Aleutians, in the region. However, Uglik does not stop there. He puts his people to work finding ways to producing new weaponry. The newly annexed Northern tribes, surprisingly benefiting from the increased trade and expansion under Ibolozi rule, teach them the secrets of armour. They know very little, but they show that bones can be strung together to make coverings that protect the wearer from weak wooden and stone weapons. Most armour is costly in terms of the amount of time it takes to make, plus it tends to be more ceremonial than actually useful. When bone cannot be used, some people substitute it with wood.

-Uglik's conquest brings increased revenue from which to buy from the tribes of the south. Though many people are content, some still oppose his warlike nature, particularly the oldest of the Elders. They believe that Uglik leads them on a path of doom. They claim to have seen a vision in a great seance together, where the Ibolozi fight a war against enemies with vastly superior weapons of meteoric iron in great formations and by the thousands. Eager to prove that the Ibolozi can defend themselves and procure superior weapons, Uglik leads and expedition to the Northlands to find the fabled Snow Beasts. He finds a fully grown Snow Beast and after a great deal of hardship, some wounds, and one expedition member's death, he tames the beast. He then finds a clutch of its offspring and takes them to train them as well. He leads them south, back to his home. He shows the Elders that their land is filled with many resources from which war can be waged. However, 2 weeks later the captured Beast kills one of its caretakers and it is sentenced to death. For the first time in tribe history, Uglik overrides the Elder's decision to kill the offspring and allows them to stay and be trained, 2 by his children, and the other four by village caretakers.

-Although this is the official reason given by the oral tales, we do find increasing evidence of polar bear skeletons and humans buried together at this time. Whilst taming them is one thing, domestication is much more difficult. Dogs already existed and were fairly competent enough at hunting already, plus they competed with polar bears over meat. We see that the number of dog and polar bear reminds often fluxed over this period, and that the polar bear became “semi-domesticated”. Tame ones would be kept separate from each other, and the ones less aggressive towards humans were selected for, until eventually the breed could walk around settlements and interact with humans without causing alarm. They would go into the nearby waters to catch seals with human assistance. Unfortunately, they cannot travel much further south, for it is too warm for them and another bear is already occupying the area, which has the subtle difference of being coloured brown.

-One of the Elders, Orcemun, proposes that, since better weapons and tools come from the south, they must have greater resources of copper and other material. An expedition is sent south on the new sailing ships. Not only do they find some meagre amounts of copper, but they find that the land is warmer and far more varied in plant and animal life. After returning with the news, the Elders decide to send colonists to expand into the territory and build permanent settlements. The largest, over the course of years, becomes nearly a full-fledged settlement (about as much of a city as the Ibolozi can make) called Ula Borgium. However, the Native Tuca tribes, those that trade weapons with the Ibolozi, don't like the settlements being placed in their lands. Small skirmishes erupt between the tribes but it hasn't reached the level of full scale war. Though war can net the Ibolozi valuable weapons, tools, territory, and copper, but there is always a chance that this will disrupt trade with other southern peoples, or that the Ibolozi could lose the war. In the meantime, traders from lands even farther south arrive bringing shiny items that look very appeasing, along with bags of a “yellow seed”. It takes much negotiating, a dog, and several seal pelts to "seal" the deal, but one of the governors of the region gets his hands on large amounts of the stuff, spurring Uglik's interest in the southlands.

-Maize is introduced in small quantities to the Northwest at this time, mostly by traders plying the coasts and keeping in contact with Mesoamerica. With the development of the bronze trade spurred on by people to the Far East, trade routes are also heading up the west coast when it is found that people there are also interested in trade. We find the first evidence of maize cultivation throughout California and the Pacific coast in general during this time. As far north as their homelands however, growing maize is impossible, and can only really be done in the warmer lands to the south. The lack of knowledge about agriculture makes it worse, with the maize crop failing often and only improving after decades of experimentation. However, as fishing is rather rich, most of these settlements can treat a river itself like a farm or land, even splitting up parts of it for ownership and the fish being smoked or bathed in a seawater solution to keep it from spoiling.

BalticFlag
StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-The Baltic Entente came about as the idea that if the peoples of the Baltic Sea stood together under one flag that they would be able to stand up to raiders menacing the region and protect themselves from foreign armies. As time went on, this idea began to appeal to the Latvians in particular, who sought to turn Riga into a trading hub. Jiri, leader of the Latvians, sent envoys promoting unification to the Lithuanians, fellow Balts, and to the Finnic Livonians, who spoke another language, yet shared close ties with the other two peoples. As a show of his commitment to the cause, Jiri led a mixed force of Lats and Liths to victory over foreign pillagers at the Battle of Tallinn, driving the invaders from the Estonian hub. Shortly after this, the three peoples united, placing their hopes and dreams of prosperity on the chance that the Entente would succeed. Jiri appeared to have made his point, and the people put their faith in him as king.

-Deism emerges as a fusion of native pagan ideas and Germanic mythology, and is adopted as the state religion.

-The use of ironworking technology has spread from southern and central Europe well into the Baltic now. The Baltic peoples add their own refinements, such as building small bloomeries to smelt iron in, along with training professional blacksmiths to work iron into tools, weaponry, and armour. A type of nail is invented in the process, allowing for the advent of timber framed buildings. Using planks and logs, a stronger house with more room inside can be built. Stone is also used in construction, and turf roofs are popular as well, for one can graze sheep on them. Eventually, iron mines are dug and a domestic ironworking industry is born.

-Looking to strengthen their position in the region, the entente sends troops to seize the island of Saaremaa at the mouth of the Gulf of Riga, in order to make a statement to the Germanic peoples of the southwest. Small wharves and docks pop up throughout lands held by the Entente, which are just as much used to resupply patrolling longboats as trading ones. During this time, the first stages of Riga castle are built, with the king seeing it as vital for controlling trade routes in the area and to help protect the town. Scouts also travel into central Europe with the intention of announcing the establishment of the Entente, to which the many varied chiefs and lords of Europe say that the event little concerns them.

-The integration of the Baltic and Finnic people in the region is going well, taking in Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, as well as Finns and a tiny number of Northern Germans looking to abandon the raiding life. With King Jiri in charge, the country begins to take shape, and early laws guaranteeing basic freedoms in all lands under the crown are declared. The Entente also fans inland from Riga in all directions, the idea of a stable kingdom appealing to many in the region who have long felt threatened by frontier raiders and wild animals.

ArhoniaFlag
Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-The Arhonics were an ethnic group native to Sweden originally, but have since made the journey to the Rhine River and settled down. Their name now reflects their new homeland, as the river is now named "The Arhone".

-Their religious beliefs, Hutonism, believes in the worship of a god known as Huton, who is responsible for all fortune and good in the world, as well as the creation of the human race. Another god exists in Hutonism, Hutons brother, Ruton, who causes all misfortune and bad. Prophecy states that Ruton and Huton will have a battle to end all battles, it will end with Rutons destruction and the end of pain, suffering, and misery.

-The Arhonians begin massing grand raiding parties and raid small and weak neighbouring Celtic villages for loot. Their proudest and bravest warriors tend to go on these raids, with them boasting of their bravery as they cut down defenceless women and children.

-As the Arhonians settle the banks of the Arhone and push out the old inhabitants, they are mutually supported or meet varied other Germanic tribes, who moved south from Scandinavia to settle Germania over the past few centuries. One notably curious invention of the Arhonians is a heavy iron plough, with wheels attached to help guide it. Pulled by oxen (horses are a rarity), the new invention helps to break up the heavier soils of northern Europe and plough deeply to bring forth rich nutrients for the crop. This invention allows for improved agricultural output, more land to be put under the plough, and the increased speed also saves time for other jobs. They quickly displace the Celtic tribes and settle the flat low lying lands and peat lands. The latter is gradually shrinking in size due to human activities, forcing a movement every few decades as the sea claims the sinking land. The innovation is also spreading to their neighbours, helping to make their arrival distinctive. They trade frequently with their neighbours, and also tend to be as decentralized as them. Raids on each other are common.

-When the coalition declares war on Rome, a large army led by the king links up with the Phoenician army near the Alps, from then on, following and supporting the Phoenician army on the path to Rome. Supplied with heavy clothing and as much food as possible, they cross the Alps. Many Gallic and Germanic tribes and mercenaries join them on the way, crossing over the Alps and marching south into Italy. They recruit from neighbouring barbarian villages, promising them gold and riches once they loot the city of Rome.

-Due to the Fabian strategy of the Romans, the barbarians are quickly thinned out, and the Arhonians start to desert. When the news of Hannibals departure arrived, the Arhonians tried to flee as the advancing Mrvian and Laubergian armies came towards them. Many soldiers were captured as slaves, and the King himself had to hide in a dung cart in order to travel north back to his Kingdom. On the arrival home, he and many other soldiers managed to loot the bodies of many dead people and loot a great deal of villages on the way back. They end up bullshitting to their families that they burned Rome to the ground and stole all of its gold.

Turn 11: 1 to 250 CE

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate IV04:47

Ancient Roman Music - Musica Romana - Pugnate IV

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn11PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 11

CreationofCenturiesTurn11CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 11

CreationofCenturiesTurn11ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 11

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=41930437&viewfull=1#post41930437


Turn quote: Them’s Romans think they’re minted, but they ain’t rich like me

Events of the years 1 CE to 250:

-Note to all: Christianity is spreading and is forming many different sects. All players who intend on replacing their religion with Christianity will have the option to intervene in the early councils to see the religion unified, along with trying to establish if several cities share the religion or a single one dominates. The location of these cities is also important, so for Christian nations, it’s a chance to get the heart of Christendom put in your country or share the power between your Christian allies. If the city is established in your country and you possess control of it, you will wield significant power over this new religion. Several such cities will appear depending on the actions a country takes to establish Christianity and their branch of it.

-The wheel, rice farming, and Bronzeworking has spread down the Mississippi river, with many societies along it abandoning their former lifestyles and committing to agriculture and metalwork. Dog chariots are a grand novelty, although wheeled light carts and travois are becoming increasingly widespread. The lack of large mammals (minus humans and teams of dogs) to pull them is still a considerable problem however.

-The Parthian Empire collapses, and is duly replaced by the Sassanid dynasty. They engage in several wars with the Selecuid Empire and Egypt, along with Armenia, taking vast stretches of land.

-Whilst a religion similar to Christianity has existed for a long time, particularly in England before migrating into Iberia, it was largely unorganized. Several Jewish people in the Seleucid Empire inde-pendently came up with a near identical version but with organized rituals and liturgy. They travel around preaching before discovering the existence of such people in Iberia already. On arrival they insert themselves quietly into those societies and compile religious texts, one of which is the bible, written in Greek. However, as many writings from before this time are often dubious, most historians are of the opinion that the Iberians practiced a similar enough faith that Christian missionaries were able to establish a church there and to rapidly convert people.

-Christianity becomes widely popular in the Seleucid and then Sassanian Empires, although fights and tensions with the Zoroastrians is a problem. It also spreads to Rome, where followers are persecuted by the authorities there. It is also becoming more widespread throughout Greece and Macedon, and is a widely popular eastern religion. Bizarrely it somehow holds strongly in Iberia, where it has strong state support. Bishops are prominent here as well, and the church is considerably powerful in Iberia, if disorganized.

-The actual founding myth itself involves a Seleucid official hearing that a troublesome Jewish man by the name of Brian had been found collaborating with the Judean Peoples Front. After proclaiming he was not the messiah, he is later executed.

-The Neoclassical period begins in Egypt. It is marked by a rediscovery of old Egyptian treasures and findings, along with many philosophers writing on the Egyptian past. The current ruling pharaohs are hostile towards Christianity, using executions to try and make an example of these dissidents. Many pharaohs also try to prove they are descended from the earliest rulers over 40 dynasties ago, but such efforts go poorly. Christianity eventually leaks into the country, and becomes popular. Cotton growing is becoming popular in Egypt as well, although textile production is fairly low. It is mainly exported as raw cotton to the Phoenicians, at least until they introduced mercantile restrictions on foreign trade. The Egyptians invaded the Seleucid Empire during this time and took much of the Levant, leading to a Jewish and Christian diaspora, given their hostility to the religion. The Sassanid’s eventually went to war with Egypt and exhausted it before taking most Egyptian gains made in the war with the Seleucids. The dynasty collapsed and Egypt entered another period of instability and civil infighting.

-The phalanx formation is becoming increasingly inadequate in this day and age. Victories by the Greeks are not permanent, with the Macedonians abandoning the Phalanx in favour of more flexible soldier, drill, and tactics. Such reforms are adopted in wake of failures against the Delian league. The Roman army also adopts new drill and dress, using segmented armour and pioneering formations such as the “testudo”.

-The Roman Empire adds several new holdings to their lands. They conquer Corsica, more of Southern Gaul and Eastern Iberia, alongside with Dalmatia. They however lose much of Epirus to the Greeks in several wars with them, although the adoption of new military reforms significantly shifted the balance of power and warned the Greeks of further expansion. The Empire is also seeing significant numbers of Christian converts, mostly among the plebeians and slaves.

-With the victory in the wars of the prior centuries (or so assumed), the Mrvian Emperor suggested a name for the Mrvian-Roman-Macedonian-Laubergian alliance. Asking the ruler of Rome to decide the name of the alliance, he gave it the name "Magnum quattuor" (The Big Four, in Latin). A treaty is signed where they split up the land inbetween each other, although nobody is truly happy with the results, most especially the native inhabitants of Dalmatia, Illyria, Thrace, and Pannonia. Eventually, the alliance between Macedon and Rome breaks down, followed by that between Rome and Laubergia. Small scale skirmishes and wars eventually break out between Laubergia and Rome.

SpainFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Generic)

-Christians from Judea discover a society where they practice an almost identical religion to themselves, with the exception that it is unorganized. Quietly inserting themselves in and reforming it slightly, they announce to people they should be eating bread and drinking wine in a strange ceremony and must not succumb to worldly temptations.

-With travel difficult overland, a professional group of engineers, masons, and other assorted weirdoes with a strange and almost fetishistic fascination with roads decide to work towards the improvement of existing roads and expansion of new ones to cities and towns throughout the Iberian Peninsula. They match Roman roads in quality, with good drainage, wide enough for the biggest of carts, with low gradients and straight, often cutting through hills or rising over rivers.

-The new Spanish state, after much reorganization and reincorporation of lands that left to seek protection of the Portuguese, assemble a vast army and march north. Arriving in the motherland, they fight bitterly to wipe out those adhering to the old ways. Many towns and cities are sieged and burned to the ground. The old idols are pulled down and destroyed, with many temples turned to rubble and used to build new churches. The word of Christ has been brought in force, and crosses now adorn the central plaza of every town and city. A church is later built around each cross, with splinters from them often being mistaken for the one that Brian was crucified on.

-The navy is reformed again and rebuilt, with most of the improvement coming from the better quality of recruits. Beforehand, the cream of the Spanish navy tended to be press ganged drunks. Of course, protecting these trade routes in conjunction with improving roads has yielded great results for trade, as many goods travel from the east towards the gradually civilizing north of Europe, which is developing monetary economies and urban civilization.

LaubergianTribeFlag
Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Worship of the Great Eagle

-A new type of siege weapon has come into use. As staff slings became common throughout the ancient world, somebody took a good look at one and then wondered “why not make it bigger?” He proceeds to build a large frame for a swinging arm with a sling, complete with ropes for men at the front to pull down on. It can be used to hurl large rocks considerable distances and if enough are employed, it can even batter down a building.

-With the victory in the wars of the prior centuries (or so assumed), the Mrvian Emperor suggested a name for the Mrvian-Roman-Macedonian-Laubergian alliance. Asking the ruler of Rome to decide the name of the alliance, he gave it the name "Magnum quattuor" (The Big Four, in Latin). A treaty is signed where they split up the land inbetween each other, although nobody is truly happy with the results, most especially the native inhabitants of Dalmatia, Illyria, Thrace, and Pannonia. Eventually, the alliance between Macedon and Rome breaks down, followed by that between Rome and Laubergia. Small scale skirmishes and wars eventually break out between Laubergia and Rome.

-The amber and precious metals tribe with peoples to the north expand with the acquisition of several new trade routes and waterways crucial to the trade. Gold and silver are being mined and sent off for export (or minted into coins), whilst trading ships travel as far away as Spain and the Near East. It is along these trade routes that Christianity arrives in Laubergia as a small underground religious movement.

-It is unknown how precisely the war began, but a group of Roman officers hailing from Iberia visit a Laubergian brothel over the border and a problem arises over the issue of payment. Even worse, they are found to be practicing Christians, and are arrested by the local magistrate. The Romans demand that the soldiers be returned in one piece, but the priests are insistent they be branded. Eventually the Romans send in an army to retrieve the offices, but a group of priests with stupid sounding accents sneak in to the prison and murder the officers. It escalates into a war, using the pretext that a badly drawn map by the Mrvian Emperor poorly divided up land between the respective countries. Very little land actually changes hands, and it was mostly pushed through to try and prevent the war from escalating and to appease the Romans. It does not do a very good job, as now the Romans believe they can get involved in the internal politics of the Kingdom. Several priests are even found collaborating with the Romans, and are duly executed.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Chandax
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-Grinding grain is a time consuming endeavour, and somebody notices that streams possess a lot of untapped power. Putting a wheel with planks nailed to it into the steam and adding an axle, it spins around to turn a grindstone for the grinding of grain. They are extremely productive, but of course why do that when one has slaves to work for you? Well, the Emperor had something to say about that.

-The Emperor bans slavery, but to tide over the nobility, replaces it with a slightly different system. Your slave still has to work for you, but he only is obligated to spend several days of the week doing so. He keeps his own land which he farms, and the noble is entitled to rule over his subjects much like a petty king. He can no longer arbitrarily kill slaves, and some modicum of legal proceedings must take place before punishments are meted out. The nobility quickly realizes that the newly invented watermill is a considerable boon as they can build one on the local stream and charge people to use it. Whilst the serfs grumble, it does save them time to do other things, and nobles also begin to maintain private armies. Since they were given that land by the king, they often have to fight in his wars. Thus a new system has come about. Many freemen also exist of course, and they provide military service or payment in kind for renting the land from a noble. Since this is an island society, the navy is where all the nobles and soldiers end up going. Merchants opt out with a so called “cowards tax”, used to pay for soldiers to fight in lieu of the merchant. Some nobles and freemen are interested in such a tax as well if it means dodging military duty.

-Canals begin to be constructed, mostly inbetween farming estates and various towns. They are used for controlling the flow of water for watermills, although people also enjoy riding boats in them. Sometime later, somebody has the bright idea of putting a barge in the canal and having it dragged around by horses, although they cannot easily go up or down elevations.

-Some serfs manage to scrape enough money or influence to buy their freedom, travelling to the towns in search of a better life. Disease and the already large number of paupers there mean that chances are pretty low however. Many of them join the royal navy.

-A large fortified palace with multiple walls is built on Crete to protect it from invasion. The same happens on the Balearic Islands. Academies are also set up inside these palaces to educate men on the art of warfare and naval business. Of course, given the rarity of war, they usually buy or build a fast but swift galley ship to raid trading vessels before bringing the loot home. Such boats also sail to Northern Europe and up the rivers of Scythia to raid villages, before returning home with the treasure.

-Merchants from Crete establish a trading guild, and then set up offices in Phoenician and Greek towns. They have a cunning trick whereby using a network of collaborating merchants using fast ships to relay information, they can aggressively expand into new markets and outcompete the native merchants. Another thing they do is try to become the main owners of ships, and attempt to steer trade in their favour. The wealth begins to flow to Crete. The Phoenicians quickly catch onto it, and place heavy restrictions on Daggeran merchants so as to restrict their abilities. Much later, Christians arrive on Crete, trying to convince people that Brian had the right idea.

-Using this money, a colonial expedition by a group of freed serfs led by several nobles travel to the Isle of Mann, following the tin trading route. They establish a town in Cornwall which quickly buys up all of the local production intended for export, and then re-export it themselves with monopolistic control of it.

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Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-Iron is difficult to produce in mass quantities, along with giving it strength. However, various techniques reveal that an alloy of iron named “steel” can be reliably produced for a whole manner of applications, but mostly for weaponry and armour. Cast iron is also introduced, where a furnace can heat the iron until it melts into a liquid, before pouring it into a mold. Whilst brittle, it is a quick and inexpensive way to mass produce iron. Unfortunately, supplies of charcoal are always limited, and thus put an upper limit on iron production.

-The army is reformed extensively, it now being a citizen's army. Several units will make up the bulk of the army, taking tactics and weapons mostly from the Romans and Greeks. These units are:

--The Poeni. These are pikemen armed with Portuguese pikes. They employ phalanx tactics and are intended to screen the flanks of the heavy infantry. They quickly fall out of favour as they are inflexible and slow moving on the field. Missile support can only go so far, and so are side-lined by…

--The Darak. These are heavy infantry derived from Roman legions. They more or less use the same equipment, and are relentlessly drilled until they're extremely disciplined, but are more intended to hold a line and grind down the enemy, supported by…

--The Longbows. Troops equipped with Portuguese-style longbows, trained from the age of 14 to fire accurately and in volleys. They are intended to stay behind the lines and provide supporting fire.

--The Seher-Seher. Essentially like the old Seher'Seher but with the addition of a Hyphen and Melee cavalry. They're intended to harass the enemy supply lines, and also to screen the far flanks of the main force.

-All this tied together by a system of horseback riders delivering messages to increase quality of communications and professional Non-commissioned officers.

-Non-citizens and some slaves are granted citizenship and pensions after they finish several years of service, thus giving a strong impetus to sign up for many of the poor and disposed. Many foreigners sign up as well, bringing their strange languages and customs with them.

-A colony is established in Morocco, and the Phoenicians begin to slowly adopt mercantile policies after aggressive competition from Daggeran merchants begins to cause problems for their merchants. Attempts to grow cotton, to produce cheese, and paper don’t get very far. Cotton cannot grow very well in Phoenicia, and often competes with food on prime agricultural land. The Egyptians however, are much better suited to growing cotton, and out-compete the Phoenician farmers until mercantile policies were introduced. Even then, most farmers are not much bothered to grow cotton anyways.

-A war with Numidia goes militarily successfully, but in terms of economic and social policy it is a failure. The war drains the treasury of the state and having to deal with foreign competition along with funding the navy is a problem. The Numidians are driven west and east, with several areas falling to Phoenician forces, having governors appointed to rule over them. At least they don’t try to convert the people’s religion or cultures, and they do bring aqueducts. Meanwhile, in order to control the weakened league of cities further, the government centralizes all powers on the island of Malta, assuming control of the army and taxation. The other cities are not in much of a position to complain, and any annoyed citizens tend to immigrate to the Moroccan colony anyways. A second one is established at the Pillars of Hercules to try and control some of the trade going by the straits.

-The Phoenicians also find a way to deal with elephants. They throw large metal tripods with spikes on them around, and wait for elephants to walk on them whereupon they go insane in pain and flee from the plain.

-Christianity arrives in Phoenicia, but is mostly the religion of the lowly, sometimes bordering on the underground.

VelkijDonaljeaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Apatheism (Unofficially Pržk)

-The Empire has begun to see a shift in military warfare. With the stirrup, horseshoe, saddle and heavy lance now in existence, a cavalryman can wear heavy armour and do rather powerful charges on his opponents. He can run off and regroup with his fellows for another charge, repeatedly battering the enemy lines into submission. This tactic is not new, but the improvements to riding gear means that a cavalryman could stand up in his stirrups and attack somebody below, plus the saddle and horseshoe prevents a great deal of discomfort to the horse and allows it travel greater distances. The composition of the army is gradually changing over this period to make use of combined arms, although heavy cavalry is favoured.

-Watchposts, gates, and towers are built at the borders of the empire along roads, waterways, and other passes of interest. Whilst intended to give warning of future invasion, in practice they mostly collect tolls and act as watchmen and a policing force. Still, the income is helpful, even if the merchants and peasantry don’t like paying tolls.

-With the victory in the wars of the prior centuries (or so assumed), the Mrvian Emperor suggested a name for the Mrvian-Roman-Macedonian-Laubergian alliance. Asking the ruler of Rome to decide the name of the alliance, he gave it the name "Magnum quattuor" (The Big Four, in Latin). A treaty is signed where they split up the land inbetween each other, although nobody is truly happy with the results, most especially the native inhabitants of Dalmatia, Illyria, Thrace, and Pannonia. Eventually, the alliance between Macedon and Rome breaks down, followed by that between Rome and Laubergia. Small scale skirmishes and wars eventually break out between Laubergia and Rome.

-The Emperor also asks Macedon to Hellenize Thrace extensively, so as to help solidify control over the area. The Macedonians do not do very much however, and continue with existing policies where they live in the towns and cities and leave the rest of the Thracians and Daggerians to live on their farms scratching a living from the soil.

-Because of the considerable tolerance of foreign faiths here, Christianity makes significant inroads among the poor and enslaved. Arianism is a very popular branch of the religion here, but some bishops belonging to other branches call it a heresy. A significantly minority within the country adhere to the teachings of Brian.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-With the rising volume of trade, movement of goods, increasing size and complexity of architecture, and need to accurately measure and calculate quantities, the formal study of mathematics is starting to become seriously respected. One chap decides that he will try to work out the exact value of the ratio between the circumference and the diameter of a circle. He gets a wheel and then spins it around; measuring the distance it travels in a single rotation. After doing this with many wheels, he confidently places the figure at 22/7, claiming that he has worked out the exact value of this strange constant. Soon afterwards, a lot of buildings are built with this constant worked into it somehow, under the belief that it holds religious significance. Somebody also later realizes that this 22/7 figure seems somehow wrong after he starts drawing polygons. He eventually founds a school of philosophical thought that holds that this constant cannot ever be obtained. It comes into conflict with the older which holds that the exact value of pi has already been computed. Members of each school are often beaten up and scribble increasingly longer figures of pi on each other’s school buildings as a form of graffiti.

-Maize, and later, the turkey, are introduced to these people are around this time. Increasing diversification of agriculture has also come about with the result that whole manners of dishes can be prepared and served for every occasion. There is a significant lack of meats however (dogs and turkeys are not yet exploited on a significant scale), eggs are a luxury, and fishing makes up the bulk of peoples source for protein. Diets have declined ever since the adoption of agriculture, especially now that hunting is very difficult. Forests are starting to be managed for the purpose of extracting timber or to act as hunting grounds for the nobility.

-Expansion begins to gradually slow down however. Expanding further north is much a bother due to the cold weather restricting agriculture. The limited abilities of fishing and the small size of boats mean that coastal expansion is also slow. Finally, to the south and the Appalachians the land is either too hilly or boggy. Beavers and the people to the south are responsible. The beavers dam up the streams and flood the land, with saline water being allowed to penetrate deeply and make much of the land unsuitable for habitation. The original inhabitants live there comfortably however, if not without the comforts of civilized people to the north.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-Seeing that recording events of the past and present can be a useful tool for any politician to have access to, a system of writing is adopted after hearing from traders of a way of keeping information by putting scribbles down on various items. These scribbles initially are used to represent concepts and items more than anything else, and it takes long before somebody decides to start using a sound for each letter in their alphabet.

-Taxes on beards are introduced, and almost instantly the entirety of the Kingdom becomes clean shaven. A few grumbles and complaints are heard, but nothing too large. Nobles meanwhile take to wearing beards as a sign of showing off their wealth.

-The King, in his infinite wisdom, makes this announcement to his nobles:
“The zulus are fucking angry”.

-A little while later, the Zulu begin another series of military campaigns, looting and pillaging villages before bringing them under their control. Ironworking has begun to slowly spread south into this part of the world, or is otherwise being independently developed. Whatever the case, the old bronze trade routes are falling apart and people are starting to switch to iron. The disruption is often an excuse for war and expansion along trade routes.

WeeabooFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-Given that Wapan is an island nation, good ships capable of long voyages are essential. Taking influences from China, a type of ship named the Junk is introduced, along with other innovations such as anchors and rudders. These ships are capable of sailing as far as Vietnam and back, along with all the goods that could be bought from such a voyage. The merchants are keen to build such ships in great numbers, sending them overseas to trade with China and Southeast Asia. The ports begin to swell considerably and the wealth of the mercantile classes grows, putting the nobility at considerable unease.

-Iron begins to be imported, along with being mined. Sufficient quantities now exist to permit the construction of crossbows and various other weapons and armours introduced from China. These weapons are used en masse in the later “war on the Ainu”. In the war, the Shinigami sneaked around murdering leaders and setting houses on fire. Sometime later, the army arrives and begins to kill off the Ainu. This is taking a considerable deal of time though, and many of them are hiding in the wilds before launching ambushes on them. The savage Ainu has yet to be tamed. Crops are burned and Wapanese are murdered as the conflict escalates into generations spanning feuds.

-The Emperor establishes a formalized legal system that implies punishment for most basic crimes, sets the age of consent (and marriage) to 14, infers death penalty for murder, paedophilia and spreading religions other than Waifuism and strengthens the abilities of the Emperor to pass and enforce laws, along with settling disputes. The most common way of death penalty is the so called “feeding the earth”: the perpetrator is burnt alive, with the remains being used as fertilizer. The process of the execution is often referred to as “cooking the Earth a meal.” Along with this, the first Wapanese courts of law and prisons appear, run by magistrates appointed by the Emperor or his governors.

-The restrictions on Ainus are loosened, making them more serfs than slaves. At the same time however, the state introduces a single-child law for the Ainus: they are only allowed to have a single child in the family. Breaking the law is punishable by having your entire family fed to the Earth. But you will not be punished if one of the parents is of Wapanese ethnicity. At the same time, the Wapanese are encouraged to reproduce by subsidies to families that have 3 or more children and are entirely of Wapanese ethnicity. Of course this is very costly since most families have 3 or more children. In practice, the subsidies are given to people settling the north.

-The Ainu become target of a new policy by regional governors and the state to ensure their complete removal. Cold resistant crops and methods are introduced to Hokkaido so as to allow settlement of the island by the Wapanese. The Ainu who flee into the wild are to be chased out and starved, with them rounded up and put into serfdom or executed. A great deal of rebellions happen, but after more than two centuries of this, the Ainu have been exterminated from the face of the earth. Settlements on the island itself remain limited however.

-Settlements are begun on Sakhalin and other parts of northern Wapan. These people take to the seas where they find that whales are in relative abundance, and hunt them. The processed goods from their carcasses are exported to China, Korea, and Indonesia, where dipping food in whale oil is considered a delicacy. A Japanese whaling boat later becomes lost in a storm as whalers move out into the North Pacific. It lands in an odd land inhabited by fishermen and hunter-gatherers, who speak no language common to them. They meet with one of the groups and give them an iron axe in return for food, before sailing home and recounting the tale.

-Waifuism goes underground in China, trying to convert the young so as to gain toeholds. The Chinese realize what is happening, and seize all the priests they can find. Some commit suicide, but the rest are executed. A ban is declared on Wapan, applicable to all Wapanese within the country. Many go into hiding or are forced to leave the country, and the ports are shut down to Wapanese traders.

-The Wapanese merchants suffer considerably, and gradually relocate to Korea, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Whilst the clergymen and merchants are tolerated there, they won’t be forever. A religious tithe is then introduced, the proceeds of which are used for the upkeep of the church and some basic forms of social security and welfare. Many of these tithes go to supporting foreign missionaries.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-As populations rise and crowd on the existing land, somebody realizes that better ways to make use of this limited resource might be wise. Houses begin to be built into each other, and then the walls start to slowly become straight and meet at right angles. Soon thereafter, the first streets appear and houses begin to have ladders and multiple rooms built on top. The first urban area appears, called Ulysses, although the name was given to that area for many years before. It is during the first few centuries of the Common Era that we find evidence of urban planning and sophisticated architecture in common use. The layers above show increasing sophistication and beauty over time as well, along with the establishment of architecture as something to study.

-A large expansion of conquest starts southwards, seeking to subjugate the inland villages. The army does something rather interesting when they arrive. They end inter-tribal conflict to the best of their ability and try to reduce violence under their own rule. These villages eventually come to see the benefits of being under such rule, as they can trade and farm freely without worrying about being killed. The King helps extensively with this. He enters each village and organizes the clearing of land for roads, the introduction of plants and animals (collared peccaries and maize being the two main ones), the repairing of people’s houses, and recruitment of their bloodthirsty young men into the army to serve abroad.

-A shrine to Titus is built in every new village, helping to solidify control and to spread the word of Titus. A centralized network eventually develops, reliant on the roads for good communications and transportation. With these, any rebellions can be easily located, isolated, and crushed.

-Traders and various travellers are commissioned by the King to travel throughout Mesoamerica to open trade routes and to bring back items of cultural worth. They succeed in helping to pioneer many routes, along with introducing the various backward peoples in-between them and Mexico to their collared peccaries and agriculture. In return, the people of Xerxes eventually master maize farming and even have access to copper and cacao beans. There is also news of new novelties the traders have seen but have yet to bring back, such as wheels, turkeys, and rice.

PortugalFlag
Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Generic)

-Concrete is invented for the purpose of making big buildings that don’t fall down easily. Limestone is taken and heated in a furnace to draw off the impurities. It is then mixed with water to create lime, and then mixed with sand and volcanic ash to make concrete. Not only is it strong, but it can even set underwater! It is used for all types of constructions, including roads. The Spanish are keen to send over roadbuilders, who help to expand the network throughout Portugal.

-Christians from Judea discover a society where they practice an almost identical religion to themselves, with the exception that it is unorganized. Quietly inserting themselves in and reforming it slightly, they announce to people they should be eating bread and drinking wine in a strange ceremony and must not succumb to worldly temptations.

-The lands held by nobles who fled to Portugal during the civil war is returned to Spain in a formal ceremony, and an alliance is reaffirmed where they will assist in the war against the pagans to the north. They do so, although the casualties are considerably high. A chronicler writes that “[They] had the flesh hanging off the bones”.

-In a nod to the Church, a great Cathedral named “Catedral de Lisboa” is constructed in the capital city. It is the largest Christian building on earth, complete with a carved image of Brian at the end of the hall on the cross. A massive dome made of concrete graces the building. For the establishment of the headquarters of Christianity, Lisbon is starting to look like a good choice.

WizterbienFlag
Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-The longbow is introduced to the people of this country. Making it is considerably difficult, along with training to use to weapon itself and to manufacture enough arrows to keep the archer supplied. It becomes a weapon of an elite group of soldiers trained from childhood to use it, although replacing these men is difficult. They do perform excellently in battle though, giving volleys of accurate arrow showers from great distance. A well placed cavalry charge could easily destroy them however, and so they are of limited effectiveness in battle.

-Expansion into hostile or neutral villages continues, with the army and navy steadily growing into large and organized entities. The sale of slaves is profitable, and also helps to get rid of Christian troublemakers within the country. The money from sales can be spent to expand the scope and scale of wars, meaning more slaves, and in turn, more money for more wars and slaves. Many villages, having seen what happens, often surrender instead, declaring fealty to the King and keeping many of their old traditions intact. Taxes are always a starting point for rebellions, of which there is a considerable number. The slave supply remains considerably strong.

-A grand university begins construction in the capital, intended to give the nobility a good education and a veneer of civilization on top to prove to the world that this country is forwards looking, civilized, and modern. Various magistrates and rulers suggest to potters to change their industry in case of depression, but as it is merely advice they are often ignored, with large potteries having booms and busts over the years. Instead, officials spend money on the building and expansion of road networks throughout the country, mostly as a means of getting to rebellious areas quickly so as to put down a revolt before it becomes a real problem.

-Mehdi Ziad Edgar Fareed Wissergoel VIII, better known in history as Fareed Witzergoel VIII, Gurjiyahh (king) of Wizterbien, dies in 67 CE at the age of thirty-five. His sudden death caused a crisis among the nobility, since he had not sired any children and most of his immediate relatives eligible for rule were dead. With his untimely death, the great House of Witzergoel, whom had provided a consecutive line of Gurjiyahhs' to rule the Tozholleronese since the late 800s' BCE, has effectively gone extinct. Although, a noble from its Hursmans-Witzergoel cadet branch, Gabir Ghalib Heike Talib Wissergoel (or simply Heblib Wissergoel I), was a potential for the throne, he was a known Maggaqarist. Fervent Ecekdorisist clerics and nobles scoffed at the idea of bending the knee to a Maggaqarist Gurjiyahh. Moreover, according to ancient customs, a Maggaqarist was ineligible to rule.

-In the following year, over thirty hundred attendees would convene for what would be known as the Council of Sbia. The council would determine who would rule over the Tefullmorostan, lasting for several weeks before the council would finally come to a solid agreement. The next Gurjiyahh who would succed Fareed Witzergoel III would be a popular noble, Joël Franz Izz-ud-Din Cassius Snidus (Joël Snidus I), a pro-Ecekdorisist and a seasoned captain in the Shariyyah. In order to avoid upsetting the other sect, a compromise was made; Heblib Wissergoel I would be crowned as Luniarsa-Gurjiyahh (Junior King), and had marginally less powers than Joël has, although the ability to veto actions was still retained.

-After the death of Heblib in 92 CE, the diarchy was in danger of being abolished, but that particular issue ended up being averted by his heir Heblib II anyway. Later in 164 CE however, the second Council of Sbia would finally come to the verdict of abolishing the dual rule, where it was done so in 166 CE following the death of Luniarsa-Gurjiyahh Octavius Wissergoel IV, leaving the Gurjiyahh (then Mihammad Snidus III) the sole ruler once more. In the century following the council, Christianity makes several inroads into the country but only really manages to convert recent conquered people and slaves. Missionaries tend to stay away from this country.

DelianFlag
Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Greek Pantheon

-One of the hallmarks of civilization is the distance one puts between himself and his excrement, or so once said a famous man. The Greeks, whilst having usually built basic sanitation, are taking it to Roman heights. They lay lead or clay pipes, have flushing toilets constructed, fountains built, aqueducts and lakes dammed to provide fresh and reliable water sources to the cities. Whilst the poor do not have plumbing in their own housing, it does keep the streets remarkably clean and reduces the likelihood of disease spreading. Unfortunately, public bathes and toilets remove any advantage gained, as sick people tend to go to these places as doctors hang out there and the waters are often purported to have medical properties.

-Refreshed by the soldiers from city-states new to the league, the army sets out on the warpath against the Romans in Epirus. After several intense battles, the Roman legions are splintered and sent running back to Rome, this being a key drive behind the reform of the Roman army. The Delians then turn to the Macedonians, defeating them in the field and pushing hard on their possessions throughout the countryside, although unable to expand a great deal northwards. The Kingdom of Macedonia itself is busy colonizing and subjugating the Thracians, and so have little interest in the conflict besides holding onto existing possessions. The Macedonians later break their alliance with Rome and drift off to run their own affairs. They sue for peace with the Delians to maintain borders as they are now. Rome also sues for peace, giving the Delians control of Epirus.

-While these campaigns are going on, Greek strategy begins incorporating the legion style into their tactics, using them as flanking units on the edge of central phalanx lines. With the capture of Epirus, famed for its horses, the armoured cavalry becomes more prominent, with both more horses and trained men to ride them. The league also tries to recruit Cretan archers, but the Empire of Dagger has put them all to work in the navy. The Greeks themselves eventually end the war with Rome and Macedon, but often raid Mrvian trading ships.

-After the fall of Epirus to the Romans, the League shelters the King of Epirus. Convincing him to join the League, they send their armies in with a call to return the King to his throne. After the reconquest, Epirus settles into the League. As the League begins shouldering more of the costs of the wars, a tax begins to be collected from each city-state in the League, with the cost being proportional to the citizens within the city. Census data is taken by the bureaucracy for the newly joining city-states to allow this tax.

-The School of Athens emerges at the start of the first century, educating young students and offering a place for people to study the natural world. In an effort to spread the newly found knowledge to the people, the School of Athens begins sending students on large tours of the League where they travel and hold special events; at these events they educate the citizens on the newest findings and philosophies of the day. Whilst people often enjoy coming to these events, it does not leave too great an impression on them. They do begin to turn away from the old pantheon (as hoped for originally), but for unrelated reasons. Christians have arrived, and are spreading the good word of Brian.

IboloziFlag
BananaFoam – Ibolozi Confederation
Capital: Ibbus Sieciwiz
Culture: Siberian (Uralic)
State Religion: East Medith Pantheon

-Increasing output of food leaves time to people to do other important things like intercourse and making things. During this time, the discovery of agriculture and the ability to store food long term means that people can build up food surpluses and use it to create other items. People begin to slowly divide themselves into doing different tasks based on their skills at those tasks. Burial evidence shows graves diversifying and people being buried with the tools of their trade. The need to travel great distances also necessitates professional boat builders and sailors along with traders and the well informed who gather information from other people and the land, then use it for the common good.

-As the work of translating the old oral stories and then committing them to written word, let alone retranslate them again is time consuming, much of the following, whilst purported to be an account of this period, is best treated with some scepticism and awareness that some information may have been lost in translation.

-The skirmishes between the Tuca erupt into a full scale tribal war. The Ibolozi win the war, but at great cost. Many warriors lay dead, but many still are saved by the bone and wood armour, although the casualty rate is not much improved. Aralic, the War Leader of the tribe, begins to see value in such technology. Not only that, but it gives him an idea on how to improve it. For weeks he toils with various different materials, finding which is the most effective. Stone is effective at blocking weapons but is far too heavy. Wood and bone, while effective against sharp edges and weak attacks, is weak against axes or clubs. Wood also fractures violently, lodging splinters in the wearer. However, wood is durable, abundant, and conifers from the north have wood that is lightweight enough to be worn as armour. Woven armour fails to block proper attacks but can stall wood or stone arrows from a range, but not completely negate them. Hides and furs are the same. Inevitably he comes to the conclusion that several types of armour, overlaid, will offer more protection. He teaches this armour working to craftsmen and villagers. The new basic equipment of the Ibolozi is wooden plate covered in hide or woven reeds, and some padded furs on top for warmth, comfort, and to further help stall blows. While it won't block a determined enemy, it is effective at stopping severe damage from wooden arrows and other wooden weapons.

-Strange men in a boat arrive on the northern shores of the confederacy. They wear cloths made of a thin material and appear slightly different. They practice a religion where they worship the “Wahphuu” and give the people of the village an iron axe in return for food. The men sail home never to return.

-Local craftsmen and craftswomen later add on to his invention by creating rudimentary wooden shields to be traded with the armour set. Such shields can also be used to push an enemy over or bust his nose.

-Uglik's rule comes into question. Now an aged man, Uglik is slowly realizing his dream of conquering the Great Valley. He becomes ashamed and hides in his lodgings in grief for many days. Finally, he is approached by the Elders. They propose Uglik make the journey north, to the Whitelands, to bring his chapter as chieftain to an end. Defiant to the end, Uglik strikes one of the Elders and boasts that he will never go north, that even death is afraid of him and that he will live and rule forever. Elder Lozid suggests that, since they are too weak to fight any wars, Uglik should instead go in search of new lands either to settle or to trade with. Uglik, still enraged, demands the Elders leave. Hours later, Uglik is seen departing into the snow with two scouts, Luez and Clirk. They venture along trade routes to the Southeast. Though none of the trio is seen in their homelands again, tales of their exploits occasional flow back home on the mouths of traders. Supposedly Uglik, after years of adventuring, succumbs to wounds he sustains fighting a buffalo. A statue is commissioned in a far off land at a village the trio once saved from raiders, or so say the merchants. Meanwhile, the Elders convene again but come to disagreement over who the new Chieftain must be. Elder Isum suggests that there should be no Chieftain, as the Elders already govern the tribe as a whole just fine and far off settlements usually handle themselves. Eventually it is agreed that they will form what the historians call a Confederacy, though it technically doesn't match an actual confederacy.

-The story of a statue matches the information gained from the excavation of a statue in a small town in the Midwest of the continent. The statue is curiously enough adorned with early bronze trinkets and even has a dogcart buried with it along with several dogs.

-Uglik's "journey" is actually a big farce to lure him away for a huge project. Traders from Ula Borgium sailed south to an island they named Vancuuver and found natives there successfully growing a large harvest of vegetables and berries. Seeing this as a great opportunity to learn the secrets of agriculture, Elder Orcemun sets out to found a colony of his own on the Northern part of the isle. After distracting Uglik (for fear that he would wage war on the people of the island) though he finds that his scouts were correct, he also finds that there are several native tribes dominating the island by force. Orcemun finds the Native Katyuks, who are peaceful enough to approach. He strikes a deal. Rather than pay the traditional tribute that foreign tribes pay when entering the Confederacy, he instead will give them protection from the marauding tribes in exchange for the secrets of agriculture. The Katyuks agree, and before long the Ibolozi colony is growing crops. They strike back against the raiding Natives, forcing them off the island, allowing more settlements to be set up and flourish. However, Orcemun dies peacefully of old age before he gets to see the island come under their complete control. In other parts, the lands east of the traditional Ibolozi settlements, having long been exposed to the Ibolozi culture and actually being inhabited by some Ibolozi people, are annexed by the tribe. The sparse settlements hold little of value that the Ibolozi don't already have, but annexing them has enabled them to control valuable hunting grounds. The actual population density is exceedingly low, and any sort of settled life there is practically impossible.

-Life on the island is not much better either. The crops can only grow during certain times of the year and are largely undomesticated. No staple crop exists either, so even then people are often dependent on fishing, foraging, and hunting. Maize itself has only gotten as far as California, although the residents there do not sell the crop due to lack of demand for it up north.

BalticFlag
StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-Ships of significant sizes are being developed. Unlike their Mediterranean cousins they are sailing in something more akin to a big lake than the sea. They have flatter bottoms and rowers, but are also lightweight and possible to carry. The great galleys to the south are too heavy and bulk y for up here, and so lightweight rowing ships that can go up and down rivers are used instead. They employ a single large sail and rarely have towers built on them. A merchant version named the Knarr does not have rowers, but is useful for the large scale transportation of goods over water.

-The news of Rome's shenanigans reaches as far north as The Entente, and the King says that the army shall have to be made stronger so as to repel such a thread to their people. The army then promptly proceeds to attack villages and towns around the island of Osel before taking them over. They begin to gradually bring the Balts under control, along with the highly lucrative amber road. With duties on trade and expansion of roads, ports, and shipbuilding, there is a lot of money to be made. Traders are starting to sail west as well towards the Germans in Scandinavia and Germania, establishing trade routes and subtly moving the sphere of trade in the process.

-Fishing and lumber are two highly supported industries. This is the great age of food production, whereby many old forests untouched since the Palaeolithic are cleared and tilled. Crops are planted and the timber is exported for sale or used for construction. Forestry management eventually arises as somebody realizes one day there is a shortage of timber for fuel and building. Iron production is also limited by charcoal production, a considerable problem.

-News of the aftermath of War of The First Coalition reaches The Entente by means of scouts reporting back from the central European region near Velkij Donaljea, and public opinion is mixed. A large portion of the population seeks isolationism from the rest of the known world, but the current monarch insists that the best thing to do in these times is to go forth and instructs the soldiers pushing the frontier, citing this as leverage when negotiating more communities into assimilation under the crown, promising protection from conflicts that the country has no say in. This strategy works quite effectively and saves some bloodshed in expansion, although most people are annoyed at the idea of being taken over by a foreigner and being told what to do. Wars last a while but are ultimately in favour of the Entente.

-One of the many lessons learned from the conflict is one of military strategy. The king, unhappy with the current state of the military as ragtag farmers and other labourers, sets in motion decrees for the reform of the armies, starting with the establishment of a full-time professional army under his control and manufactories owned and operated by the crown to supply weapons, armour, and supplies for his men. Iron age logistics and industrial production is low however, especially in a predominantly agricultural society, so this army resembles a bodyguard more than an actual army.

ArhoniaFlag
Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-Boats begin to change in design, developing into a style quite unlike of the ships to the far south. With flat bottoms, being long and thin, along with banks of oars and a sail, a flexible type of sailing boat is made which can cross the high seas and goes upriver, and is even light enough for the crew to drag overland. The rising population means that more warriors are heading out to raid now, and raiders sometimes meet each other on the Rhine. Of course, the Celts and Germans they are raiding aren’t too happy about this, and begin to form larger confederations of tribes to fight off these threats. Some wealthy people respond by building fortifications or hiding their money elsewhere.

-The raiders also kidnap young children from conquered Celt villages and send them back home, where they will be adopted by Germanic families to learn the German language and culture, as well as indoctrinate them to the religion of Hutonism. After this, they are strongly disciplined and trained into becoming an elite fighting unit, and can take no other occupation besides a warrior. These convert soldiers will become known as the Huutunkundaruug

-An elective monarchy is established, whereby a group of arhonian nobles will choose a appropriate heir from the King's dynasty after he has died, in contrast to the throne being passed down to the oldest son , and all of his lands divided up equally amongst his children.

-The Kingdom expands along the Rhine and Frisian coast. Whilst clearing forests and draining marshes take years, it is much easier to kill somebody and move into his house, a process which takes about twenty five minutes.

Turn 12: 250 to 500 CE

Te Deum - 5th Century Monastic Chant (Solemn)06:18

Te Deum - 5th Century Monastic Chant (Solemn)

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn12PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 12

CreationofCenturiesTurn12CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 12

CreationofCenturiesTurn12ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 12

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=42012437&posted=1#post42012437


Turn quote: Land shortages rising in Europe, solution found by killing people living on it.

Events of the years 250 to 500:

-Around this time in Central Asia, climate change coupled with population expansion has led to Thomas Malthus and his warnings gaining weight. With too many people and too little food, they begin to migrate westwards in search of better land. The Huns, Bulgars, Avars, and other assorted peoples migrate initially to the Pontic steppes before heading into Europe. They force many Germanic and Slavic peoples to pick up and move, with the Germans roughly migrating into former Celtic lands (with the major exception of parts of the Mannish isles), and the Slavs migrating to the Pontic steppe before spreading throughout Eastern Europe at the tail end of this period. A great deal of wars, invasions, bloody battles, and other nasty things happen. Most notably this period sees a transition from Paganism to Christianity, and the collapse of Latin civilization outside of Italy.

-The Franks, Saxons, Burgundinians, Vandals, and other Germans migrate into Gaul, setting up new Kingdoms and displacing the Romans already there. The Romans themselves are badly shaken, with the Emperor losing power in favour of the generals and the papacy. The great cities begin to decline slowly as well, although Latin is still the common tongue and the people call themselves Romans.

-The Chinese invent coke-making, by piling coal and coal dust into a great pile, and setting it on fire. It is not only cheaper than charcoal, but can be produced endlessly. Trees are in short supply, but there is what seems to be an inexhaustible supply of coal underground. Of course, this allows the Chinese to increase iron production massively, although state control of industries and Confucian discouragement of business is a massive brake on this nascent industrial revolution. The Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian meanwhile sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures.

-Several meetings are held by leading Christians over this period. They are all unable to agree to establish a uniform church however, and thus several divisions now exist in Christianity. The main branches are Iberian Christianity (based in Iberia), using a Portuguese-Spanish hybrid for church liturgy and Aquinian Christianity (with a tessarchy of four cities), using Greek for church liturgy. A third group of the remaining Christians is unorganized and mostly occupies the Eastern Mediterranean. They are known as the “Eastern Church”.

-The printing press is now common in most Mediterranean countries, and some of those further afield. They are understandably controlled by the state in most places (so as to prevent distasteful news disseminating) whilst low paper production helps to keep down the number of available texts.

-Armenia adopts Christianity as the state religion, followed by the Kingdom of Aksum. Aksum itself invades the Kushite Kingdom and conquers it.

-The Huns invade the Sassanid Empire, and later on, the Europeans. They sweep down through Mrvia and Laubergia, before ransacking Rome. A campaign against Macedon is also conducted. They continue to march throughout Gaul, ransacking it before dissipating after the death of their leaders. They return to the steppes in much the same way. The successor states of the Huns evolve into the Hunno-Bulgars, occupying the eastern part of the Mrvian Empire and Macedon.

-A large earthquake happens in Crete, causing significant damage on the island and to Mediterranean societies, mostly through tsunamis inundating towns, damaging irrigation systems and ports. It is mostly known for the destruction of the Empire of Daggers Cretan holdings.

-The Ilopango volcano erupts, devastating the Maya civilization and disrupting a lot of trade. Chichen Itza is later founded during this time. As for other events, the adoption of bronze is accelerating in Mesoamerica, gradually fanning out along trading routes. Movement of goods is still heavily restricted, but carts and boats are finally starting to gradually improve, even if only dogs and humans can pull them around. A disease later breaks out, spread by the collared peccary. It devastates Mesoamerica and South America, before spreading north to decimate the North Americans.

-Waifuism and Buddhism establish themselves as religious faiths in Indonesia and the Philippines. Some Indonesians travel on canoes to Madagascar and colonize the island, although they do not bring the new religions or much else with them. Of course, the Zulu Kingdom to the west on the mainland has developed to the extent that people from there can sail to the island to conduct trade, allowing for the settlement and colonization of Madagascar by two quite different peoples.

-The horse collar is invented in China; the heavy plow is now widespread throughout the European steppes, the horseshoe is now common throughout Europe itself, with cavalry becoming increasingly favoured by military leaders.

SpanishFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-A treatise on natural philosophy is written. Inside, it covers (with great detail) observations on physics. The writer observes that an object, when in motion, will eventually come to a stop due to external agents. If these are removed, the object could continue to move indefinitely. He states that were one to place an object in the aether and to push it, it would continue moving in the same direction until it collided with something. He goes on to declare that the heavenly bodies are affected by this same law, and hence rejects a great deal of Aristotle’s old work.

-The Spanish assemble a vast army in the latter part of this period, bulked up considerably by the efforts of the Phoenicians and Portuguese. They march on Roman Iberia, whilst the legions are too concerned with assisting their allies in fighting the Huns. Tarraco is besieged, and when the Romans come to face the Spanish, they are assailed by longbow fire before being smashed by heavy cavalry charges. The Romans had no effective defence, for the arrows can pierce their shields. Dropping the Phalanx formation allows the Spanish to become mobile as well, meaning they can more easily react to the Roman counterattacks. The Spanish also adopt catapults for the first time as well, using them to pepper the Roman formations and to weaken towers and walls of a city before the assault.

-After sieging many Roman cities and taking control of Iberia, the Spanish march north to the Pyrennes to meet a large Vandal army, seeking new lands. They are unsuccessful at stopping all of them, but prevent them from establishing a Vandal state in Iberia. The Vandals instead establish themselves in the Basque country, putting many of the inhabitants there to the sword and taking control for themselves.

-The Spanish agree to submit their church to the Portuguese papacy, and are now formally part of the Iberian church, headquartered in Lisbon. As churches grow ever more opulent and powerful, they begin to acquire lands and start to set up monasteries, indirectly aiding internal colonization. Rising populations needing new land is also a constant problem, so one such way of alleviating it is by moving into the Spanish interior. Monasteries are essential in getting rid of one’s unwanted children.

LaubergiaFlag
Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-Experience of fighting with and against the Romans and civilized peoples to the south has given the Laubergians a great deal of knowledge on military technology and tactics. There is a general decline however, mostly brought on by agriculture reaching its limit and marginal lands being cultivated. The population has gone into some decline, especially due to the collapse of long distance trade (much of it severed by political instability and war). Shield design is somewhat different, so round or oval shaped ones are used in favour of the old Roman shields. They retain and develop a different tactic however, where all the men group up in a line and put their shields together to make a shieldwall. It is impenetrable and presents a strong defence, especially if ones army is situated on top of a hill.

-After the conversion of the Mrvian Emperor to Christianity, the chronicles tell of the Great Eagle of Laubergian fame appearing to him, telling him that he had been given the offer to become the Great Eagle of Christianity, sitting on God's shoulder. He tells him that he accepts God's offer to become an angel. He proceeds to tell the Monarch of Laubergia what had happened, and soon afterwards the King of Laubergia converts to Christianity. He changes his standard as well, throwing off the ancient design and introducing something suitable to fly above armies. A basilica is built in the Laubergian city of Salza, and a bishop is appointed to become one of the patriarchs of the Aquinist Church. The Church is of course exempt from taxes, allowing it to begin accumulating land from donations and to start collecting tithes used to build churches. They convert many of the incoming refugees.

-Walls and watchtowers are built along the borders due to increasing raids. One of the big problems comes with the migrations. Germanic tribes wish to migrate into Laubergia in the search of new homes and land. The Laubergians, on account of shared culture and language, decide to allow them to settle within the Kingdom, whilst the Laubergians expand north to take control of wayward kings who agree that joining Laubergia is better than being killed by the Huns. Of course, the extra population causes significant problems in terms of feeding them all, and many people are reduced to pledging vassalage to a wealthy farmer in return for security. One may lose their freedom, but they will not starve and they are protected by the lord.

-The Huns invade Laubergia shortly after devastating the Mrvian Empire, and despite a few hard fights, they loot and pillage many of the cities of Laubergia. Some have yet to recover, if at all. Salz itself is spared (apparently) when the bishop convinced the Huns to not attack, and for this act he is later canonized. A basilica was built in the city to show that it is one under the protection of god.

DaggerFlag
KingArcher – The Empire of Dagger
Capital: Chandax
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Turkish Pantheon

-The staff sling is growing larger now that the physics behind it is understood. Large wooden frames are built with huge wooden throwing arms and counterweights and/or ropes to pull it down with. Throwing stones, carcasses, or even pots of Greek fire, they are surprisingly accurate and powerful. They can also fire over walls on top of towers or groups of men, from considerable range as well. Built in flatpack kits, they are brought aboard ships, stored in forts, or brought on military campaigns. In conjunction with slingers, they are terrifying to face, as they are the most advanced siege machinery in the world. Only the Chinese can match these weapons.

-Other military reforms and inventions are introduced. Among them are caltrops, segmented armour, Romanesque army tactics, longbows, and pike squares, although the squares are horribly inflexible and have little in the way of support. A subsidy is granted by the Mrvian Empire, which the Daggerans use to not only make or import all this fancy new equipment, but to train a great number of men in its use.

-The cream of the Daggeran Empire supported with many Mrvian nobles and officers, lands in Lygos with the intention of marching on the Turks. However, at the battle, they are suddenly trapped in a large valley and their Greek “allies” desert them before attacking them from the back. The Daggerans suddenly realize that there is no escape, and use their stone throwing trebuchets to keep away the enemy forces. At once stage, the Greek general is directly hit by a boulder. He doesn’t recover. Eventually, the Daggeran forces run out of boulders and water, and worn down by attrition, many of them surrender or desert. A tiny few fight on to the end, and the Emperor is killed. The nobility including Mrvians are captured by the Greeks and then ransomed or executed.

-The aged Empire cannot deal with these problems. Trade is often blockaded by the Greeks, leading to many smuggling runs becoming common. Poverty is rife on the island of Crete. The earthquake is the coup de grace to the whole fiasco, destroying large parts of the urban areas and ruining the internal economy. The raids end much later, if only because there is nothing left to steal. Eventually, large numbers of the poor and desperate immigrate to Cornwall or other overseas lands, where it is said that life is much better. By the end of this period, the population of Crete halved, and many towns were abandoned. The Royal family itself has begun to move to Cornwall due to the considerable wealth to be gained by mining.

-Cornwall itself, which is steadily growing, is becoming swamped by the arrival of these Turks. The local inhabitants are understandably annoyed, with raids and wars happening, but many nobles are keen to join the Daggerans given their access to civilized delights and knowledge of far off markets. There is a general expansion of mines, especially tin and iron, although the lack of charcoal is a limiting factor in metal production. They do manage to find a lot of loopholes among Phoenician trade as well, although the Phoenician monopoly of trade is starting to decline. Neutral powers such as the Germanic states in Western Europe, along with the Romans and Mrvians, begin to see Cornish imports steadily increase, mostly going overland or along the Danube.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-The existence of iron lodestones have been known for quite some time now. However, it is only really now that investigation into their unique properties is underway. When a small needle is struck on such a stone, it gains some of the attractive powers. Most curiously, when pushed through the top of a large cork and floated on top of a small oil dish, it spins around to always face south and north. It is initially used for religious purposes and for novelty, until somebody realizes it can be used for navigation; these compasses are then subsequently brought aboard ships and with armies.

-The Phoenicians send a large army as a form of military support to the Spanish during the barbarian invasions of this period. Ships are sent as well to assist in the endeavour, and their exploits are told of in the Spanish turn. Generally however, they are successful. Meanwhile, they go to war with the Numidians once more, and finally manage to bring them to an end after the capital is ransacked. The Numidians quickly dissipate afterwards, leaving the loosely ruled lands to the Phoenicians. The Phoenicians cannot expand any further south, for the land is inhospitable to human life.

-With an open borders policy strictly enforced, a lot of Romans are moving into the Phoenician lands, mainly to escape from wars in Europe. Mercantile policies are also dropped, much to the detriment of national industries (although over 250 years they eventually are replaced with new industries). The great merchant Sacero is appointed to oversee needed economic reforms. Tariffs are mostly retained, whilst tax reform legislates that 10% of every transaction by a merchant goes to the state. Naturally, this leads to merchants going to ships offshore and conducting business in floating banks, or even foreign ones once the bailiffs try to stamp that out. It’s not exactly effective at drawing revenue.

-Base prices are also made for various basic goods, among them cotton. Subsidized by the state, it leads to an increase in cloth and paper production, along with agriculture. Sometimes it is even imported to try and keep prices low, and as always this is a constant drain on government revenue once prices and wages refuse to stay in sync. To placate the growing Christian masses, a policy of tolerance is announced, allowing bishops to emerge and to build their fancy churches. Some are demanding state support, and others debate on if they should join one of the two official churches or even work to make a new one.

-The Phoenicians also continue to colonize new lands throughout North Africa. Colonizing is harder now that more people are running around, so most of these new colonial attempts are in increasingly marginal lands. It becomes obvious that taking over existing towns might be a wiser course of action in the long run, although in one interesting case an entire ship of Phoenicians landed at a village and built a fort in return for tribute to be paid. Over two centuries passed and they still haven’t left.

VelkijDonaljeaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-The grindstone is invented. A most curious invention, it consists of a large stone wheel on a frame powered by a foot pedal. If spun, it can be used to sharpen blades extremely quickly. Over the course of several decades, it is rapidly adopted throughout the Mrvian Empire, allowing for the peasantry to have slightly sharper tools when out working in the fields and the soldiers to retain a cutting edge on their weapons for longer.

-The military tactics of the Romans and Macedonians are adopted, with an increasing preference for heavy infantry. When preparing to go to war with the Delian Greeks, they are dismayed to discover that all that time spent preparing for a war was in vain. In the following period of peace, a new territorial administration is brought into the Empire. It is similar to the province system that Rome uses. On the territory the Empire owns and claims, the provinces are named: Belhomia, Mrvia, Sislelia, Poznony, Prišiv, Trinsdonaljea, Higirska, Velvedina, Driculadia, Vlachovska and Maldav (OTL Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Bratislava, Prešov, Transdanubia, Hungary, Vojvodina, Transylvania, Wallachia and Moldavia).

-The Emperor sees the influx of the new religion of Christianity, and quickly grasps the potential of establishing such a religion as the state one. As he walked back to his throne, light comes out of it. He sees the gods of Pržk come before him. They tell him this is his last time the emperor's dynasty will see them. They proceed to tell him that Pržk is all but gone, and that they have received a message from the Christian god, offering them a home, as they become his angels. They tell him that they have accepted his offer and that he must influence this religion by the name of God. Their clothing changes from their old pagan clothing to the clothing of Christian angels. They disappear as they say goodbye. The Emperor, having been given a sacred task, goes to work. He tells his people of what has happened as his people accept the teaching of Brian, the ways of God and the task of the holy Pržkian angels.

-He then requests Rome and Macedonia to convert to the new religion, offering elevated bishopric positions for their clergy and to bring stability. Rome quickly agrees, whilst Macedonia initially refuses. Oddly enough, a few short months later, a power struggle emerges among the Macedonian royal family. The King is deposed and replaced with the Pro-Aquinian family of Constantine. He converts Macedonia and crushes many huge rebellions against his cruel rule. Many of the common folk say he is an imposter put in by the Laubergians and Mrvians.

-After he sends his messengers to Rome and Macedon, the Great Eagle of Laubergian fame appears to him, telling him that he had been given the offer to become the Great Eagle of Christianity, sitting on God's shoulder, telling him that he accepts God's offer. He then proceeds to tell the King of Laubergia what had happened, and builds a basilica in the city of Aquina.

-The Emperor then tries to contact the Bosphoran Kingdom, but it is destroyed by raiders from the east before he has a chance to establish an embassy. These raiders are revealed to be called the “Huns”. The Huns sweep through the Pontic steppe, displacing many Germans and Slavs and setting off a domino effect where all the peoples of Europe are now on the move. The Huns themselves ransack Mrvia and wrest control of most of its lands, with the Emperor forced to flee. When the Huns arrive in Aquina, they are greeted by a monk preaching to them and asking them not to attack the city. He is shot with an arrow and dies. The city itself is burned to the ground.

-The Huns are temporary however. After conquering half of the Mrvian Empire and Macedonia, along with ransacking Greece, their great leader is badly hurt when he injures himself whilst drunk during intercourse. The wound becomes septic and he dies. The Hunnic Empire collapses as quickly as it appeared, with many Huns and Bulgars splitting up and going their separate ways. One coherent group moves to Eastern Macedonia and Mrvia, where they wrest control of the lands there and establish a Khanate.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-As the population steadily climbs and trade diversifies, there is a lot more wealth to spend and trained people who know how to construct buildings on an epic scale. Engineers are starting to gain a lot of respect in their own right, building large theatres or ballgame courts. They are also employed to design sewers, fresh water aqueducts, bridges, canals, and the general improvement and layout of cities. This period sees some of the wealthier cities widen their streets and replace more buildings with stone, although the poor still tend to cram into hovels further away from these opulent areas. The poor do at least have another job opportunity, where they can collect faeces from humans or other animals along with other rubbish, and sell it to farmers to use as manure.

-The state announces a beaver hunting programme, where they will subsidize the killing of beavers. A lot of people quickly jump onto it, and begin to hunt excessive numbers of beavers throughout the American east. Soon enough, the beaver starts becoming dangerously close to extinction, especially as dams are deliberately damaged by people as well looking for the artificially valuable beaver pelts. There are so many beaver pelts that they are now even worn by the aspiring poor.

-The long term effect is a disaster. Trees along the banks recover, but the decline of dams means that what were formerly networks of silted ponds are now turning into fast flowing streams and rivers. Many farms and villages of the existing inhabitants are washed away, and soil erosion rapidly eats away and fills up rivers downstream, silting them up and creating islands downstream. When settlers from the north come southwards, they find a great deal of difficulty as the people and landscape are both hostile, at least until the rivers are controlled in the northern style and the people killed. Famines often break out in this part of the world. Trade and shipping is also becoming more difficult, as the small boats which formerly carried the bulk of trade are unable to cover increasing distances and have enough room left for both provisions and goods.

-The King establishes so called “animal reserves”. In them, animals such as turkeys and deer are kept for hunting purposes are being reared in large numbers. It catches on with the nobility, who requisition the land of the peasantry and plant forests there, although the poor peasants are never above some poaching and collecting firewood. Eventually the lord manages to convince most of his tenants to stop poaching by granting them the right to collect a little firewood from the forest.

-A most mysterious disease is brought by foreign traders, killing a great deal of many people in the kingdom. Symptoms include nasty sores on the limbs, vomiting, and shortness of breath along with lethargy. Many people die in heaps, and the remaining number immune to the disease takes a considerable deal of time before it grows back to roughly what it was before the disease.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-In order to help move goods move quickly in bulk along the coastline, boats begin to gradually grow in size, especially as its somewhat safer at sea than on the plains where a bunch of soldiers can stop you thirty times and demand you pay tolls to pass. These ships are rowed and also have large sails, plying the eastern coast of Africa. They manage to discover several small islands and sail north to meet some people who have knowledge of agriculture and metalworking.

-In order to fund military expansion, taxes are raised even higher, which does a lot for the peasants already lying in penury. The zebra cavalry are assembled in another meeting whereupon the king invents a new word. He declares that all of Africa must be conquered. At the moment, Africa only seems to refer to the area of the northern part of the continent settled by Phoenicians and Berbers, also called Africans. No knowledge of this land exists, so instead the zebra cavalry follow the coastlines to take over towns and villages discovered by traders.

WeeabooFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-In another classic case of being unable to determine whenever something was independently invented or brought by traders, the idea of block printing comes about. Using a piece of wood with a picture or letters carved into it, one can reliably reproduce pages in a short period of time. The setup is very costly, and one needs to keep many such blocks for printing books, but it does contribute to a great number of popular and new titles. One story is about a boy who, if he wrote the name of somebody on a wax tablet meant for note keeping, whilst imagining the face of that person, would result in the death of that person. It explodes into a huge and detailed epic of over 100 various books, paintings, and other such media. It is somewhat politically subversive as well, with Yagami Moefaggu calling for its suppression as the tale implies that even the most powerful and wise wishing to do good are unable to truly pass judgement on what is righteous and what is evil.

-Modern historians found out, that sometime in the 4th century CE Empress Kagami I Moefaggu decided to reward loyal shinigami that managed to live up until old age in the dog eat dog world of skilled, snitching assassins. Shinigami too old to continue doing their job live out their twilight years in the luxury of the Imperial Palace, acting as advisors to the Emperor. Their experience is rather valuable, and the fact that they survived this long means that they are too dangerous to be set free.

-Yagami IV Moefaggu, son of Kagami I Moefaggu, one day proclaims that he will transfer Imperial authority to his advisor (and as historians later found out, former shinigami) Gendo III Desunoto. Gendo, an old and paraplegic man, is however a person of superior intellect and cunning. It was theorized that Gendo intimidated Yagami into submitting by threatening to prove everyone that Yagami has shit taste in illustrated Waifu stories, a great shame at the time. Gendo III is also credited with the invention of the wheelchair.

-The Moefaggu, being of the great prophets bloodline, still remain formal heads of the waifuist religion and hold the title of Saiko Oniichan/Oneechan (Supreme Brother/Sister), a hereditary position, but otherwise plenty similar to that of a great Christian bishop. A great temple, called Katawa Shoujo Ofisharu Tredu (Temple Of The Broken Goddess) is constructed, and becomes the residence of the Moefaggu. The Shimapan Guard is reformed, increased in numbers and becomes Supreme Oniichan’s personal guard. Gendo III, though still being a devout waifuist, is a more secular source of power, able to spend more time on the matters of the state without being bothered by matters of religion. Some civil resistance starts, of course, but is quickly dealt with a few strategic assassinations and show executions. After Gendo’s death, his son Shinji II Desunoto, a legitimized bastard, becomes Emperor, securing the Desunoto dynasty on the throne.

-Relations are re-established with China (or at least some of the states making it up), with the conditions more suitable for diplomatic rusing. Missionaries do not come, but at least diplomats can come over to find out about the state of affairs in China and even translate or somehow acquire interesting books. Trade on a limited scale begins soon after, although the Chinese are always very strict on missionaries coming in to destabilize the country. Buddhists come in the other direction, and the first Buddhist communities emerge in Wapan.

-Expansion continues into the southwest of Wapan. Whilst the Yayoi people have started to adopt more modern methods of governance and are slowly showing the first signs of forming a state, the encroachment of the Wapanese is a cause for concern. Wars break out between both states, with the one on Kyushu claiming to have an Emperor descended from the sun. He is defeated in war and his state is scattered. During the wars, the nobility gradually builds a code of ethics, with one saying that if you lose in battle, you must commit suicide. The official term for this is “Sudoku”.

-Religious missions are now heading to Indonesia, although some people are blown off course along the way and discover a small island off the coast of China. The island is dotted with several missions and trading posts, seeking to convert the island. They succeed as they use reciprocal tactics such as pretending to be friends and giving gifts of clothing or food at strategically important times (such as winter). The island is eventually won over and converted. Missions are also established to the further south using Taiwan as a model for the future. The Philippines are also discovered, but mostly by accident. Initial mission attempts fail when most of the missionaries starve to death or fight with the locals and it takes decades before a single plucky one manages to stay intact without the missionaries dying.

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Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-With improving agricultural yields with the ability to support large bureaucracies and state apparatus, somebody thinks that keeping track of who owns what might be a good idea. They begin by drawing pictures of various goods in store with numbers alongside them, before a written language gradually evolves. Most early writings are boasts of the great kings and nobles, with nothing on the common peasantry who make up about ninety percent of the population.

-In order to help control these new lands, these written stone records are a useful tool for rewriting history to remind people that they were actually in fact under the rule of the Xerxes people. Expansion is of course slow due to the time it takes to send messages by foot, and moving food is also considerably difficult, with armies having to loot food from nearby villages and to bring peccaries with them as an emergency meat source. The King also realizes that trying to rule over such a vast Empire is a difficult challenge in the best of times. He orders that soldiers settle in newly conquered villages, so as to help integrate it into their lands.

-The existing shrines to Titus in most villages are improved upon extensively, with many of the crude earlier designs standardized and increased in size so as to provide protection from the elements. In the capital itself, a large statue of Titus is raised, with a large circular wall and roof enclosing it. It is perhaps the first attempt at a dome in the New World, and it can’t have worked very well, because it kept collapsing multiple times until the shape was refined into something more sensible.

-Trade continues to expand with the Maya overland, but there is a growing preference for sea-based trade instead. Most boats are small and oar powered, carry little in the way of provisions and goods, but are more economical than carrying heavy goods overland. The innovations to the far north have yet to reach this part of the world, and so trade is still mostly composed of small scale coastal operations. Military campaigns are difficult when most food is too heavy to carry along with you, so military expansion throughout this period is generally limited to the coastlines, abundant in food resources and a short hop away from an allied village.

-Although extremely costly in terms of manpower and resources, some masonry takes place outside of the capital. Initially starting with defensive walls and boundaries, masonry extends to the construction of temples, fine houses, plazas, and varied public works projects.

-Bronze is introduced from Mesoamerica. Unfortunately, the collared peccary has managed to catch a nasty disease transmissible to humans. It spread rapidly, devastating populations in urban areas and culling a significant deal of the population. Recovery begins much later on in this period, but the population has barely recovered to what it was three centuries prior.

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Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-With improvements in metalworking technology, somebody comes up with the smart idea of refining iron with a tiny amount of carbon added to it. Worked for a great deal of time it makes high quality fine steel used for weapons making and armour. Of course, there is no practical way to reduce the carbon content of pig iron, and so purer iron must be imported and have carbon added in an expensive process. Iron production itself along with making charcoal is considerably costly, so if there is to be any way to produce iron on a large scale, there should be a way to produce a smokeless fuel cheaply without relying on forests.

-The old military tactics of the past are abandoned. Inflexible pike formations are being discarded in favour of heavy infantry. Heavy infantry using swords and armour are able to hold a line in battle whilst the cavalry and missile skirmishers whittle away or batter the opposing forces. The newly reformed army is sent along with the Spanish to assist in their various wars, the full details of which are mentioned in the Spanish turn. Overall, they make good work of themselves and assist in the many Spanish campaigns at home and overseas.

-The Portuguese state, in conjunction with the Spanish, holds a central meeting of all Christian representatives in Iberia. They meet in the Cathedral in Lisbon, easily the grandest such building on all earth. Representatives from further abroad (Egypt, Italy, The Near East, etc) also attend. It becomes painfully obvious that the new rites and reforms are distinctly pro-Iberian in nature. The New Testament is codified and bishops appointed for the major towns and cities of the peninsula. A head bishop, based in Lisbon, is now head of the Iberian church. He assumes the newly created post of Pope, and gradually centralizes the religion on Lisbon.

WizterbienFlag
Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-Engineering and ironworking go hand in hand. The arrival of several new technologies improves on existing iron weaponry and building techniques. Large wooden cranes are used to raise logs or stones, and somebody finds out how to make steel weaponry using charcoal and a forge with some iron. The age of great construction begins, with many magnificent temples and theatres or palaces built to show the splendour of the country. Of course these are only for the centres of towns and cities. The common people still live in hovels and plough their fields using two pieces of wood hammered together. Gradually however, iron ploughshares are fitted to the front of them, and wheels added. Peasants can even rent out such tools for use.

-A series of military reforms are made, mostly to facilities such as buildings. Old forts are rebuilt and have barracks built in them. Soldiers must be kept separate from the civilian population, where problems such as STDs and drunkenness are prevalent. They are instead put into a barracks in a fort, where much of the same happens before, albeit on a more subtle and smaller scale. One soldier is whipped to death after a Sufganiyot is discovered inside his chest. A military academy is founded for officers to learn how to put more anger into their speeches, and sailors are given a strange new invention. This invention consists of a piece of swinging cloth in a ship. A wine ration is also given to sailors, along with some salted meat, cheese, and hard bread.

-Relay messenger stations are constructed through the Kingdom. Using a post with several horses and riders in reserve, they can transfer messages exceedingly quickly as when exhausted, a rider can stop and let somebody else take the message. Each station tells the previous one it has received the message safely with either a red flag or a torch. Roads are also built up along these relay stations, with many of the common rabble and traders now using them. Inns and shops pop up like mushrooms along these roads.

-With Christian heresy on the rise, the question of how to deal with it remained a question among the cleric body for decades. Finally, in the summer of 300 CE, Gurjiyahh Yaqub Snidus II convoked the Third Council of Sbia, where over sixty-six hundred attendees would convene in the holy temple of Mers in Al-Cido Monts. It would be the first effort to deal with the Christian heresy. There were several accomplishments of the Council; notably, one of which being the Dictum dol Christianos (Edict of Christianity). Issued by Yaqub, it proclaimed the banning of preaching Christianity within Wizterbien, and the expulsion or punishment of Christians thereof.

-Due to the ban on Christianity now in force, the movement moves quickly underground or is otherwise rooted out. People in outlying towns are converted (mostly due to soldiers being around to suppress revolts instead of wars of conquest), whilst good relations are established with the Berbers to the west (who have gradually replaced the Numidian state). Relations are cordial with Rome, but understandably take a hit after their missionaries are arrested by the authorities.

-Another one of the Council's achievements is the creation of the first holy order inquisition; Sflaplazeolo Gurjoinqusitios dol el Frizr (romanticized as the Holy Order of the Friars). Founded in the autumn of 300, it would operate temporarily until it's disbandment in 307. It would later be replaced permanently by the Slflaplazeolo Guroinquisitios dol el Reinzta (Holy Order of the Reinsta). Operating from its headquarters in Al-Cido Monts, the inquisition is tasked with one mission: Rooting out suspected heresies such as Christians, interrogation and finally handling them over to secular authorities for proper punishment. Of course, I’m not going to make a Monty Python joke about it. What? You were expecting one? Well piss off; I’m not here to make you laugh. This isn’t even a proper piece of witty writing. It doesn’t have a punchline and ends most sentences with an insult you vacuous, shallow, arse. I’m going to have dinner and then return to writing this because obviously you toffee-nosed bollocks-sniffers lap up my writing. Of course I can’t write more for this paragraph, because it’s getting too long and if I don’t finish this soon the Scottish Bad Joke Writing Police (submarine division) are going to arres

DelianFlag
Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Christianity (Unofficially Eastern Church and Aquinism)

-The Greeks, realizing that their farmland is poor and its partly why they have to import so much food and send off so many children overseas, finally have the solution to their problem. By making a large metal version of the common plough, one can drag it through the soil and bring up nutrients from deep below, depositing it on the surface and making the land good for growing crops. This also makes the job of ploughing easier, so food surpluses grow and a larger population can thus be supported.

-An army is sent with the Empire of Dagger to invade Anatolia. However, when the Imperial army finds the Turks lying in wait, the Greeks turn on their "allies" and essentially sandwich the army of the Empire of Dagger between the Turks and themselves. Although the Daggerans put up an incredibly brutal fight, they eventually lost to the Greeks in the most crushing military defeat in the history of Dagger. A lot of Mrvians accompanying the army are also captured and ransomed or executed. Dagger is completely incapable of defending its own waters, with large scale blockades and raids happening continually on the island of Crete. They end after the great earthquake, which ruins the island so much it is not worth bothering to raid anymore.

-Seeking to take advantage of the war on Dagger, men are now paid to report on the news to the common folk, often boasting of the success of the Delians in war. They also report on the latest military reforms. For instance, the phalanx is discarded entirely for the faster and superior legion style units. They are divided into two main classes, a smaller group of frontline units wielding spears to repulse initial attacks, and a larger group of units using javelins and swords to fight. A lot of effort is spent in unlocking the secret success of Cretan archers, eventually leading to new training techniques emerging as archer units are added to the army composition. Most important of all, the new abundance of horses allows cavalry to be diversified into three main techniques: the standard heavily armoured cavalry used for attacking in general, the new heavily armoured cavalry armed with spears designed for skirmishing enemy cavalry, and finally the mounted horse archers. Unfortunately, the heavily armoured cavalry intended for skirmishing is too slow to act in a proper skirmishing role, and fall into disuse. The original armoured cavalry is heavily based upon the cataphracts of the East, using powerful shock charges to break up formations.

-Peace is signed with Macedon and maintained with Rome, even allowing for the growth of trade to get underway. Unfortunately, the migrations of the Germans cause a lot of problems and a Hunnic army even invades Greece itself. They march throughout Northern Greece and Macedon, looting the country and burning down several cities. The Delian league is unable to stop them, especially after an infantry army was crushed by them. It is said that this is what prompted the reforms to include heavy cavalry.

-Christianity is adopted by the League, owing to its popularity in the country. However, the Delians do not wish to join either the Iberian or Aquinist church as of yet (if at all). Churchbuilding gets underway in the meantime, with many old Greek temples being pulled down and the ruins used to construct the new churches. The statues are smashed and have crosses carved where they once stood. The metal fittings, jewellery, and other such rich extravagance is quietly taken away. God does not appreciate the proliferation of excess wealth, so it’s best to quietly slip some gold into your purse when gods looking away.

-Trade tariffs are reformed, mostly in order to draw revenue off the still fairly strong trade routes in the East, although the disruption in the west has a knock-on effect anyways, damaging the coffers of the government. The revenue thus raised is then used to help subsidize the Turks in their war with the Sassanid’s, as now the Turks are in a strong alliance with the Greeks. They also enter an alliance with the Egyptians.

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BananaFoam – Ibolozi Confederation
Capital: Ibbus Sieciwiz
Culture: Siberian (Uralic)
State Religion: East Medith Pantheon

-Very little goes on during this period, with most people living in this part of the world living their lives as they always did. The only change that seems to come is slightly increased awareness of the peoples to the south, population growth, growing trade, and tiny piecemeal technological, social, linguistic, political, and philosophical changes.

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StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-Ironworking and cheesemaking are both common industries in the Entente already, helping to make a great deal of wealth. A type of salted cheese is swapped for a special bow during trade, and it is a most curious bow. Meant to be the same height as the user, it is very powerful and accurate with a good range, although training to use it takes time. The merchant opens a bowyer’s workshop which makes these in considerable numbers, selling it to the army for a tidy sum. Eventually, longbows disseminate, although the training of longbowmen takes a long time.

-Long pikes are also given to soldiers, with them told to assemble into squares so as to hold a position on a battlefield. This makes them incredibly vulnerable to missile fire and inflexible as well. Archers help to fill the gap, but for all intents and purposes the pikemen isn’t very useful on the field. They hold formations well, but their opponents enjoy skirmishing and whittling down the men before charging at the broken formation.

-With better ships becoming available, The Entente turns its attention to the Baltic Sea at large. Seeking to protect the amber coast and expand fishing territory, Saaremaa is used as a springboard to launch an aggressive campaign is to bring the islands of Aland and Gotland into possession of the kingdom. Some coastal expansion in Livonia happens as well.

-Being somewhat isolated from the rest of the known world, the Entente have not yet mastered the horse for large scale military use, and more focus is put on forming larger ranks of infantry and mass archer volleys.

-The mass quantities of amber that have been washing up on the shores of the Baltic (or appearing naturally in mines) are being harvested and traded at fetching prices, earning the region the nickname "The Amber Coast". The act of collecting the amber itself has become quite the enterprise, and the king, seeking to make as much as the kingdom can off of this, sets limits on the amount of amber that can be harvested per season to drive up demand for the golden sap and avoid market saturation.

-In several villages along the amber coast, a game by the name of karš (war) has become a common pastime amongst the people. The came consists of two players moving crude amber carvings each having a specific role assigned to them around an oak board with an 8 by 8 square grid etched into it. The game eventually spreads to Riga, and even the king partakes in this game that, while the while the rules and pieces are different, is quite similar to chess.

-In the days leading up to new year’s day of 251, a shooting star was seen flying over the capital, the people and even the king himself, being deists, they view this as a good omen and a sign for the nation to continue its drive onwards and to be the masters of The Baltic. Their neighbours next door are utterly unable to do anything about it, and they take a hit to the stability of their society as they fear what the omen will show.

-Lacking iron, and hearing of the large cavalry armies of other nations, someone eventually gets the idea that if you give a man a large wooden stick with a sharp iron point on the end and stick him with a bunch of other similarly armed men, you can repel and even attack cavalry quite effectively! Most units form into formations and groupings of a hundred and fifty men, with training to be incredibly vigorous.

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Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-Somebody comes up with a rather nifty idea. Taking iron ore and heating it in a furnace, before blasting it with air from a bellows, can make it so hot so as to induce the iron to turn into a liquid. Once collected up, it can be poured into moulds to make a whole variety of iron items, although they are weak initially. Further working with the iron is required to add strength to it however, for cast iron by itself is weak.

-In order to hold off the migrations of the Germans, a large number of fortifications are built throughout the Kingdom. The extensive presence of boggy land and rivers means that the land is unattractive to hordes of people looking for a new home anyways. A few battles do occur, but by and large the other Germans move west into Gaul, displacing the existing Celtic tribes. Refugees come to the Kingdom to take up jobs as mercenaries or to become landless labourers.

-Piecemeal expansion happens throughout the Low Countries. Some tribes are understandably threatened by the new Germans coming in, whilst some losers are seeking to establish new homes. These wars of conquest mostly snowball, with many of the old Germans joining Arhonia and conquering a great deal of land which they formerly ruled. Unfortunately, it is mostly boggy and poor for agriculture.

-Trade with the Mannish isles is interrupted by the migrations, but they are re-established later on in the 5th century after the Saxons conquer much of the Mannish east coast. They are keen to trade and their placement on the Rhine is well suited to profit by this trade. In fact some ambitious lords are building forts along the river and levying tolls off unlucky merchants, much to the detriment of trade but boding well for their money purses.

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Daysbefore – Kingdom of Eoferwic
Capital: Eoferwic
Culture: Angle (Germanic)
State Religion: Anglo-Saxon Paganism

-A new type of saddle, along with stirrups and horseshoes, has been introduced. When all brought together, it helps to reduce strain on the horses back, gives extra stability to the rider, increases the flexibility of cavalry, and for a non-military use, allows horses to travel vast distances without their hooves wearing away or breaking. The Saxon nobility tended to prefer fighting on foot, but horses are useful when the time calls for it. Pulling wagons of food and other goods overland is also important for feeding armies, and the better treated the horses, the more reliable your supply trains.

-Angles following the great King Osfric of Anglia land along the mouth of the mighty river Humber. Many Angles previously worked as sellswords for local Manns in their wars with the Picts, and were charmed by the fertile land of Mann, compared to the sand and rock of the Jutland peninsula. Osfric gathered all his people and set sail. Battered by storms and the rare pirate, he landed around modern Hull and built his first hall, driving the handful of Mannish fisherfolk away or into the ground. For ten years Angles pour into Mann to the rapidly growing town of Wyke, claiming large tracts of land. Thousands of Britons die or are taken into slavery by the Angles, unsuccessfully rebelling at one point.

-Over the course of several centuries, mostly due to population pressures at home, followed by the Hunnic and Germanic incursions, the Saxons sail overseas to invade the Isle of Mann. The inhabitants, developing early feudal institutions and beginning to form Kingdoms, are driven out of the East of England. The Saxons sail up and down the major rivers of England, initially ransacking before taking over many towns and villages and placing themselves as the new rulers of this land. The largest Kingdom, called Eoferwic, is established by a large army which sailed up the river Humber and more or less took it over. They extend from the capital (Eoferwic) in the north to Thunrsrealm in the south. The old inhabitants are often dispossessed and made into landless labourers for their new rulers, with the lands being redistributed to warriors who partook in the invasion. Their families arrive soon after, although many intermarry with the local population.

-On Osfric's death his brother and son war for the crown, but a Mannish invasion kills his son and leaves his brother Osferth as undisputed king. He reigns peacefully for forty years. As time continues Eoferwic grows into the chief town of the Kingdom. Wyke continues to function as a great port, but overland trade with the Picts and British brings great wealth to Eoferwic. Eventually sea trade begins to die off in Eoferwic. By 480, raiders and pirates are the only regular guests to the port of Wyke, which becomes a den of vice and scum. In response, King Aelfred the Fat puts the town to the torch and resettles it with farmers left homeless after a recent war with the Mannish. Wyke prospers again and becomes a chief port of northern Europe, often functioning as a intermediary between the Cornish towns, the Arhonian Kingdom, and the Baltic Entente.

PictsFlag
Kreigsmar1ne – Picts
Capital: Cait
Culture: Pictish (Celtic)
State Religion: Celtic Polytheism

-The heavy iron plough is introduced (or invented, it is unsure) in Pictland. The Picts live in terrible conditions, with heavy soils, large forests, acidic soil unsuitable for agriculture, poor fertility, rocky landscape, and little in the way of natural resources. This new plough is used to help alleviate some of those problems, allowing for the population to steadily grow over this period as the Iron Age comes to an end.

-A warrior band is created, where the finest warriors from each tribe are collected together to form a standing and permanent force of professional soldiers. They are painted in plant dyes to allow them to blend in with their surroundings. The bravest and most honourable men of Pictland, their strategy consists of hiding in the forest and then running away once the enemy forces organize.

-Scouts travel down throughout Southern Mann. They report on the movements of the Daggerans and Saxons, along with the declining native population. The scouts also try to keep good relations with other tribes, so as to help towards keeping Pictland united against foreign invaders. Some tribes to the south are less than willing to join, and so the Picts conquer southwards. A boggy island with a trading outpost on it in the middle of the Firth of Forth is the only place possible to cross from the Lowlands to the Highlands, and is considered to be strategically important. It is held by a tribe hostile to the Picts.

-Whaling begins for the first time, with many Pictish men having to sail far out to sea to hunt whales, wintering on the uninhabited islands to the north. Fishing is also a popular activity, used to supplement food stocks wherever possible. Their reliance on fishing goes a long way to helping produce a class of men who know how to sail considerable distances. Hunting is also another popular pastime, but is mostly reserved for the wealthy, as by now big game are much rarer to find.

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Burinn – Unified Turkish Kingdom
Capital: Ankara
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Christianity (Unofficially Eastern Church)

-A new legal reform is passed after a great deal of time and effort spent trying to tackle the issue of how to divide up land among people. The law has technically freed everybody in the country, so slavery of the old age is now gone for good. The law is also reformed so as to technically allow people to leave the land, although in practice this rarely happens. Farmers have now been split into two classes. Firstly, those that own the land and either farm it themselves or rent out the land (most of this consists of the nobility), and that of those who rent the land from the landowners. There is little money available, so sharecropping is used instead whenever possible. This is a considerable improvement over the old systems, as now farmers have an incentive to increase yields as they keep a portion of them. Of course, the lack of capital and tenancies means that long term investment into the land is rare, with food production normally increased by expanding onto marginal lands.

-The Selecuids are overthrown by a revolt of Daggeran nobles and peasants in the west of the country. Most interestingly, they convert to Christianity and declare themselves to be an independent polity to the Empire of Dagger. They receive extensive help from some malcontent noblemen who seek to put themselves into power, and eventually establish a whole new state, ruled by Turks. Ironically, they later assist the Greeks with crushing an army marching under Dagger, seeking to reclaim their former capital city.

-Using money given by the Delian League, the Turkish army in the east is rearmed with new technology and tactics to ward off the Sassanid’s. Most of the new military reforms are modelled on the Greek model. Realizing transportation across the harsh Turkish mountains slows the movement of troops as well; a group of artisans are hired to construct a series of roads to greatly increase the rate of transportation of goods and men throughout the land. The roads are based off Greek designs as well, with many observers during this time commenting that the Turks are becoming much like the Greeks in all manners, including clothing.

-Emissaries are sent to Egypt and Greece, establishing good relations and the start of which might be seen as the “Eastern Alliance”. The Turks promise to help the Egyptians reclaim lands lost to the evil Sassanid’s, who took the land from the Parthians. With the combined forces of the Turks and Egyptians, the Ptolemaic Empire can go on the offensive and attack Arabia. They capture a good deal of the Levant and split it between themselves, but the Sassanid Empire (initially) is incredibly powerful and fresh, holding back these invasions and controlling most of the wealthy land to themselves. It would take a protracted and lengthy war to defeat this massive Asian Empire.

RoyalEgyptFlag
Gishatako – Ptolemaic Empire
Capital: Alexandria
Culture: Egyptian (Coptic)
State Religion: Christianity (Unofficially Eastern Church)

-Cataphracts are introduced into Egypt. Wearing heavy armour not only on the rider but the horse as well, in large numbers they are an exceedingly deadly cavalry force, used more for powerful charges than to skirmish. The new Pharaoh also made an assessment of the military and it was determined that there needed to be changes to the leadership and the strategies used by the soldiers. Reforms included a redesign of the ranking system, their powers, and how ranks were obtained. Generally, there is a lot of clearing out of corrupt military officials and replacement with some meritocratic systems introduced so as to prevent the really thick children of nobles from entering.

-In the midst of the civil unrest, documentation was found from the past which implied that the current Pharaoh and his dynasty were illegitimate. Along with this, the scholars that studied the information were able to locate the true and rightful Pharaoh. When this news became public, the general population was disgusted to learn this and demanded the Pharaoh to be removed. With the entire nation stirred and rioting, the military performed a coup and successfully ousted the false Pharaoh and his advisors, instating the new Pharaoh. Modern historians now recognize the document as a forgery by a Christian bishop, who used the Christian element within the army to organize a coup whilst the country was stricken by religious strife.

-Reforms are introduced that establish an organized bureaucracy after the old one collapsed during the war (with administrative districts based on dioceses of churches), and a system of government, which included a council that created laws requiring royal assent by the Pharaoh. If the Pharaoh disapproves a law, and the entire council agrees said law should be passed, the council can select seventeen random citizens to assess the law and decided whether or not it should be implemented. In practice, because the council requires all members to agree on the law, many of the existing ones within it are the Pharaohs cronies, helping to block legislation unfavourable to him. In other words, the council is more or less powerless except as an advisory body and to introduce laws hoping they will be passed.

-New military strategy included the implementation of Romanesque tactics, utilizing flexible units. One formation used was a group of a hundred men in a square pattern, in ten rows wide and deep of swordsmen and spearmen, two rows of archers in front of the main group, and two rows of heavy cavalry behind the main group. The first three rows consisted of spearmen and every other row behind them consisted of swordsmen. Before the armies are in conflict, the archers in front of the other soldiers would fire a barrage of arrows toward the enemy several times, and then quickly fall back behind the group and fire from a distance. The small rectangle of heavy cavalry that remained behind the group of soldiers waited until the enemy drew closer and just before the two armies engage, the cavalry would split in half and go around the group and attack the oncoming soldiers from the side while the main group attacks from the front. It is the masterpiece of Egyptian military strategy and the Pharaoh is commended as a genius. A general points out that most armies in recorded history have done this by default, and for this he is demoted.

-Swordsmen in the military used standardized military iron swords that were approximately three quarters of a meter long. Spearmen used a long, two meter long spear with the shaft made of wood and the head made of iron or bronze. The armour for the swordsmen and the spearmen usually consisted of leather with iron plating in critical areas. Archers wore little to no armour and fired iron or bronze arrows with their bows. The heavy cavalry rode horses which had iron armour equipped and they used spears similar to that of the spearmen or bows using iron arrows.

-With the strength of the army, the Ptolemaic Empire goes on the offensive and attacks from the Sinai Peninsula into the Arabian mainland, working in conjunction with the Unified Turkish Kingdom who is attacking from the North. They capture a good deal of the Levant and split it between themselves, but the Sassanid Empire (initially) is incredibly powerful and fresh, holding back these invasions and controlling most of the wealthy land to themselves. A protracted war might exhaust them, for due to the size of the Sassanid Empire they have vast resources to call upon.

-In order to combat the problem of irrigation and transport, a bold series of projects are undertaken. Firstly, old canals are to be dredged and new ones dug for irrigation and transport, including the varied canals linking the Suez to the Nile The other goal, involves the construction of watermills with pumps in them long with aqueducts. Using these mechanical wonders to pump water and transport it long distances, the amount of land it is possible to grow food upon increases, whilst several boats can navigate the hellish network of canals in operation. The canal network is too small, piecemeal, and primitive to really stimulate trade in the Red Sea however.

-An alliance is created with the Turks and Greeks, whilst envoys travel down the Red Sea to establish contact with Aksum, the Arabians, and other peoples engaged in Indian trade. They also travel west to Europe for much of the same purposes, although mostly to conduct diplomatic missions. The Egyptians already know of these nations, just that diplomacy is somewhat limited with them.

Turn 13: 500 to 625 CE

CreationofCenturiesTurn13PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 13

CreationofCenturiesTurn13CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 13

CreationofCenturiesTurn13ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 13

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=42158754&posted=1#post42158754


Turn quote: Last Roman Emperor declares: It’s the end of an era.

Events of the years 500 to 625:

Europe

-During the late 530s, there is a great calamity around the world. A volcanic eruption in Indonesia leads to a lot of harvest failures, poor plant growth (as evidenced by tree rings), and later starvation and political instability.

-The Celts of the Greater isle of Mann begin to settle in the now named Lesser isle of Mann, whilst the Scots tribe in Ireland begin to settle Pictland. Christian missionaries have begun to spread to this part of the world, and as such, the first monasteries have begun to appear in Mann. The Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy emerges during this time as well, spreading extensively over England.

-A great plague arises in central Asia. It spreads along trade routes into China, India, and Egypt, before devastating much of the Mediterranean world.

-The breast-strap horse harness is now common throughout Western Europe. Books have also become common and cheap enough that most families now can obtain secondhand copies. Usually it is more for prestige than actual reading, as about half of the urban population is illiterate, and 90% of the rural population illiterate as well. These figures invariably change depending on the location, and most villages usually have a literate man willing to read books out loud to people in return for a small fee.

-The last Roman Emperor is deposed, and his successor decides to call himself the King of Italy instead, seeing that he is not much an Emperor or wishing to take on the responsibilities of such a role. Language and cultural shift has also gradually taken part, so Late Latin is starting to evolve into an Italian language. The new King moves his court to Naples, and tries to control his gradually decentralizing country. The North is particularly unruly, which is partly Germanized by the number of migrants to it.

-The Germanic peoples begin to form Kingdoms in Europe, with some converting to Christianity. The Kingdom of the Franks forms from the Franks, the Kingdom of Aquitania from the Vandals, the Kingdom of Bavaria from the Bavarians, and the Kingdom of Burgundy from the Burgundinians.

SpanishFlag
Mr. Face – Spain
Capital: Adobrica
Culture: Spanish (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-Slavery is starting to become less common within the Spanish Kingdom. People are naturally lazy and wanting to find ways to reduce their workload. Waterwheels and mills are already common, but now they are starting to expand in scope. No longer used to merely grind grain, saws are being used to cut timber automatically, animals are used in lieu of fast flowing streams, hammers for blacksmiths, bellows for furnaces, grindstones and cranes are now all being powered by water. Of course, many fast flowing streams are exploited by the nobility and merchants for this purpose, where they hold local monopolies and charge the peasantry for the privilege of using these mills. In either case, it’s a big money-maker, and even monks are building watermills.

-The Spanish King, for some reason, decides to invade the Basque country held by the Vandals, getting involved in a long war for a small sliver of land. He eventually wins, mostly due to having more resources at his disposable, although the Basque inhabitants are as unhappy as ever, and asks when they can have slightly more regional autonomy. The Spanish duke replies that he can’t understand their language, before chopping the hands off a peasant who threw an apple at him.

-The clergy are aggressive like the Spanish King as well, sending out missionaries into Northern Africa, the east (to assist the Eastern Alliance in conversion of their populace), and deep into the Germanic Kingdoms of the north. The Portuguese also support the appointment of a Spanish Pope this time, John III. With only really the Portuguese and Spanish in the election (and holding most dioceses), they easily see the election of John III go uncontested. The Basque people also begrudgingly accept the new religion, especially after several more hands are cut off. Eventually, the King of Aquitania and some Berbers convert to Christianity. The King of Aquitania, although hating the Spanish, sees distinct political advantages, and could use it to influence the papal elections.

-The Spanish King, assisting his Greek ally, invades Laubergia with Phoenician and Portuguese assistance. When they land, they find a desolate country with not so much as a scrap of bread to eat. Demoralized, they march on Salzburg to besiege the city. On the way, they are attacked by raiding parties and thinned down. The lack of food is especially problematic, along with fording rivers because all of the bridges have been destroyed. When they besiege the city itself, the inhabitants are discovered to possess a great deal of food in reserve. They taunt the besieging army by roasting pork and beef, allowing the smell to waft into the opposing camp.

-Eventually, a Laubergian army heads south and meets the besieging army. Caught in-between the city and the Laubergians, the soldiers fight poorly and break quickly. The Spanish, Portuguese, and Phoenician armies melt away into the countryside, with many reports of soldiers boiling tree bark and even resorting to cannibalism for food. Eventually, the Laubergians wipe them out and capture a great deal of prisoners, whom they ransom or execute. Some go into slavery.

-The navies, angry at the Laubergians, raid every coastal settlement they can find and burn it to the ground, looting whatever they can carry and attacking every Laubergian ship they can find. Eventually, they are forced to pull back due to supply shortages and the arrival of the Laubergian army. When the fleet sails away, a great lightning storm appears, with the Laubergians saying it was an act of god against the Iberian heretics. The Spanish return, bankrupted and taking years to recover.

LaubergiaFlag
Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-As financing wars is a constant issue for the Laubergian state, many Kings end up falling into heavy debt and being forced to either sell off a great deal of royal holdings, raise taxes, or otherwise quietly kill the merchants or offer to pay them back later. The latest King wishes to break out of this, and convenes a group of Jewish merchants in the capital to discuss how to best manage debt. They all come to an interesting new agreement and idea. By having the state itself, rather than the King take on debt, and passing management of finances to a separate group of people dedicated to the task as opposed to being managed by the King and his advisors, they can help find cash. Interest rates are lowered massively, and because the King is now barred from seizing assets and the overall stability of the state has improved, the Laubergian state can borrow money from its own people who essentially invest into the country. Initially, it is mostly borrowing from the merchants and nobility, but even some more petty merchants and tradesmen are able to lend money or even goods in kind.

-Raising vast amounts of money, the Laubergians hire a great number of mercenaries from the Romans, Huns, Bulgars, and Germans. Marching their army down the coastline, the King rallies a great number of people and calls for holy war against the heretics. He arrives in Croatia, seizes all of the food supplies, and has people try to flee from the area. He also pulls down a great number of bridges, flips signposts around, slaughters or seizes livestock, and splits up his army into raiding parties. The main bulk of the army then marches back up north towards Tirol. He is unable to enter Dalmatia, for the Italian King is now rather hostile to the Laubergians.

-The Spanish King, assisting his Greek ally, invades Laubergia with Phoenician and Portuguese assistance. When they land, they find a desolate country with not so much as a scrap of bread to eat. Demoralized, they march on Salzburg to besiege the city. On the way, they are attacked by raiding parties and thinned down. The lack of food is especially problematic, along with fording rivers because all of the bridges have been destroyed. When they besiege the city itself, the inhabitants are discovered to possess a great deal of food in reserve. They taunt the besieging army by roasting pork and beef, allowing the smell to waft into the opposing camp.

-Eventually, the Laubergian army heads south and meets the besieging army. Caught in-between the city and the Laubergians, the soldiers fight poorly and break quickly. The Spanish, Portuguese, and Phoenician armies melt away into the countryside, with many reports of soldiers boiling tree bark and even resorting to cannibalism for food. Eventually, the Laubergians wipe them out and capture a great deal of prisoners, whom they ransom or execute. Some go into slavery.

-The navies, angry at the Laubergians, raid every coastal settlement they can find and burn it to the ground, looting whatever they can carry and attacking every Laubergian ship they can find. Eventually, they are forced to pull back due to supply shortages and the arrival of the Laubergian army. When the fleet sails away, a great lightning storm appears, with the Laubergians saying it was an act of god against the Iberian heretics. The Spanish return, bankrupted and taking years to recover.

-Laubergia itself does not escape the ravages of war so easily. The great amount of destruction wrought on the land and people, plus decline in agricultural production and trade is especially hard hitting. The lack of money forces the King to give up some of his power to the civil service to manage finances, whilst famines wreak ruin upon on the land. Many towns remain depopulated in Croatia for decades. Civil unrest in the form of bread riots and religious conflict is also common. The luck that the north of the Kingdom remained relatively intact allowed a base from which to rebuild.

MisiryabanFlag
KingArcher – Empire of Misiryaban
Capital: Misiryaban
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Islam

-Due to settlement and cultural change, Cornwall gradually becomes known as Misirduvar by its occupants. Of course, they do not stay in Misirduvar all the time, and often travel further afield to trade and fight. Some coal mines are exploited to provide fuel but it is so smoky and burns at a low temperature that it is practically useless for ironworking. However, somebody comes up with the bright idea of baking coal the same way you bake wood to make charcoal. By heating it up, one can draw out the impurities to make a piece of relatively pure carbon. It not only burns cleaner, but hotter as well. Mined in Southern Wales and Misirduvar, this “coke” is found to be excellent for mass producing cheap iron. The iron still needs processing into steel by hand, plus sulphur impurities are a problem. However, iron is much cheaper and more plentiful (if of low quality until production methods improve). However, this does mean it can be used to make all sorts of items, provided somebody had the ability to cast molten iron. Many iron ingots are exported or used to create a whole manner of tools, weaponry, and armour. Arhonia and Portugal are keen buyers.

-The Empire of Dagger renames itself after the first city located in the province of Mann that they colonized. They name it Misiryaban, and proceed to continue evacuating noblemen and various other peoples to the area, where it is said there is a lot of land. Unfortunately, it is of poor quality, and only really good for mining. Tin, coal, iron, and other minerals are abundant though. The nobility proceed to raise armies and then go on wars of conquest, usually displacing a neighbouring Mannish chiefdom. Interactions with the Saxons grow over time, and their shared hatred of the Mannish is one thing that helps keep relations at least cordial.

-A group of sailors decide to embark on a journey of exploration, trade, and other such activities. They sail to the Canaries with the intent of colonizing them, but are dismayed to find that the Phoenicians had already beaten them to it. Instead, they sail to Egypt and then travel overland into Arabia to the city of Mecca. There, they warn Muhammad that the Meccan authorities and the Egyptians are going to attack him, and escort him to Medina where he forms a state roughly along the lines of the Islamic faith. After attempting to sail home, they are blown off course and land on the island of Madeira. They winter there before sailing home. Much later, a group of settlers colonize the island, which is conductive to agriculture.

-Returning from Arabia, one sailor heads to Misiryaban to see the monarch, as so to preach Muhammad's preaching to him. The monarch notices the similarities Islam has with Turkish paganism. With limited knowledge of the Qu'ran, Islam is adopted as the state religion.

-However, even the home islands are not invulnerable. The old defences of Crete and the Baleares have fallen into disrepair and the population much reduced. When a Phoenician naval force arrived, the island fell, with Misiryaban no longer possessing the resources to defend them. A cadet branch of the royal family survives in Mann, declaring itself the Empire of Misiryaban. The language and culture has continued to shift, so many people, whilst proudly saying they are descendants of the Empire of Dagger, are merely a tiny kingdom on the periphery of an island, living as miners for a living.

VelkijDonaljeaFlag
Damian0358 – Velkij Donaljea
Capital: Velehrad
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-The problem of fertility in the soil is endemic to agriculture, and since the Neolithic, a system has existed where one year you grew your crops, and left it fallow next year. A new system, having appeared ad hoc over the course of several decades, is one whereby you plant corn the first year, grow legumes (such as peas and beans) or vegetables in the field the second year, and leave it fallow the third year to be used as pasture. This allows roughly a fifth more land to be utilized than before, and helps to vary the diet. Agricultural production, nutrition, and life overall improves, with many villages being lifted out of subsistence and finally being able to afford some consumer goods. Archaeologists show that stone flagstones start to be laid in hovels and the presence of broken pottery from Tefullmorostan shows that these peasants had enough spare to allow for the importation of pottery from distant overseas.

-After countless attempts of trying to sign peace with the Delian League, they refused and decided war was the only option, declaring war on Macedonia (or so the Mrvian records say). The Emperor, after speaking with multiple kings, is joined by the Laubergians and some mercenaries from further afield, most of them from Italy and Germany. The Emperor asks the Bulgars to join him in the war, and they refuse, instead declaring war on him. He then hurries to raise an army to help the Macedonians. He suggests to the Macedonians to move their capital to Lygos after the war, but they refuse.

-Seeking to influence the Germanic Kings, missionaries are sent to help convert them to Christianity, particularly the Aquinist branch. Burgundy and Bavaria convert willingly, each now possessing a patriarch and a national church. Both Kingdoms do so after seeing the amount of control they can gain over their lands by introducing a national organized religion, plus they will gain access to capable Greek scholars for administration of their lands.

-The Mrvians also carry out a similar strategy as their Laubergian neighbours. Their main forces retreat and burn parts of the countryside to deny them to the foreign invaders. They also send the main bulk of their forces back home and leave small groups to try and slow down foreign invaders. The Bulgars, who obviously are quite annoyed by this, decide to move ahead anyways. Unlike the Spanish in Laubergia, the Bulgars raze every single town they can find and pick the countryside clean for supplies. The Greeks slowly advance along the Danube, whilst the Bulgars ransack the Mrvian Empire. The Greeks finally arrive at Aquincum where the Patriarch is holed up. It is besieged, and over the course of many months the city is unable to get help, for the countryside has been completely devastated and the Mrvians cannot supply enough food to their men. The rapid movement of the Bulgars over the plains of Pannonia is essential to their success, allowing them to outpace the clumsy and slow Mrvians. Eventually, the city is taken and ransacked.

-The Mrvian Emperor is left with a pathetic rump state in the north, which the Bulgars have little interest in conquering. More worryingly, the Bulgar Khan has himself named Emperor of Bulgaria.

PortugalFlag
Chevelle – Kingdom of Portugal
Capital: Lisbon
Culture: Portuguese (Iberian)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-An old invention, but improved and ready for new uses, now exists. Stone aqueducts, used for carrying water, are being built in the densely populated areas. Whilst useful for carrying drinking water to townspeople, they are more often used by people in agricultural estates. The warm weather of Portugal, combined with the need for irrigation, means that a lot of water must be collected, held in reserve, and distributed out to fields whenever they start to become too dry. This allows for massive improvements in agricultural output. One most curious invention is a giant waterwheel. Placed on the side of an aqueduct, it scoops water into buckets and pours them into the aqueduct, allowing for automatic collection of water and an easy way to transport it vertically.

-The Portuguese military, which is suffering from a lack of iron, has hit upon a metaphorical goldmine when they meet traders from the isle of Mann and Arhonia, bringing cheap iron ingots, weaponry, and armour for all kinds of uses. This allows the Portuguese to more heavily arm and armour their men than most other countries would reasonably be able to do, and gives a slight advantage in war. The Portuguese then send a large portion of their military forces and navy to assist the Spanish and Greeks in their lengthy war with the Mrvian and Laubergian monarchs.

-The clergy are just as aggressive, sending out missionaries into Northern Africa, the east (to assist the Eastern Alliance in conversion of their populace), and deep into the Germanic Kingdoms of the north. The Portuguese also support the appointment of a Spanish Pope this time, John III. With only really the Portuguese and Spanish in the election (and holding most dioceses), they easily see the election of John III go uncontested. Eventually, the King of Aquitania and the Berbers convert to Christianity.

-The Pope is starting to gradually grow in power, and is asking the Portuguese King for lands for the church to administrate by itself. As nobles give it land, the wealthy money, and the landless their crops, it is starting to become a rather wealthy institution. In fact, the church is starting to richly decorate their religious buildings, and to form a complex hierarchy where it runs itself almost like a state. There are several outright complaints about this behaviour, and some movements form in opposition, these movements ranging from monastic orders to the stylites (who stand on top of pillars. The stylites live in a small platform on top of a pillar, accepting bread and milk from bystanders as they try to worship god in peace.

DelianFlag
Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-During this time, an interesting new discovery has made an appearance. It is known that by boiling seawater you can remove salt from it, and that the purified water can collect on the rim of a lid. Some people take the process further to build intricate and curious designs where the same principles can be applied to alcohol. The alcohol within a drink will boil at a different temperature than water, so by carefully maintaining the heat, you can purify the alcohol into a stronger form. The first and and most popular use of this invention is to create whisky, which quickly becomes a popular drink among the Greeks, who call it” Νερό της ζωής.”

-The military is reformed again, this time with the skirmishing cavalry being phased out. Heavy cavalry is replaced with cataphracts. With the recent adoption of the longbow, footsoldiers now wield the weapon, being extensively drilled in its usage by the Portuguese. The old style of bow is still used by horse archers however, given the longbows prohibitive size.

-The Delian League prepares for new conquests by adjusting its system and outlying a process through which newly conquered territories can slowly be entered into the Delian Congress. An executive office is also created, voted on by all members of the Congress. Exercising direct power and authority, the title of executive is empowered to direct wars started by the Delian Congress.

-The Congress officially adopts the Iberian Christian religion as their primary religion and orders it disseminated amongst all the city-states. Temples are "reclaimed" for Christianity. The best example being the Temple of Zeus, where Zeus is torn down and replaced with Brian.

-The School of Athens also grows larger, branching itself into different schools that specialize in various subjects. Including both practical and philosophical studies, the School begins training people in specific topics. It is at this time the liberal arts emerges as a distinct subject to be studied.

-Diplomats approach the Bulgar Khanate and offer all of the Mrvian Empire in exchange for a conversion to Iberian Christianity and aid in taking the land from Mrvia. They also include a promise to help the Bulgars expand to more pastoral lands should they need it. Whilst the Bulgars refuse to convert to Christianity, they do readily take up the invasion offer. The Delians also try to convince the Kings neighbouring the Mrvian Empire to invade and convert to their branch of Christianity, but they refuse outright, as they have already converted to the Aquinist variant.

-With the help of the Bulgars, Turks, and Egyptians, a massive army is assembled and heads up the Danube River. However, the crafty Mrvians had stolen all the food and destroyed the bridges. The Bulgars, who obviously are quite annoyed by this, decide to move ahead anyways. Unlike the Spanish in Laubergia, the Bulgars raze every single town they can find and pick the countryside clean for supplies. The Greeks are forced to slowly advance along the Danube, supported by supply ships and baggage trains whilst the Bulgars destroy the Mrvian Empire. The Greeks finally arrive at Aquincum where the Patriarch is holed up. It is besieged, and over the course of many months the city is unable to get help, for the countryside has been completely devastated and the Mrvians cannot supply enough food to their men. The rapid movement of the Bulgars over the plains of Pannonia is essential to their success, allowing them to outpace the clumsy and slow Mrvians. Eventually, the city is taken and ransacked.

-The Mrvian Emperor is left with a pathetic rump state in the north, which the Bulgars have little interest in conquering. The Greeks and Bulgars march down south to Macedonia, which is destroyed in a similar fashion and carved up between them. The Turks manage to get a part of Thrace during peace talks, and they set about rebuilding the city of Lygos. The Bulgar Khan then declares himself an Emperor, creating the Bulgarian Empire. As for the naval war, the opposing forces are utterly crushed.

BalticFlag
StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-Amber trade causes demand in calculating expenses and counting profits, and eventually it blossomed into a formal study of mathematics. A scholar named Ludvigs Freimanis formulates a sequence of numbers, which he called after himself. By definition, the first two numbers in the Freimanis sequence are 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. This is widely used in many fields such as architecture, where it describes certain shapes and repeating patterns. However, when Freimanis himself was asked about the purpose of his discovery, he replied “because I can, that’s why!” He then jumped onto a horse and rode off into the sunset.

-In this age of war, the Entente seeks to secure its own lands and isolate itself further by taking the strategic islands of Zealand from Germanic hands and putting them under the crown. This is an ambitious notion, as control of this strait grants the Entente control of sea trade in and out of the Baltic, meaning that taking the islands would mean a lot to the people of the kingdom. As such, the King orders construction of forts and outposts on Danish isles of Zealand, Møn, Falster and Lolland, near the straits. They violently subjugate the locals, and the Danes are not all too happy about this invasion. They begin small-scale raids, but the Livonians were prepared for this and repel them, though not without considerable effort. The failure of individual chiefs to repel the invaders had resulted in some of them starting to gradually form confederations, for there is always strength in numbers.

-Control of trade has yielded something interesting. According to merchants, iron of the highest quality is to be found in the land of the Norse, where the purity is exceptional and the quality of products made from it superb. However, these mines are mostly small scale family operations, and the problem of charcoal supplies, transport, and economies of scale, means that very little of this iron is on the move. Mannish iron still rules supreme in trade.

-Naturally, some military preparations took place before the invasion. Units of heavily-armoured infantry are organized, along with wider implementation of pikes and longbows. Pikemen proved relatively useless against the Danes, who preferred skirmishers on foot and hit-and-run tactics. Armoured infantry and longbowmen turned out more useful, though, with the first being able to withstand more punishment and the second picking off the skirmishers before they get to “hit-“in “hit-and-run”. Both sides also lack cavalry, with the little numbers of cavalry in existence being used to scout or to chase down routers.

-Livonian miners come up with the idea of putting support beams in tunnels to prevent cave-ins. Some people even start calculating the tensile strength of the beams, giving a crude start to the study of structural performance of materials. This enabled them to get to deeper, richer mineral deposits. There is a story about one miner, who entered a cavern full of volatile gas. The candle he brought with him ignited the gas, and after a brief hissing noise, he vanished in an explosion. A few witnesses of the event associated his death with some weird, hissing underground creatures. When asked to describe them, the miners could only say that the creatures were “creepy”.

-The King seeks to spread the growing knowledge of science, craft, and trade to the people more effectively. To accomplish this, he sets in motion the construction of guild halls in villages throughout the kingdom, staffed with scholars and emissaries from Riga. The people of the land, being far away from the rampage of the Hunnic-Bulgars, are relatively well-off, and this in conjunction with the guilds generates plenty of buying power and consumer demand on various everyday goods. This attracts refugees from war-torn lands to the south, much to the dismay of the settled locals. Honeyed peaches, woollen jackets, umbrellas, boots, and jewellery are all popular during bumper years.

-The King encourages Latvian and Estonian peoples from surrounding lands to join his country, based on the nationalistic idea of unity of the Baltic peoples. Many chiefs agree, but mostly due to pragmatic reasons rather than wide-eyed idealism: the Entente is rich and able to protect them from raids of the more aggressive neighbours. They bring their old faith and beliefs with them, for they are not impressed by the complex religious customs of the city folk and nobility.

ArhoniaFlag
Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-With the spread of metalworking technologies throughout Europe, some people in Arhonia are experimenting with new ways to produce iron tools and weaponry. By heating iron until it has become like a fluid, it can be poured into a mould to quickly make a whole variety of tools and weapons to the same standard. Cast iron is very weak initially though, and so in order to rectify that, it must be heated, hammered, and then tempered. Despite that shortcoming, this method allows for the wider use of more iron objects among all classes of people, plus allows for the quick production of iron products for export. With the advent of coke by the Misiryaban Turks, the Arhonians can import a lot of cheap low quality pig iron, and then process it into many cast iron goods. One chap even makes a bell, and sells it to a passing Christian trader who takes it to his hometown and installs it inside a church.

-The King of Arhonia is greeted by an Irish chieftain. He claims that he was removed from his lands and stripped of his holdings because of suspicions about his Turkish heritage (his father came from Cornwall), and he would be grateful if he had support to retake it. The King agrees to do so, mobilizing a large force of nobles and mercenaries to invade. They then proceed to give the land back to its rightful owner. Of course, they blackmail him heavily, and then continue to conquer the lands around, creating an exclave in Ireland. Sending back manpower or money in return for lordship, the Arhonian King helps to solidify control by having the young sons of people and the landless travel there to set up a new home. The Irish are then booted out of the way to make way for the immigrants. The Celts proceed to form a force in order to fight off the foreigners, but then it collapses after a leadership dispute and ends up fighting among itself. Fifteen hundred years later, they are still fighting amongst themselves.

-Due to improvements in ironworking, along with navigation, many Arhonians can put on nice chainmail hauberks and set sail to go raid foreigners with a lot of gold and other precious goodies. They travel to the Mediterranean to raid enemies of the Phoenician merchants. They also adopt heavy infantry tactics eerily similar to those of the old Roman legions.

-A treaty promising not to raid the Saxons is signed with the King of the Eoferwic, and the nearby Germanic kings, all of whom don’t take kindly to being raided. War is also declared on the Delian Greeks and their allies, although it mostly takes the form of small-scale coastal raids. To defend against raids on Arhonia itself, forts and dykes are built up and down the Arhone and along the borders of the kingdom itself. When ordering the placement of a dyke along the southern border, somebody suggested that they use the Kings sister instead. The king does not take kindly to this remark.

EoferwicFlag
Daysbefore – Kingdom of Eoferwic
Capital: Eoferwic
Culture: Saxon (Germanic)
State Religion: Reformed Anglo-Saxon Paganism

-Being a warlike people, the Saxons are eager to adopt new ways to kill people and take their land. Hearing of the powerful siege weapons they use on the continent, they come up with their own design, which combines structural elements of a bow with the continental “giant slingshot” design. It is light and small, plus possible to transport on wheels without the need of assembly before firing. These would prove very useful against the small hill-forts of the petty kings of the island. They are nicknamed “egþwirf” for their powerful kick.

-In 523 a representative from Arhonia arrives in Wyke with a royal delegation. King Alfred the Winesodden agrees to marry the eldest daughter of the Arhonian King. The Arhonians exchange the building of their longships for the production of the new saddles with stirrups as a dowry.

-King Edward Snowbeard and his council of Earldormen and thegns bring in new military reforms. The fyrd is now comprised of all free men between fifteen and sixty, and each fyrdman is expected to supply a spear or a bow with a score or arrows, an axe, a shield, a padded cloth or boiled leather jacket, and some sort of head protection. Royal reeves seize sheep pasture and iron mines to produce surplus padded jackets and iron caps for the fyrd. Clans would now go on extensive raids, claiming anything they can carry for themselves. Eoferwician raiders plunder distant lands such as Occitania or the Jutland peninsula, annoying their distant cousins greatly. Occitania in particular provides the royal treasury with a great deal of silver which is reminted to Eoferwician standards. 240 silver pennies weigh a pound, and this is now used as the basis for the new currency system.

-King Edward Snowbeard establishes a mint in Eoferwic in 557, utilizing the small silver deposits found in the extreme southwest. Copper and iron coinage is also introduced, valued at a very low amount but available in much greater quantity. This does not eliminate natural exchange entirely, as some people find exchanging goods for tiny bits of metal inconvenient. King Edward also institutes a tax for every tree felled in royal land to prevent overeager deforestation, along with a new general tax of crops, plunder, and coin. Many of the clans are disgruntled about the fact that they have to share their loot with the king “who doesn’t even do anything”, and some few even outright refuse to pay. A few beheadings see some heads rolling, and they stop refusing to pay up.

-On royal orders from King Aethelstan the Builder, who began his rule in 615 at the age of fourteen, raiders capture slaves from the lands of the Vandals in Occitania. When assembled in Wyke, stone masons are selected from among them and instructed to teach their craft to Eoferwician youth, who in turn become teachers to other youth. Stone masonry is spread thusly throughout the Kingdom at King Aethelstan’s orders, and Eoferwic itself has its walls rebuilt, the lower half of rough-cut stone, the upper half of wood. Of course, there are very few stone masons, but they are happy to work when they find that a king is offering good gold in return for fine building. The expense of building these stone buildings is considerable, but they are well built enough that many continued use (with modification) well into the middle ages.

-Wool becomes the main export traded by sea in Eoferwic, mainly going to Arhonian markets and Frankish coastal towns. Royal grants are given to shepherds in the form of large moorlands and pasture. It is a difficult life, but wool is a good moneymaker, and thus the royal monopoly gives the Kingdom a nice income boost. Iron is eventually exported as well, particularly to the south, where iron is in high demand for making tools and weapons with. Of course, the highest quality iron is to be found in Scandinavia, but that hasn’t been exploited yet. The Saxons of course are well invested into silviculture, seeing good supplies of timber and by extension charcoal as essential to the mass production of iron.

-Royal delegations are sent to the Picts, Franks, Spain, the Cornish Turks, and Arhonia, bearing offers of favourable trade and cooperation. Usually it is those nearby, not raided by the Saxons, which are willing to trade. Further afield, there is little demand for their woollen clothing, and some recognize traders who participated in raids many years before. The Saxons are chased out of Occitania, and their representative merchant, Aaron Goldstein, is beheaded by a Burgundian lord.

-In 599, a delegation from Spain arrives in Wyke to treat with King Alfred the Crippled, and a treaty is agreed to in which traders from Spain are offered the same bonuses as traders from Arhonia, and vice versa. Eoferwician iron and wool is traded for Spanish silver and other goods. Trade is slightly hindered, however, as people of Gaul often attack Saxon traders and not much military ships are there to protect them, as most of them are off raiding.

-While raiding in 617, a ship from Wyke is caught in a storm and blown far to the north. Frozen and starving, the crewmen land upon a previously unknown island cluster (Shetland), naming it Broadhithe for the stretch of beach they initially land on. King Aethelstan orders a settling party sent, and a town is established. Fed by fish and sheep, the few trees fall under royal protection and are rarely touched, instead timber is shipped north from the rest of the Kingdom, albeit at considerable expense. Tools and iron is also imported to conserve precious timber stands.

-In 622, on his deathbed, King Aethelstan does three things; first, he reforms the written language in the form of runes co-opted from Saxons back in Germania, and reveals a secluded body of wise men who have mastered this feat. Next, he sends those wise, and now holy, men to each village in the Kingdom, to preach of the gods of Eoferwicscir and nowhere else. Third, he appoints a singular head of Eoferwician worship, the Heafelahaligmann, the Head holy man, who acts as a messenger from the gods. The Heafelahaligmann is always succeeded by a royally appointed holy man, and can be replaced at any time, so as to prevent royal and holy feuding. The realm is sent into civil war upon Aethelstan's death, a war that lasts for six years before a hard-earned royal victory. His young death at the tender age of 21, along with lead deposits in his thigh bone discovered by archaeologists suggests he contracted a form of lead poisoning.

PictsFlag
Kreigsmar1ne – Picts
Capital: Cait
Culture: Pictish (Celtic)
State Religion: Celtic Polytheism

-Not much happens, save for the King getting deposed, and raids by the Scoti.

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Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-A philosopher is busy sitting in his house being very bored. He is always musing over the problem of how to sort out nonsense from what is truth. He knows that by observing nature, he can make statements that ought to explain what he is seeing. Through some basic reasoning not reliant on mythology, he can come up with reasonable conclusions as many have done before him. However, he decides to take his work further, in particular, his theory that a rainbow is caused by light bending. He verifies his theory by experiment, and thus with empirical evidence to show that this is truly the case (and not Yahweh making the rainbow), he now is confident his methodology will aid him in unlocking the secrets of the universe. His books spread and become popular among academia, and now the central government, a patron of scientific affairs, can more reliably discard people that obviously don’t wish to test their theories and simply siphon up valuable resources. This allows philosophers to narrow down their fields of research to two, giving the government more control over what they can research. (In practical terms, you now choose 2 technologies, thus having a 50/50 chance of getting a technology you want).

-The military prepares for war again, mainly to help the Iberian alliance in their long war with Laubergia and Mrvia. However, a large number is retained and sent to the Balearic Islands and Crete. There they easily force the noblemen to surrender, and then besiege the few rotting towns left. The Balearic Islands are harder to reduce, especially as it is more isolated from the devastation that hit Crete. However, with little financial resources to pay for mercenaries or adequate allied support, the Islands fall to the Phoenician merchants. The Daggerans have been wiped out from the Mediterranean and only an enclave ruled by a branch of the royal family remains in Cornwall.

-After this, the Phoenicians celebrate by gobbling up any remaining lands not held by their neighbours in Africa. Tefullmorostan is also expanding at the same time, so there is some arguing over who really got what land. These feuds cause problems on the borders, especially after forts and watchtowers slowly mushroom along the borders.

-Mercantilism is reintroduced. It is reasonably successful at boosting economic growth, for the state is now actively involved in investment and projects. Of course, this merely results in a gradual increase of rent seeking activities as the merchants guilds grow. They set up outposts overseas and attempt to control the flow of trade, mostly by setting prices in order to maximize revenue. Of course, this never fully works, and they are unable to prevent a gradual decline in the price of luxury goods (particularly cotton). Pottery is one market they can never break into, for their neighbours are masters at mass production and selling of high quality pottery.

-The Phoenician state, realizing that merchants need a good education, begins to establish state run schools and universities, partly paid for by taxes and donations. However, the schools are not very noteworthy or extensive. Of the subjects taught, it offers very little, and is as much a propaganda building to tell people that life under the Phoenicians is good as it is to educate the people. Due to the lack of content in the curriculum, they are nicknamed “Shekel counting colleges”. Universities fare better, and are usually more independent, with the only real change being subsidies given to them. Libraries begin to expand in them as the price of cotton and other fabrics gradually declines. By the end of this period, some students can even hope to buy a book or two, at least secondhand.

-A purported descendant (or at least a man who wants the prestige of the original to rub off on him) of Hanno the Navigator is commissioned to explore the west coast of Africa. He calls himself Hanno and takes several ships full of people through the Pillars of Hercules to the Canaries, which had been known for centuries, but little attempt, had been made to settle permanently on. He finds it is actually inhabited by a group of people who hunt animals and forage food for a living, and speak a strange language and are wishing to be left in peace. Wanting some land, he sets up a fort and a small port anyways as a base for further exploration. He sails south but is driven back by some storms, forcing him to return. When he returns, he discovers that the natives had besieged the fort and killed half of the inhabitants. He quickly visits a coastal town to the east to hire mercenary slingers, before returning to the island to drive off the natives. Later, he is killed in a confrontation with them. The natives eventually begin to diminish in numbers anyways (with some captured as slaves) as the Phoenician population grows. After a century, the natives are forced to eke out a living in the hinterlands.

Afro-Asia

-During the late 530s, there is a great calamity around the world. A volcanic eruption in Indonesia leads to a lot of harvest failures, poor plant growth (as evidenced by tree rings), and later starvation and political instability.

-A great plague arises in central Asia. It spreads along trade routes into China, India, and Egypt, before devastating much of the Mediterranean world. Coincidentally, silk cultivation is now widespread throughout Asia, having been brought by traders from all over, some of who are infected with this horrible disease. Egypt is also badly hit by the disease as well. This isn’t the only disease becoming widespread, for smallpox has reached India via Europe now.

-Christianity spreads down the African East coast, and to the east in Central Asia and even China. Of course, this variant was until recently Nestorian or Manichean, but with the three eastern empires having declared their allegiance to the pope, these Christians are either converting or following their own sects. Given the lack of authority in the east, the heresies still tend to exist much as they did before, settling India and Persia in large numbers. Traders are also managing to spread significant distances as well, with Arab traders now having discovered Lake Chad in Africa.

-Year one of the Islamic calendar begins, after 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammads relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ("emigration") to the city of Medina (formerly known as Yathrib) in 622. There, with the Medinan converts (Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. The city of Mecca attempts to crush this state of religious loonies, but is destroyed by an invading Egyptian force. A group of Misiryaban sailors also help to drive off opponents to Muhammad and assist him in converting people in Arabia.

-The Buddhist monk Jnanagupta translates 39 sutras from Sanskrit to Chinese. China is reunified under the Sui, although it is short-lived. The Tang then takes over and become the new rulers of China. Zen Buddhism enters Vietnam from China during this period as well.

-Backgammon (nard) invented in Persia by Burzoe. Chess is also introduced into Persia and modified to suit local tastes. Stirrups also make an appearance in Persia as well. Books have also become common and cheap enough that most families now can obtain secondhand copies. Usually it is more for prestige than actual reading, as about half of the urban population is illiterate, and 90% of the rural population illiterate as well. These figures invariably change depending on the location, and most villages usually have a literate man willing to read books out loud to people in return for a small fee.

-The Chinese scholar-official Yan Zhitui makes the first reference to the use of toilet paper in history. Meanwhile, the Chinese author Jia Sixia wrote the treatise Qi Min Yao Shu in 535, and although it quotes 160 previous Chinese agronomy books, it is the oldest existent Chinese agriculture treatise. In over one hundred thousand written Chinese characters, the book covered land preparation, seeding, cultivation, orchard management, forestry, animal husbandry, trade, and culinary uses for crops.

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Gishatako – Ptolemaic Empire
Capital: Alexandria
Culture: Egyptian (Coptic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-In a strange turn of events, a shipwright decides on a rather unorthodox ship design. He scales down to build a flat bottomed boat, powered by a single bank of oarsmen. The ship has no ram, and possesses only a single sail. The intention is that by sacrificing weight and manpower, it is more mobile and can even be carried overland. Of course, traders and merchants find it an incredibly useful design as well, and readily take to it.

-A force under command of the Egyptians travels down the Red sea to the small town of Mecca. There the town is undergoing religious strife. It is quickly conquered, and all of the religious dissenters are thrown out. Many of them travel to Medina where there is already a group of religious dissenters. A power struggle eventually results in a man named Muhammad becoming leader of the outcasts, and he makes frequent raids on caravans and outlying villages and towns, much to the annoyance of the Egyptian occupied Mecca. After the conquest, some soldiers are sent to assist the Delians in the Great War with the Mrvians and Laubergians, although a fair number are retained to protect strategic cities such as Jerusalem and Antioch. This war is covered in more detail in the Greek accounts.

-The road network is resurfaced and repaved, along with being dug or raised depending on the area. Many old roads were washed away or slowly became waterlogged as streams and rivers changed over time. Simple roadwork to make the roads fit for use again is enough to sort out most problems regarding wet feet or dust.

-The Iberian Church is established within Egypt. As it has a fair number of other local Christian variants to compete with, it has a very hard time initially, especially as the Pope lives on the other side of the Mediterranean. It takes a good century before the infrastructure and clergy has been established and organized, and it will take longer yet to root out regional heresies. Missionaries also travel outwards to help convert people to this new religion. Of course, this new religion has inspired many destitute men to take up arms to fight for god and country, as a good afterlife is promised if one fights in this war.

-Cordial relations have been firmly established with the states along the Northeast African coast (down into Somalia) and as far east as India.

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Kamikaze470 – Tefullmorostan dol el Wizterbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-Professional architecture is now becoming respected in the country. In fact, the first classes on it are being taught in academies. One such new skill is urban-planning, used to plan out cities in the most efficient manner possible. Grid patterns are adopted, whilst religious, industrial, entertainment, housing, and other necessary districts are built and organized into clearly delineated areas on maps. When reconstruction begins, there are a lot of angry people annoyed that their house has to be demolished to make way for a grand plaza or merchants shop. However, as the cities and towns are gradually rebuilt, they take on an appearance of opulence and majesty. Drains are placed under roads and rubbish regularly cleared from the streets. The capital is one of the most beautiful in the world, but the wide streets also hold a crucial importance in that it allows soldiers to march quickly – aesthetic concerns are secondary!

-Going along these fancy roads, the army conquers any of the last lands nearby not held by a recognized state (although there are disputes with Phoenicia), and then expands eastwards into what they call Tripoli. The prisoners are sold into slavery, and sent to the homeland to integrate into Tozhollleron society. Migrants from the homeland are also sent to the newly conquered areas, as a means of helping to integrate them. Stone forts that double up as housing for nobles begin to be built. They are called “castles”, defined as being a fortified private residence. These castles are helpful in integrating lands, and many new temples and roads are built (to the same style and standard as in the capital) to complete the process. Some rather annoyed Christians and Jews end up migrating due to the work of the unexpected inquisition (see I made it, are you bastards happy now?)

-A most curious law is passed. In this law, it stipulates that a standardized set of weights, lengths, and volumes shall be used by blacksmiths, and that they ought to keep to a standard for the manufacture of weaponry. Whilst this sacrifices the quality and quirks of each weapon, it does aid in the mass production of them. Some blacksmiths, realizing that quality hardly matters anymore, hire beggars to do each step of the process by themselves for pennies. This is the first instance of any form of a production line in the world. Of course, they are limited by the supply of iron.

-In order to help secure supplies of needed goods, along with finding ever more markets for their famous pottery, traders and diplomats travel to Rome, Burgundy, the Vandals, and to the east to flog off their many goods. Iron ingots are then imported in bulk to be processed into tools and weaponry. Meanwhile, pottery factories are now becoming major enterprises, especially as markets slowly expand. The Baltic and the Arhone are two new markets that have been recently opened, aided by the proliferation of trading knarrs.

-Foraging units are now regular attachments to the army. They are a curious lot, composed of the poor and destitute who are skilled at foraging food from the land and finding water where it may not be obvious. Officers are now trained in military academies to incorporate the latest in strategic and tactical thought, plus on how to manage a foraging corps. Some are even educated in some of the more clandestine arts, which go a long way towards helping them to winning battles and wars. The last and most interesting new idea is a pole with a basket on top. Inside is some flammable straw and sticks, which can be lit in case of an emergency. Whilst it is a crude form of communication, it is also incredibly fast and very helpful in the case of giving a single message, roughly translating to “HELP”.

ArmoredTurkishFlag
Burinn – Unified Turkish Kingdom
Capital: Ankara
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-A rather nasty new weapon has been invented by the Turks. It is a long metal tube attached to a container of inflammable goo, which can be pumped out and sprayed onto people and objects. This goo is then set on fire, and worst of all it sticks to surfaces and even floats. These firethrowers are put inside siege towers and in ships, with some very limited applications in open battle. It is a terrifying weapon to face, and many men prefer not to go near it. Of course, mass production of this liquid is difficult, especially as the recipe is a closely guarded secret, and the flimsy and unreliable nature of the weaponry (which uses leather to seal joints) makes it as dangerous for the user as the target.

-Cataphracts are expanded throughout the Turkish army, although their armour and weaponry is starting to look outdated, they are still a serious force to be reckoned with on the field. Lighter cavalry using mail hauberks and lances are much more flexible, and their armour is superior to that of the scaled one. The cataphracts, along with the rest of the army, are sent to assist the Greeks in their wars with the Aquinist Christian Kingdoms and Empires. This war is covered in detail in the accounts regarding the Greeks, Spanish, Laubergians, and Mrvians. Lygos is captured during the war however, from the Macedonians. It is rebuilt and begins to slowly grow under the wise leadership of the Turks. Many Turkish people are elated to hear that the settlement is under their control again.

-The Kingdom declares allegiance to the pope, summarily rooting out heretical religions and establishing infrastructure in their Kingdom for the church. Many small churches are rebuilt or remodelled during this time, and many works translated or quietly hidden to prevent them falling into impressionable hands. Missionaries also spread throughout the Kingdom, converting the wayward to their faith. Some missionaries are even heading into the Caucasians and the Sassanid Empire, although they are coldly received in the latter by people who don’t like being called heretics.

-In continuance of the old ways under the Seleucids, the ruling class (along with some of the lower classes) are adopting Greek customs, and assimilating into the already high numbers of Greeks in Anatolia. Chief among them are indoor plumbing, Greek writing, and feta cheese.

-A number of monks travel to China and India, where they study silk-weaving in order to gleam secrets about its production. It is realized that by keeping silkworms on mulberry trees and boiling the cocoons, you can draw out a long and fine thread, perfect for weaving decadent clothing. They smuggle out silkworms and mulberry seeds in their canes and travel back home, establishing mulberry tree plantations and growing silkworms. They are a great success, and soon Turkish silk is able to start being sold at fetching prices, much to the annoyance of the Chinese.

WeeabooFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-Using Chinese shipbuilding technology, home designs from Wapanese whalers, the Siberians met on their journeys, and any wayward Polynesians who happened to get lost, the Wapanese finally are building ships capable of long overseas voyages. They are small and carry little, but are reliable and can catch the winds and currents of the Pacific and Indian oceans that allow them to sail as far afield as India or even the Eastern Continent. It is with these ships that give the seafaring Wapanese an edge in exploration and trade. When on a visit to China, an official of the Sui is so impressed by one ship he gives them copies of all his books, including maps, along with a glassworker. When the glassworker arrives in Wapan, he tells them of a way to manufacture glass to make imitation jade, and that one can use coal to produce it. When asked how, he demonstrates by heating coal inside an oven and then burning it, the coal giving off heat comparable to charcoal. Thirty years later, coke ovens are being built over Wapan. Wapanese and Chinese glass are of horrifically bad quality though, and costly imports from Italy are much more preferred.

-The remaining Yayoi are conquered, and a particularly nasty form of psychological warfare is used. Macaque monkeys are brought to the battle and made to give off a horrific screeching sound, distressing the opposing side. The islands are finally unified before the century is out, and the Wapanese celebrate by sending missionaries out into Indonesia and Taiwan to convert the inhabitants to Waifuism. Of course, expansion is still desired, and so colonization of the north begins in earnest. Sakhalin and the Kurils begin to see more settlement, whilst the northern part of Honshu and Hokkaido see a general increase in population. A famine during this period results in many of these gains being reversed, and some people are reduced to eating straw and animal bones before better weather returns.

-Records of the first visit to the Ibolozi are dug up, and the Emperor sends a proper expedition to them. In a hilarious turn of events the first expedition to the Ibolozi goes awry, when the captain, Hitachi Carufonu, misreads the map, does a 360 near Hokkaido and starts sailing right across the Pacific Ocean. He soon realizes his mistake, but decides to continue, having “a hunch” that this will lead to something great. They ran out of food, the ship was badly damaged, but when the crew was almost ready to cannibalize each other, they finally saw land, seemingly uninhabited and full of delicious things growing and living there. They eat, restock, repair their ship and Carufonu claims this bay for the Weeaboo Empire, by erecting a flagpole there. They sail back and recount their adventures to the emperor. The emperor punishes Carufonu for his oafishness and disobedience by cutting off his pinky finger, but then rewards him by giving him a daimyo title and lordship over the land he discovered. Carufonu sails back to his new holdings with a flotilla of adventure-seekers, priests, and political or religious dissidents. This time they sail through Ibolozi waters, and most travel is conducted through the north, where they buy food in Ibolozi settlements. A small fort appears around the flagpole Hitachi Carufonu installed. He names the land Carufonia, after himself, and the fort is called Hanayaka.

-Another expedition is sent to the Ibolozi, this time successful, and the Emperor establishes trade and friendly relations with them. Supreme Oniichan studies these people and their beliefs, and decides not to actively proselyte them, claiming that “they probably won’t understand.” Much later however, the fort is abandoned after a mysterious attack, and colonization efforts fall back to uninhabited coastal islands, where they cannot be easily attacked. Farming is poor, and it will take some time before enough people can settle an area at once and support it until it can survive of its own accord. They seize several islands from the Ibolozi.

-Buddhism is incorporated into native Wapanese religion, or at least made to peacefully co-exist. The reformed Buddhism becomes popular, often mixing with the local faiths, supplementing instead of displacing it.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-The Zulu have come up with a devilish new weapon. Much like an ordinary bow, it is actually carefully constructed out of strips of wood or bone to make a layered composite bow. It is significantly more powerful, and able to put arrows deeper into targets. Being shot with an arrow is exceptionally painful, and so people who refuse to submit to the rule of the Zulu will find that Zebra mounted archers will soon be filling them with arrows and setting fire to their house. It is through this cunning invention that the Zulu are permitted to continue their expansion over the Southeast of the continent. Of course, one such area is the large island to the east. On the mainland, expansion proceeds as normal with the usual looting and pillaging. Colonizing the island to the east requires more subtlety.

-Various people in small boats (often finding it difficult to move Zebras and cattle) begin to sail back and forth to a large island sparsely populated. The inhabitants say they only recently settled on the island, within living memory. Both groups of people are able to settle the island for now, although later the Zulu King makes his authority known by appointing a lesser noble to run affairs on the island. The waters between the island and the mainland are named Monkey Channel, whilst the island itself is named Monkey Island. Small ports and wharves are also built in fishing villages, along with boat sheds. Whilst shipbuilding is in its infancy and coastal trade is weak, the King has laid the groundwork for the establishment of trade routes to extend further than his kingdom. Some traders even travel as far north as Somalia, where they can meet with various other merchants heading to and from India and Egypt. An emissary eventually arrives to tell people that the Zulu king wants to find other big empires so he can play checkers with other kings. The Christians in Somalia however, mistakenly believe the Zulu King to be a man called “Prester John”, and ask if he is a Christian.

New World

-During the late 530s, there is a great calamity around the world. A volcanic eruption in Indonesia leads to a lot of harvest failures, poor plant growth (as evidenced by tree rings), and later starvation and political instability. Those in or near the Yucatan peninsula are hard particularly badly, with some cities being abandoned during this time and migrations to other parts being undertaken.

-Hunter-Gathering lifestyles are all but rapidly vanishing in the New World. Most prominent during this period is the spread of new agricultural innovations throughout the North American continent (particularly to the west and north), and south into the Andes and parts of Amazonia. These are marked by the introduction and/or spread of turkeys, rice, maize, and other less well known crops to the Northern continent. In the south, it is the collared peccary, manioc, and maize. The peccary itself has also migrated north into the Pueblo, whilst the Turkey has travelled south into the Mayan held lands. Webs of trade routes are now spreading throughout the lands on and east of the Mississippi river, helping to tie the region together and to spread knowledge, items, and people around. Nascent states are forming, either by profiting from the trade enough that forming armies is necessary to protect their routes, or by having enough people in one place due to the adoption of farming that some kind of organizational group is required to manage resources and people.

-Collared peccaries are introduced to the Andes, whilst the llama’s native to the Andes have spread beyond them, although they are rare due to the hot or humid weather causing constant problems for them.

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Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-As mining expands and some metalworkers come into contact with new ways of producing metal, a particular orange-red ore is found to have a curious metal drawn out of it at a hot enough temperature. Heated in hot charcoal, one can take this metal and shape it into everything one can already fashion out of bronze, and even more. If tempered in water it is much stronger than bronze, and given the availability of iron ore it means that making iron tools is feasible now as well. Over the course of a hundred years, flint and bronze tools are replaced with iron, with the former two only being used in outlying or isolated parts where the people tend to be behind the times. These tools are immensely useful for clearing trees, tilling the soil, digging, and all sorts of other tasks including killing. A lot of forests are cleared to make charcoal and farmland. Old slash and burn agriculture is dying out as well, which is especially problematic for old fire-loving species as they are replaced by ones which humans deem useful. The economy, population, and iron production by tons is now steadily increasing, although high demand for timber means iron production is capped.

-The Kingdom is starting to run into some serious administrative problems. The population has doubled over the past three centuries, with the result that many are being forced to move outwards in search of new land. Administrating these new lands is incredibly difficult however, mainly due to the problem of transport and communications. The canals and rivers are clogged with silt or rafts unsuited to carrying increasing loads of goods. The roads are poor and dog carts can only alleviate so much. Boats also tend to badly scale in size, meaning that moving goods is increasingly frustrating. Only the adoption of new agricultural technologies (such as iron tools) has resulted in the outlying farms becoming productive enough to feed all these extra people. Wars with Indians on the borders are particularly troubling as well. Some members in the government (particularly landowners) propose a way to kill two birds with one stone. In return for administering the lands on the borders and expanding into new areas (whilst also dealing with the Indians), some power and land will be delegated down to them, ruling it as a petty kingdom. Some early attempts happen, whilst in other parts there is restraint, but nobody has a clear idea of whenever or not to take that path. A famine later pushes people outwards, with a great deal of depopulation and abandoning of some of the older densely populated homeland.

-The growth of cities begins to stagnate due to the problems with supplying them with food. As a result, people simply build new towns and cities along rivers, coastlines, and further inland. Trade routes are created almost out of thin air, connecting these towns to each other. Webs of trade routes are now spreading throughout the lands on and east of the Mississippi river, helping to tie the region together and to spread knowledge, items, and people around.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-With increasing dependence on the sea to move large bulk goods, the need for ever larger vessels needs to be realized. A man hits upon a brilliant invention where he builds a large wooden boat out of interlocking planks, tied together and with wooden pegs to fasten it together. Large sails are put on top, and sometimes the crew can use long poles and oars for faster navigation up rivers. As the first shipyard of any kind in the New World (on orders of the King), it quickly develops the capacity to build truly immense ships, or speedy ones intended to skirt the coasts for local trade and fishing. Over the next century, several more such shipyards are built, although at considerable expense. They manage to solve the problem of shipping bulk agricultural products over long distances, with ships now travelling throughout much of the Caribbean area. By the 610s, the first shipwrecks are discovered in Maya waters, indicating spread of the technology.

-A ruling senate is established, whereby a number of varied aristocrats and important people convene to talk about matters of the state. Most importantly, all of the armed forces of this country are not subject to the authority of the senate. Ten officers are selected to represent the warriors of the country. As a distinct class however, warriors are starting to vanish, with increasing numbers of common footsoldiers taking up the bulk of the army, whilst prestigious families of warriors begin to act as officers and generals. They live in on the families of the nobility, who now command the army.

-In order to begin administrating the Kingdom more effectively, all the known lands are divided up, administered by the nobility, warriors, and various other important people who happen to own a lot of land or are adept at killing people. Taxes are levied and crude political factions emerge. At the moment, three parties have formed; the warrior-nobles, in favour of military conquest, expansion, and general warfare; the clergy-nobility, who favour land consolidation, peace, stability, and natural conservatism. Finally is the Kings faction, often composed of both factions depending on the times. He traditionally becomes the moderating influence in this political system. Everybody in the Kingdom can technically vote, but often the local nobility or barracks will help keep the peasants in line and tell them who to vote for. This is slightly more difficult in the larger trading towns to pull off, but for now they stay under dominion of the nobles and warriors. As for everybody else, they are stuck on the bottom rung, trading, building, or farming for a living.

-This centralized pseudo-noble republic continues to expand, although unwilling to expand to the west and north. Instead attention is given to the coastlines, particularly snaking eastwards to follow the slowly growing trading villages. These villages seem ripe for taxing or conquering, and some of them even specialize in making certain goods. Some are weakened by famine, allowing them to be conquered without much of a fight. That’s not to say that the famine was particularly hard hitting at home as well, which could explain all of the young men joining up to loot enemy villages for food and livestock.

-The capital city begins to grow more opulent, eventually the ring of rocks which was built around the city soon after founding, has been built on top of. The walls gradually improve into proper masonry work, but often they are cannibalized and rebuilt at a further distance as the city expands. Eventually all of the villages and hamlets which used to be within the wall are swallowed up by the city.

IboloziFlag
BananaFoam – Ibolozi Confederation
Capital: Ibbus Sieciwiz
Culture: Siberian (Uralic)
State Religion: East Medith Pantheon

-Poor agricultural output, competition with Wapanese fisherman and whalers, plus political problems at home leads to the Confederation shrinking and eventually losing or abandoning several islands, along with some of the interior.

Turn 14: 625 to 750 CE

Saltarello as performed by Joculatores Upsalienses03:54

Saltarello as performed by Joculatores Upsalienses

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn14PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 14

CreationofCenturiesTurn14CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 14

CreationofCenturiesTurn14ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 14

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=42327420&posted=1#post42327420


Turn quote: Silent and watchful,
The great mountain knows much
And sees more.

Events of the years 625 to 750:

Europe

-Beowulf is composed in Anglo-Saxon England. Islam has also made inroads into the Mannish isles. For those of a musical bent, the harp is introduced in Pictland. In Pictland itself, the Picts are united under a new King from Ireland, an émigré who narrowly avoided execution by the Emir there. He founds the Kingdom of Alban, which is later corrupted to become the Kingdom of Albania.

-The heavy horse plough and the heavy horse collar spread throughout the Rhine valley, before disseminating along trading routes and haphazardly throughout the rest of Europe. Papermaking is also now widespread. Finally, the horseshoe is common as well.

-The Kingdom of Italy suffers from problems of stability and maintaining overseas Romania. A civil war results in the loss of Romania, the Romanian usurper declares himself to be the King of Romania. Both entities still retain close linguistic ties, although Romania has begun to drift away under neighbouring influence from Greece and Laubergia.

-Ireland is converted by Imans from Misiryaban, selling the chiefs there iron in bulk along with other metals with aid of the Caliph and merchants. This leads to an Irish arms race, and the victorious chief forms an emirate in Ireland, and then converts much of the island, save for the Arhonian holdings. As for the Isle of Mann, most of it is gradually being annexed into increasingly larger states fighting for control of the whole landmass.

-Georgia, under some pressure by their neighbours, abandons the Eastern Church to pledge allegiance to the Pope.

LaubergiaFlag
Zillamaster55 – The Kingdom of Laubergia
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-The Laubergian army is more or less disbanded in the wake of pitiful military expeditions and conquests. The remaining armies are more or less tied up in personal feudal levies, used to protect the borders from raiders. Many men are broken and have lost their sense of military pride. Many weapons are melted down to make tools, and archaeologists note the widespread abandonment of many military structures during this time. However, there has been an advance in terms of agricultural equipment. The new-fangled heavy horse plough was recently made popular by the Royal family, is now widely used throughout Laubergia.

-Giving in to foreign pressure, Greek merchants begin to travel into the Kingdom, setting up trade offices and investing. Many trade deals are unfortunately in favour of the Greeks. Many Laubergians are angry whenever prices rise and recessions hit. The blame is put on the speculators who made impotent the country.

-All expansion of the Kingdom has come to an end, with borders becoming more solid on the maps. With a long period of peace and little investment into the army, agriculture has a golden age. The population booms, with many marshlands drained, watermills and windmills erected, bridges put over rivers, toll-roads built, and land put under the plough. Growing intensification of the land and lack of places to expand has resulted in a lot of old laws tying people to the land breaking down, for there is a massive surplus of labour available. Many peasants immigrate to the urban areas to try their luck there.

-The new Queen of Laubergia, declares that taxes over the kingdom are to be lowered, partially to keep the nobility happy. One of the big problems is that ever since the army was disbanded, the nobility are keen to press for benefits. One such is a flat tax, which reduces the amount of taxes that everybody pays overall. Of course, this shifts the burden onto the poor, whilst the wealthy are left content. Much later on however, the nobles are demanding the creation of a council, elected by landowners, mostly to change laws in their favour.

-With the nobility now no longer necessary for warfare, a series of reforms sees them spending more and more time in the cities and feasting halls, trying to entertain guests, seduce women, or otherwise compete for positions in government. These costly lifestyles are a menace however, for the nobility is accruing debts, seeing reduced income from their estates (especially since craftworking moved into the urban areas), and otherwise becoming slaves to the usurers. Laws are passed to try and prevent this, but by the end of this period, titles of nobility are being bought by the mercantile class, gradually growing in power and becoming more common within government.

-There is a massive focus into the improvement of agriculture by the royal authorities themselves, and begin by introducing truly massive ploughs pulled by teams of horses. Cutting up the earth, their own big problem is that most peasants’ fields are too small to allow these contraptions on. The landowners solve this problem by simply appropriating bits of land to make bigger fields. The peasantry are very displeased, and as the money economy comes into existence, peasant rebellions are all too common. Targets include nobles, clergymen, and the Greek merchants. There is a race between the farmers and population growth, each seeking to outgrow the other. For a while, one is leading in the race, but their struggle is such that they are chained together, doomed to cross the finish line in a deadly embrace, neither able to break the others will to win.

MisiryabanFlag
KingArcher – Misiryaban Caliphate
Capital: Misiryaban
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Islam (Sunni)

-As industry expands throughout the Caliphate, there is a nagging problem of how to refine the rather sulphurous pig iron. Cast iron is introduced from Arhonia, which, whilst useful to mass produce iron products with, is quite brittle. Wrought iron and steel is still processed using bloomeries, for it is difficult to remove carbon from iron. However, a recent advent is a furnace which burns so hot and brightly that iron flows from the ore as though it were liquid. Whilst it does not solve the wrought iron problem, it does make pig and cast iron extremely cheap (relative to the past), and allow for the creation of a whole variety of common iron products. Pots, pans, kettles, ploughs, and inexpensive tools for the peasantry are produced here. If they break, a blacksmith can easily repair them, and for a small free even work it to be stronger. These innovations are allowing for huge increases in agricultural and industrial output. The Arhonians meanwhile, are still leading producers of processed iron goods.

-In order to help improve industrial development, mercantile policies are introduced to protect trade at home. Foreign manufactured iron is taxed, and as prices quickly rise in Misiryaban further, more foundries are built, mines expanded, and blast furnaces built. Iron manufacturing is growing faster, and even without tariffs it can do very comfortably, for Arhonian iron (the only real competitor) is not being produced on the same scale. In order to help move iron ore, coal and processed iron, simple wooden roads are being constructed. Consisting of planks laid parallel to each other, one can drag a cart over them with ease, especially on flat land. A horse can now pull twice as much as before, allowing for “trains” of carts to be connected to each other and to be built to large sizes. There are still problems however with the concept, for the planks wear down and snap under too heavy loads, the problem of friction could be reduced if the planks were made thinner and smoother, plus the carts themselves have a tendency to break as wood by itself is not strong enough. These roads are also only useful over short distances between rivers, but there are suggestions of remaking canals like those in Crete, or even making the rails out of iron.

-As increasing coke production takes pressure off the forests, there is a massive revival in hunting and forestry. Many nobles enjoy going on long hunting trips in them, and to show their gratitude to the Caliph, they make up part of their taxes with deer, so he can have a fine meal. Timber production is also steadily increasing, with much of it for export as semi-processed beams or use domestically in construction. The increasing wealth of most people sees them gradually switching to using more stone and brick in construction as well.

-After some limited knowledge of the goings on of Arabia, most notably Muhammad's defeat by the Egyptian government, it was decided by the monarch to establish a caliphate and continue to preach Muhammad's preachings.

-With massive amounts of money generated from iron exports and rising revenue from land rents of tenant farmers, an ambitious fortifications project is now underway, along with religious building improvements. Large walls are built around towns and cities, whilst large mosques are raised in city centres. Coastal forts (including old Celtic ones) are reoccupied and repaired or built on top of in order to deter foreign invaders. The navy is also being rapidly expanded, based off local knarrs. Of course, these versions tend to be bigger and better built, with some having small artillery pieces and towers in them so as to rain projectiles upon the enemy.

-Diplomats travel out to meet representatives of the Kingdom of Eoferwic and the Baltic Entente. They all agree to a treaty between all members, with the following conditions:

  1. Mutual alliance between all members.
  2. Conquest of the Saxon Kingdoms in Mann and the Baltic.
  3. Eoferwic will permit Imans from Misiryaban.
  4. Tolls put on merchant shipping, along with tariffs, are abolished for members of the alliance accessing the Baltic Ententes ports.

-With the treaty signed the Misiryabani army marches out to conquer effectively the Thames valley and the southern kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons. The conquest is conducted in stages, where the Baltic Entente and Eoferwic send ships to sail up the Thames to siege London and other important settlements along the south coast. Eventually these sieges reduce the fortifications and force a surrender to come about. Field battles are devastating on the Saxon heavy infantry, for the Misiryabani tactic of using massed slingers is particularly devastating. Lead mining has of course increased massively, allowing for the casting of thousands of lead bullets for slingers to use.

-With the aggressive expansion of the iron industry, merchants are setting up offices in the Mediterranean once more, selling masses of iron, lead, copper, and other metal products at low prices. Their ability to bring in shipments from the homeland quickly (by using knarrs) using small crews makes them quite economical. Archaeologists in the year 1982 discovered once such sunken ship off the coast of Gibraltar, filled with the remains of agricultural tools. Coke is exported as well, although mainly over short distances. Once the Arhonians begin production of coke, most trade is domestic.

-On these knarrs, traders are continually searching for new markets and people or land to exploit. On such trips around the North Sea, a strange island has been stumbled into. Unlike the Shetlands, this island has not been visited by any member of the species Homo sapiens in the entire history of the world. The first traders to visit however, whilst not realizing this, are very annoyed to find nobody to trade with. Shepards, fishermen, and whalers eventually establish themselves on the island, even though it takes a century for the first regular merchant shipping missions to become common. Much further to the south, merchants from Madeira have set up trading posts along the West African coast. They have found that labour is in constant shortage on Madeira for the sugar plantations there (a new crop having been recently introduced by merchants travelling through the Mediterranean), and so the answer arrives when a rather fat African merchant, rubbing his hands and tapping his nose, offers to sell prisoners of war to the Misiryabanis. Within a century, Madeira is full of slaves working to produce sugar, with sugar cones being common in the homes of the wealthy now.

-Due to extensive trade and movement of people and ideas between Arhonia and Misiryaban, despite the best efforts of the Moslems to keep the secret of pig iron production, 125 years of contact eventually leaks the secret to the Arhonians (which admittedly is incredibly simple) of coke production by heating coal in an airless oven. The Misiryabani foundries still rule supreme, but if they wish to keep on top, more improvements are necessary. Madeira is a major port where merchants can stop off at on their travels, and they have a good deal of success breaking into markets that even the Phoenicians cannot fully control. Most Misiryabani merchants sell iron to middlemen or smugglers, as within Phoenician cities, the profit margins are too big to ignore.

-Finally, with the Imans able to spread their faith, they travel throughout Mann. Besides converting most of the former Saxon kingdoms, they also manage to become wildly successful in Ireland, where a minor arms race begins. Imans are able to negotiate the sales of cheap iron weaponry and favourable trading deals with the homeland. Many Irish chieftains get in on it, precipitating a temporary collapse into total war as entire parts of the country are mobilized in increasingly larger armies, armed with mass produced iron weapons and armour. Subtle influences from the Misiryabani Caliphs eventually result in one petty king declaring himself “Emir of Ireland”, forming the first unified Irish state. He celebrates by ordering the execution of all pagans refusing to convert throughout his lands and setting up a civil service to administer the country.

BohemiaKingFlag
Damian0358 – Kingdom of Bohemia
Capital: Praha
Culture: Mrvian (Slavic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-In the Mrvian homeland, there is the problem of leprosy. A horrible disease, it effectively kills nerves in your body and damages the skin, allowing for infection to spread. Left untreated, it progressively spreads throughout the body, gradually, and painfully destroying it. Whilst no cure or treatment exists, the church has taken it upon itself to bring an end to this problem and to treat those with leprosy. Firstly, they issue every victim with a card and a yellow cloak, signifying they possess the disease. Next, they are taken to separate monastic institutions in the countryside where they can be tended for in hospitals there. They are to wear bells as well to warn people of their presence when on travel. Most treatments are ineffective at best, including taking disgusting oils and herbal mixtures. However, with their quarantine from the population, it eventually results in the eradication of the disease by the end of the century. To prevent further outbreaks, foreigners are often checked for signs of the disease, and people from areas with suspected outbreaks are barred entry to towns for 40 days whilst their goods are fumigated.

-Annoyed at the loss of the old lands to the Bulgars, the Bohemians build a new basilica in the city of Titshin (OTL Děčín). They still don’t get over it, and when they hear of the Greek invasion of the Bulgarians, the Bohemians mobilize to take advantage of this, and reclaim most of their lands in the west from the Bulgars as it crumbles under the Greek invasion. They do not reform the Empire however, preferring to remain as the Kingdom of Bohemia.

-Missionaries are sent into the Kingdom of Lombardy and into the recently reconquered Bulgarian lands to convert them to Aquinism. Given the recent recovery of the Kingdom and support from allies, the Kingdom of Lombardy also sees it as wise to convert if they wish to hold a stake in Christianity and form their own organized state church. The pope was incapable of convincing the Lombardians to join the Iberian church, for it was gripped by power struggles within the church as the Portuguese and Spanish slid into economic stagnation and struggled with the Frankish Kingdoms wanting control of the Curia.

-The Bohemian King decides to claim the Vistula basin and most of the lands around it for his Kingdom. Areas such as Lusatia, Silesia, Subcarpathia, Pomerania and Poland are all named and claimed, usually after a tribe living there. Poland is a curious one, for it was named after a recent group of Slavs to arrive, this group naming themselves “Polans”. The king sends emissaries to contact these tribes, mostly the White Serbs, Ślężanie, Pomeranians, Milceni, Sorbs, Slovaks, Vistulans and Polans.

-The king also discovers an interesting tribe living in the area amongst the other tribes, the Slavo-Germanic Lugiis. The king asks them to go into feudal bondage with Bohemia and for their conversion to Aquinism, which the leader of the Lugii tribe accepts. The king proceeds to grant the Lugiis a new homeland in OTL Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, forming the Duchy of Lugii. Of course, the Slavs and Germans already living there aren’t too happy with the arrangement, but a few battles and sieges see to it that this issue is resolved. The Duchy remains as a practically autonomous vassal.

-During the period in which the Kingdom and the Slavic tribes interact with eachother, the Mrvians amalgamate with the Moravians, which results in them turning into Bohemians. The Mrvian people in the former Velkij Donaljea territory in Bulgaria stay Mrvian however. When the war against the Delians ended in disaster (including the loss of the capital, Velehrad), the Emperor decided that the Empire was lost. He headed to Belhomia, where he found the wealthy Hostiv noble family, living in Praga (OTL Prague). He told them the Danube had been lost with the Empire. He gave the crown to the 23 year old Vojen before leaving Belhomia. Some say the Emperor died in modern day Schwerin, due to starvation. He seemed incapable of feeding himself or refused to.

-The new ruler declared that the Empire was a kingdom, becoming King Vojen I Hostiv. The kingdom is renamed Bohemia, renaming the region of Belhomia aswell. He also moved the capital from the fallen Velehrad to the city of Praga, renaming it Praha and changing the flag as well. He also adopts some secular policies to try and put a dividing line between the work of the church and that of the state, eventually declaring that the state ought to be neutral on religion. He still remains loyal to Aquinism in private however, and allows the church a great deal of autonomy in social organization and economic activities.

DelianFlag
Mackalda2k6 – The Delian League
Capital: Athens
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-The School of Athens sends a delegation of scholars to Ceylon to partake in a cultural exchange with the Wapanese. They return with improved coke ovens and sailing ship designs after giving the Wapanese movable block type printing presses and other various technologies. These scholars also travel through the rest of India, bringing back many new interesting discoveries and inventions. In particular, they are interested in alchemy, and now possess the capabilities to produce acids, nitrates, and salts. Antimony is also isolated for the first time along with Bismuth. With all this in mind, the first separate school for alchemical pursuits has been established. They adhere to the theory that all elements decay into a more stable form, and that the most stable and perfect form of element is Gold. They assume that there is a way to catalyse the reaction, saying that iron tools left in copper mines gradually turn into copper. (In actual fact, this is due to ions in the Iron being leached out and replaced with copper). These alchemists also discover that by taking some copper and putting it in a vinegar and salt solution; they can dip a nail in and coat the surface with copper, which they view as success. It won’t be long till they can produce gold.

-The Greeks also manage to negotiate the introduction of Phoenician research methodology, where the Phoenicians send papers and philosophers who inform the Greeks of their new method of understanding the world. It is incredibly useful, and allows the Greeks to slim their academic institutions to get rid of non-scientists researching astrology and other magic nonsense.

-With the advent of Wapanese ship designs and the adoption of Greek firethrowers, the Greek navy is one of the most formidable in the ancient world. Their height and bulk allows them to loom over smaller ships and to spray fire onto the hapless sailors below.

-The Greeks decide that an invasion of those treacherous Bulgars who took over much of their rightful lands is in order. A third of the invading army pushes into Macedon from the Delian border, moving through the mountains to avoid the Bulgars outflanking their supply lines. The rest of the army lands at the mouth of the Danube after a naval attack burns the harbour and ships, along with their crews and some innocent bystanders. The army uses the Danube as its primary method of transportation, shipping men and supplies up the river deep into enemy territory. The Bulgars are unable to assail these ships, and getting close risks being set on fire. Specific interest is made in besieging the Bulgarian capital quickly, where upon capture they execute the commander of the garrison. The main reason for the success in the war was ready and secure control of supply lines and unwillingness to give open battle, instead besieging urban areas and forts and gradually taking more land. Bohemian opportunism also plays a key role in distracting and weakening the Bulgars.

-With the conquest of “Inner Bulgaria” (essentially all land south of the Danube) the Delians take a rest for some years to build fortifications along the river and to subjugate the people living there, most of who are annoyed about the rapid change of rulers. One man complains “I only just memorized the Khans name and then these Greeks had to show up” as he shovelled the bodies of his extended family into a cart. Fort construction also happens throughout the northwest to tame the lands far from the river and to prevent the Bulgarians flanking, although the opportunistic Bohemians decided to invade Bulgaria upon hearing of the success of the Greeks. The Bulgars are eventually crushed, or flee north into the steppes whence they came.

-With all this new land having been conquered (and the people who used to own it suddenly not owning it anymore), there is now ample room for merchants and their recently invented concept of “companies” to establish farms for the sole purpose of producing whiskey. By making grain alcohol and then distilling it to make a potent drink, they can make a great deal of money from the enterprise. By concentrating it further, they can also cut on storage and transport costs, helping to reduce prices and make it a readily available and cheap drink for the masses. The government reducing taxes on it and investing into infrastructure contributes further. Whiskey becomes so popular that many taverns start to specialize in it and it becomes a national drink, although public drunkenness is now extremely common. The church calls for banning or control of the beverage (whilst monks subtly make it) and many people view it as a moral disaster. Soldiers in the army also happen to drink it often, causing many discipline problems.

-Matters aren’t helped by the adoption of iron casting and the expansion of foundries, watermills, and the declining price of clothing brought about by the invention of the spinning wheel. Prices for cheap ironware continue to deflate along with clothing, although food prices hardly decline. With more money in people’s pockets, they can actually afford a lot of cheap whiskey and cotton clothing. At least the cotton farmers are happy, for Greece has a lot of land suitable for cotton cultivation. One philosopher becomes so drunk that he says “What is rational is real and what is real is rational.”

-After several discussions with their Turkish and Egyptian allies, a new binding agreement is made between members of the alliance:

  1. All members will adopt the Greek Drachma as their national currency. As for where the mints are established and who controls monetary policy, is poorly defined.
  2. Thracian lands held by the Turks are ceded to Greece.
  3. All alliance members will form a multi-national company composed of merchants whose task is to make a massive profit from trade and industry, with each country holding stake in the company and sharing profits.

-The Greek capital is formally moved to Lygos (annoying the Athenians) where the city can be built into a great city opposite Istanbul. A great deal of money is spent on the city being built up, with a grand cathedral being centrepiece and towering over Lygos.

-The Delian League charters the Eastern Trading Company. The Company is granted a virtual monopoly on all trade done by the Greeks and their allies, with all merchants required to have a writ from the Company to do business in alliance ports. The Company is given substantial capital from the three countries involved and quickly begins refitting and standardizing its merchant fleet, taking Wapanese innovations into account, creating a sailing ship looking a bit like a cross between traditional Greek and east Asian design for trade. They also create their own private navy and army to protect company assets, and very quickly (with wealth gained from luxury goods trade) become extremely powerful. They control many of the trade routes to the east, charging high dues and engaging in other rent seeking behaviour at the expense of non-alliance members. The company also sends surveyors down the Danube to establish factories, trading posts, and offices in newly conquered lands.

-The Trading Company expands and opens merchant houses in major ports across the Mediterranean world. They trade with the Phoenicians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Saxons. They bring whiskey, silk, iron, steel, cotton, and many other materials that they trade. They have difficultly breaking into markets in Europe however, due to the Baltic Entente and Misiyaban possessing a stronghold on trade there. They encounter similar problems with pottery from Tefullmorostan, and Phoenician control of African trade.

-As per an agreement with the Arhonians, the Company sends surveyors down the Rhine who locate potential industrial development and purchase the land from the Arhonians. Like with the Danube, industrial complexes slowly grow, these run by locals, and the iron they smelt shipped out back to the Eastern Alliance.

-Using the new ships, the Company passes Gibraltar and heads South down the coast of Africa, establishing several trade posts and setting up a headquarters on Cape Verde. These trade posts gradually expand into fortified settlements where missionaries live and spread into the various villages and goods are exchanged for gold, ivory, and slaves. Sugar is found to grow well in Cape Verde, with many slaves being imported in order to cover labour shortages. Malaria is especially a huge problem for these explorers.

-In an effort to acquire new lands, the League sends explorers down the Dneiper River and lays claim to the territory around it. They then equip two merchants to found cities, granting them a charter to settle these lands, one on the coast and the other deeper into the wilderness. The cities are founded, and the land around them and along the river is practically given away to beggars and paupers. Of course, this results in many merchants simply expanding their holdings overseas instead of developing them at home, especially as the costs are lower. One of the problems with settlement is the frequent raiding by nomadic tribes however.

BalticFlag
StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-Livonians, aware that wind is a powerful force, figure out a way to utilize that power. Windmills are constructed in high-altitude areas, using giant cloth sails pushed by wind to grind wheat into flour and for many other tasks. This eliminates the need for an animal or a person to work the mill all day. “As lazy as a miller” becomes a popular expression in the Livonian language.

-Training and deployment of the longbow increases profoundly in the Kingdom, with the king demanding rigorous standards of being able to make at least six shots in the general vicinity per minute mandatory amongst men who seek to be in or are assigned to the position. Quivers are generally not used, as this would only slow the process of firing down. Instead, the arrows are usually stored with the head in the ground, in front of the archer. Though it is not known at the time, the act of storing the head in the ground increases the possibility of infection after being struck by one of these arrows.

-Setting their sights on Fyn and its lesser isles in the Danish Strait, The Entente studies its missteps at Zealand and decides to cut loose a large portion of pikemen save for a handful of highly trained units in reserve, hoping they will become useful again sometime in the future. The excess pikes from the cut go to use in re-outfitting the former pikemen into newer infantry roles, with most pikes being converted into flails and morningstars of both one-handed and two-handed varieties. The one-handed varieties are complemented by hefty shields, creating a new class of heavy infantry to supplement the swordsmen. This works out better than the last time, with flails and morningstars being very effective at bashing in skulls, regardless of presence of any helmets in the way. Danes present on the islands still don’t give up easily, but are overwhelmed anyway.

-Danes on conquered islands often leave behind their longboats, which the Livonians take for themselves, study and use that knowledge to improve upon their own designs. Using these new ships, The Entente attacks the Saxons on the Jutland peninsula and the continent, seeing to “liberate” the local Danes from Saxon rule. They claim that since Estonians are a part of the Entente, and Estonians can be technically classified as Scandinavians, the Danes are their ethnic “brethren”, “oppressed” by the Saxons. This provides enough encouragement for Livonian troops, but the Danes on conquered lands tend to not share their sentiments. The rest of the Saxons put up a good fight, but after the King puts all possible resources into this war, they give up and some emigrate to the isle of Mann. Most of the ethnic Danes are left behind, with the Saxons claiming that “It’s all your fault”. The Danes are at first disgruntled by such a turn of events, but, seeing as they are treated fairly, eventually warm up to the new administration. The remaining Saxons are pushed out by the Duchy of Lugii.

-In part due to the high demand for weapons, charcoal, and building materials, the need for more and more wood is increasing in the Entente. Fearing rapid forest depletion, the king sets in motion new programs promoting sustainability, expansion in search of timber, and makes heavy replanting mandatory. Timber shortages are less of an issue for the Entente. Many towns have neat rows of trees growing outside them. However, this comes at the price of restricting growth and expansion. Many farms and forests compete for land, whilst ships, houses, and charcoal become more costly as the population rises. People begin to switch to building in stone during this time, given the rising cost of wood. Imports of iron products from Arhonia and Misiryaban also lessen the dependence on charcoal, although it is still a problem.

-The game of karš (war) has been played for several centuries now throughout the land of the Baltic Crown and rules have become standardized, resulting in several official leagues throughout the kingdom being subsidized by the monarchy. Karš has become something of an official pastime of the people, and due to its strategic nature, is favoured among military officials and commoners alike, as it promotes logical reasoning and sacrifice. Due to its turn-based nature, some nobles play it long distance, with couriers delivering letters with movements of the pieces on the boards back and forth much like military orders.

-The Entente Monarchy sees itself as legally entitled to Latvia and Estonia, believing that they are destined to settle across all those lands. The country is still weary after the Saxon war though, so not much actual expansion happens. The local tribes are aware of this, though, and are on high alert, anticipating an attack anytime.

-The Livonians come into contact with Germanic tribes on the coast of Sweden, and discover that they have plenty of high-quality iron available. Wishing to have that iron, but understanding that attacking people who own a lot of iron on their hands is a bad idea, they open up trade with them, trading amber, and other goods for it. Eventually they use it to make some iron goods of their own, noting that the quality is the best in Europe. To counter the timber shortage, coke is imported from overseas.

-The Entente sends diplomatic representatives to the Misiryaban Caliphate and the Kingdom of Eoferwic, and they sign a treaty to create an Alliance. Soon after, they send longboats full of troops to assist their allies in their military pursuits, mostly with regards to the wars in Mann with Misiryaban and Eoferwic undergoing substantial expansion.

-A man walking through Riga one day notices the large amount of acorns littering the streets in autumn. He had always been aware of the wild animals eating them, and being a somewhat poor fellow, decided to take some home with him for his own consumption. Toasting them over a fire in a similar manner to other nuts of the day, he ate most of them as is, but on a whim, decided to grind some others into a powder-like substance and put them into boiling water in an attempt to make soup. The resulting liquid, while by no means appetizing on its own, was found to be quite adequate with honey mixed, and soon the man refined the method by placing the acorn grinds into a ball of wool while the water boiled in an effort to prevent them from entering the drink. While there is no name for this drink yet, the man has been sharing it amongst his friends, whom regarding it as rather stiff, alerting stuff, quite unlike the alcohol many are accustomed to. They begin to wonder what would happen if they tried this with other roasted nuts or even beans.

ArhoniaFlag
Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-A new way of processing metal has come into existence. Whilst waterwheels have been used for centuries, only recently has somebody thought of attaching a hammer to one. When lifted up, it slams back down with tremendous force and flattens the piece of iron. This helps speed up the process of making iron objects, and soon, whole mills are built where hammers of varying sizes and speeds are put to work making items out of iron. With the recent introduction of cheap pig iron, it is now easy to mass produce iron tools, weapons, and armour using semi-automated machines, but the lack of large furnaces in which to melt iron into a liquid is still a problem. These are being processed and exported or sold domestically. However, the Misiryabanis still hold a key advantage in the production of pig and cast iron in semi-processed form.

-A great deal of land is leased to the Delian Greek merchants. These men seek to develop the land, establish mines and foundries, plus develop trade and industry along the Arhone River. It is initially well received, with ports growing, people being hired to mine or smith, and money being made. The rent for the land itself is good, although being at a set sum and not accounting for the increase in the value of land, means that more relative wealth is going to the Greeks over time, even if absolute wealth is increasing.

-Expansion into Ireland is also attempted, and conducted quite successfully on the petty kingdoms to their immediate borders. However, due to increasing trade with the iron foundries of the mainland and Mann, plus fears at home, the Irish begin going on total wars of conquest and arms races, eventually ending with the unification of the island itself. The Emir of Ireland himself is very annoyed by the intrusion of the Arhonians, and wishes to push them out of the island so as to unite all the Irish peoples under one ruler and one god.

-Part of the reason for so many advances in metalworking technology is due to close proximity and good relations with the Misiryaban caliphate. Whilst coke production was intended to be a secret, the massive permitted imports eventually led to the discovery of how to make it for oneself. Casting travels in the opposite direction, and soon the Misiryabni merchants are selling cast iron pots very cheaply, much more cheaply than the Arhonians in fact. At least the Arhonian merchants take pride in selling tools, weapons, and armour to the Misiryabanis.

PheoniciaFlag
Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-A momentous new event in the history of science occurred in Libya during this time. A merchant acting on recommendation of a philosopher friend of his was annoyed by the astronomical map that he was sold by a professional “astronomer”. As it turns out, the map bore no relation to reality at all. The mapmaker was successfully sued by an “Aaron Baron-Cohen”, and soon afterwards a new law was passed, punishing those who made false maps. Since this required professional astronomers and cartographers to work together for the state, a new building was constructed in Malta for the purpose of observing the stars. It held printing presses and plates for making books and prints of maps. Since paper and ink is continuing to decline in price, most merchants can now easily afford these new maps. Taken with them on ships, professional navigators are also employed, and the world is becoming mapped. One chap suggests that trigonometry could be used to make accurate maps, although his idea has found little support yet.

-The Phoenician army continues to change over time. The Seher'Seher gradually evolves into a force of lancers. Wearing armour designed to deflect blows instead of stopping them, and equipped with harnesses, stirrups and saddles. Hopefully they will be modern and effective. Even noseplugs are tried to prevent them from smelling camels, but it irritates the nostrils of the horse a great deal, and one bites a handler who goes “Wasn’t even worth the effort”.

-A curious new system of communications has arisen. Adopted from older Roman and Greek concepts, coloured flags can be used to send messages over fields, seas, and many other places. They do well to help speed up communications, although the messages are somewhat limited. The other obvious problem is that a spy or knowledgeable enemy officer can spot them and decode them, so keeping a watch out for those sorts of people is a necessity. Soldiers are also reorganized, so they now operate in a regimental system. This helps extensively with the raising of soldiers from across the seas of the Mediterranean.

-Noticing that Tefullmorostan has built a large number of forts and watchtowers in the border regions, the Phoenicians respond in kind by building forts and watchtowers of their own, complete with semaphore flags, and cupboards full of board games for bored guards. Guards often leave their posts to visit the Tefullmorostani guards and vice versa, where they play games and engage in gambling and drinking. Bawdyhouses also tend to thrive in these areas.

-The variety of courses taught at the Shekel counting colleges begins to expand now that the government has got off its backside. They include farming, natural philosophy, trading and military strategy. Agricultural and trade courses are very popular among the middle classes, whilst philosophy tends to be more favoured by the chattering classes. The increasing availability of books and rising incomes also means that libraries are starting to grow extensively, lending out books to greater numbers of the population. Of course, this means unfavourable ideas will start to spread. Many of the urban poor are annoyed with sanitation. One writer said “They do not readily drink it, because of what they call ‘Shite in the water’.” This is countered with the expansion and improvement of existing sewers, keeping the masses placated for now. It is obvious however, that this won’t work forever.

-As the merchants grow in power, using their money and education to influence the government, this has led to a mixture of good and bad things. Shockingly, they have managed to force down tariffs, allowing a lot of merchants to profit now that they don’t have to pay taxes on goods. Of course, the burden of taxation falls onto landowners as a result, driving tenant farmers out of business. Otherwise trade continues to expand. With these new navigational aids and establishment of trade routes with the polities of West Africa, ships sail to the south past the Canaries and eventually make contact with their associates there. Ivory, slaves, gold, cola nuts, salt, and other assorted goods are exported whilst manufactured goods and alcohols tend to be popular imports.

-However, the Phoenicians monopoly on iron has been broken. The Misiryabani merchants are able to sell iron products for rock bottom prices, whilst smuggling is growing as the disparity in prices becomes painfully obvious. Manufactured iron is even harder hitting, for the Phoenicians have neither large scale iron production facilities nor people to buy iron from, unless they begrudgingly accept Misiryabani iron.

-To help protect the interests of the merchants, the Phoenician India Company is founded. For the moment, it acts much like a nationalized merchant’s guild, amalgamating all of the loosely associated merchants and clubs within the Federation. The Phoenician state also cedes some lands to various nations nearby. Libya is ceded to Tefullmorostan and a defensive pact signed with them. Crete is ceded to Greece, and the Balearics to Spain.

PolochanTribalFlag
cis. joshb – Polochans
Capital: Polotsk
Culture: Polochan (Slavic)
State Religion: Slavic

-During the 8th century, it is thought a group of people known as the Polochans formed in Eastern Europe, forming a rudimentary state. They worshipped the old Slavic gods, were ruled by chiefs, and engaged in agriculture, horsebreeding, trade, and war in their respective lands. We are unsure as to how they formed, but the first records of historical note (mostly from the Bohemians) are written during this time.

-A man, who had been tasked with watching the tribe’s horses for a decade, noticed that foals tend to resemble their parents a lot, and have slight variations in their traits, and that these can be improved through restricting who can breed with who. He soon figures out that this can be exploited to create horses specialized for particular lines of work, and runs with his idea to the High Chief. The Chief, though not completely understanding what the man has told him, allowed him to do whatever he deems necessary if that means getting better horses. Eventually, the Polochans had plenty of horses bred and trained for certain tasks. They were cheap, plentiful, reliable, and used for everything, from pulling carts and ploughs (replacing oxen in that function) to hunting and warfare. Horses become a common commodity for these people, and each family has at least one. Excavations from this time confirm this, showing an increase in the number of horse skeletons in tips whilst other animals faced relative decline. Horses are useful for ploughing fields, so the Polochans were one of the first people to adopt horse-team ploughing.

-The Polochan military itself consists of able bodied men and horses, levied from their usual jobs (most of them being farmers) in times of war. The High Chief makes an effort to send messengers to all settlements in his lands to notify them of the arrangement. They come into contact with lesser tribes surrounding their territory and take their land, chasing them away on horseback or sometimes chasing them down and pushing them into subservience. After they establish at least some semblance of settlement, they levy some men to repel early counterattacks. Most other tribes don’t have horses as good and plentiful as the Polochans yet, so they lose many skirmishes to them and have to hide in the forests, where travel on horseback is considerably harder. In open field, though, the Polochans were often seen running circles around retreating foes, taunting them and calling them names.

-A tribal council is set up where a representative from each small village or settlement is sent to Polotsk to speak with the High Chief. Issues discussed are provided by the representatives. No power is given to them, but the High Chief listens to their suggestions if there is enough support among the others. This crude form of republic, back by expedient communication by horseback couriers, works well at first, but some elders from larger settlements end up holding most power and supporters anyways, thus ensuring their interests come first and foremost. Smaller settlements end up having virtually no power, so they end up submitting to a more influential chief or not bothering at all.

-Scouts are sent out to try to make contact with other peoples to the East. They encounter some Slavic tribes that are willing to trade with them, and horse-pulled caravans travel back and forth considerable distances carrying goods such as timber, amber, iron, gold, and manufactured goods. Most trade goes along the great rivers of the east, flowing into the Baltic (via the Baltic Entente), into the lands held by Bohemians, and into the Black sea, towards the Greeks and Turks.

Afro-Asia

-Alopen, a Persian Christian priest introduces Nestorian Christianity into China. The Chinese Emperor then issues an edict which allows for all religions to be tolerated. He lifts the ban on Waifuism as well. This allows for a brief outburst of religious expression, before controls are tightened again near the end of this period. Buddhism also enjoys a brief stint as state religion.

-The first paper money is issued in China. It is not a great success however, since due to the poor understanding of monetary policy, there is often excessive printing, leading in turn to heavy inflation. To make matters worse, syphilis arrives, and then devastates the population of China. It is named the “Wapanese disease”. It later spreads into Korea and Indochina, where is it aptly named the “Chinese disease”. The bodies continue to pile up before the mutant variety evolves.

-Rice cultivation, urban settlement, and political entities begin to grow and flourish throughout Southeast Asia and Indonesia. By the end of this period, several powerful trading kingdom now exist throughout Indonesia, which are now becoming influenced by Waifuist missionaries and the Buddhists.

-Papermaking is now widespread along with the horseshoe. The Chinese Buddhist monk Yi Xing applies a clockwork escapement mechanism to operate and rotate his astronomical celestial globe.

-The Sassanid Empire collapses under severe strain from the Turks and Egyptians, with the Persian homeland being taken over by a Turkic tribe which declares itself a Khanate. They later convert to Zoroastrianism and gradually become a ruling dynasty.

-Coffee is probably invented around this time in northeast Africa.

RoyalEgyptFlag
Gishatako – Ptolemaic Empire
Capital: Alexandria
Culture: Egyptian (Coptic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-For armies and people wanting to keep their food preserved, salting, drying, and smoking have been regularly tried with varying degrees of success. A breakthrough has recently come about however as pottery and glassware becomes more readily available and of higher quality. Salty brine water is known to help preserve food, but by then storing it in an acid solution (such as vinegar). Not only does it add new flavours, but assists with preserving boiled eggs, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, shellfish, fish, and some meats. Pickled cabbage is particularly useful for armies on the move, for it helps provide vital nutrients. Of course, the problem is that nobody is really sure about how nutrition works, so food is more or less supplied depending on cost and ease of transport.

-The Egyptians invade the Sassanid Empire with unusually small armies. They mostly go around raiding villages and harassing larger settlements and trade caravans, but denying the enemy a good proper fight. This annoys a Sassanid general who exclaims “Why can’t they just stand still and die?” Of course, this was merely a ruse, for it diverted men from the north to deal with the Egyptians, allowing for the Turkish Kingdom and random Turkic tribes to sweep down into Persia and strike at the heart of the Empire. Eventually, the Sassanid armies dissolve and the Empire is divided up between the Egyptians, Turkish Kingdom, and smaller Indian and Turkic states. The Egyptians are later convinced by the Meccans to besiege Mecca and destroy it in order to subjugate the Muslims. 10,000 men march on the city held by 3000 Medinians. Interestingly, they dig a trench and deny the Egyptians battle, forcing them to return to Mecca. Mohammed later travels around Arabia rallying the tribes throughout the peninsula, He is ultimately unsuccessful. His successor declares himself a caliph and moves to the eastern end of the peninsula where he forms his own Caliphate, preying on some of the land scraps of the Sassanid Empire.

-With the introduction of spinning wheels from Turkey, and increasing demand for textiles, cotton has become a popular cash crop in Egypt. Turkey can import cotton from Egypt (which is better suited to growing the crop), meaning that most money is made from growing it. Some craft workshops do appear to cover the niches that Turkish merchants do not cover however. Of course, as prices have come down for textile and paper related products, the tiny middle class (which is growing slowly) finally can spend a fair deal of money on goods such as sugar. The Egyptians consequently expand production of this crop as well, although sugar from the Mediterranean and Atlantic isles eat into their profit margins.

-The Egyptians adopt the Greek drachma as their state currency, in order to squeeze out more of these new drachmas (conversion carried problems in that now the Egyptians have to collect old coinage and reissue them, for the silver purity is higher), they introduce a new tax for people who don’t see the pope as head of the church (which can be avoided by conversion). Over a few decades, this helps with the official suppression of the less desirable religions. Manichaeism, the Coptic Church, and Zoroastrianism all suffer during this time.

-After meeting the Wapanese in Ceylon, the Egyptians establish an embassy on the island and a trading office. Ship journeys during this time also later reveal the existence of the Maldives, beyond charting are not really explored much further. The inhabitants appear to be Dravidians from the mainland, who settled the island group within the past millennium.

WitzerbienImperialFlag
Kamikaze470 – Imperija dol Witzerbien
Capital: Al-Cido Monts
Culture: Tozholleronese
State Religion: Sfplazoro Ecekdorisim

-An engineer comes up with an idea of a giant, sophisticated mechanical apparatus for moving large weights. He does the required calculations, builds a prototype and soon complex wooden cranes are introduced throughout the land in construction, allowing for the erection of larger and more magnificent structures. One notable use of a crane during this period was when a rich noble wanted the full name of the state be spelled on the roof of his mansion in giant marble letters. The sheer combined mass of all the letters was too much for the supports of the house, and it collapsed into fine rubble. Some speculate that this event was one of the reasons the country was renamed.

-The military undergoes substantial reforms. The government establishes a standing army, with its soldiers paid a decent salary and trained regularly. It also becomes somewhat smaller, but more competent. Mass production of longbows is also commissioned by the commanding staff, with many finding their way to the civilian population. They turn archery into a sport, and as such many people outside the military are competent in longbow usage. Archery ranges are now common in most towns and villages. The Shariyyah is also reorganized and renamed the Vieja guardia, composed of elite veterans of the previous Shariyahh (now reformed the Irpar imperjali).

-Landowners start using the three-field rotation system, in which the land is divided into three parts; one section to be planted in the autumn with winter wheat or rye, the second field planted with other crops such as peas, lentils, or beans, and the third field left fallow, in order to allow the soil of that field to regain its nutrients. With each rotation, the field would be used differently, so that a field would be planted for two out of the three years used, whilst one year it 'rested'.

-People who hire other people to work for them now have to pay them a wage that is equal to or higher to a certain amount, that the government deems fair. At the same time, craftsmen are allowed to pay less if their worker is also an apprentice taught by the craftsman. Landowners are upset about this, though, as they were used to mistreating peasants, but it is popular among the common folk. Major land redistributions due to reforms anger the landowners even more, and eventually the House of Snidus ends with Erdmann Snidus IV being overthrown in a coup by the nobility in 649. He is killed, and land is redistributed back to essential backers of the plot.

-The national treasury is established in the capital, handling the issues of expenditure, taxation, and also storing the riches of the state in massive underground vaults. For a brief period of time money stops slipping through the cracks, until the people working in the treasury start thinking that nobody will notice if a few coins go missing. But even with corruption financial matters are handled much better now as a centralized place to store money and to raise loans now exists.

-Wealthy merchants of the realm establish a system of collective investments to fund construction and operation of trade ships, receiving some of its profits if it’s doing well. Despite a few operations going to the bottom, both literally and figuratively, the initiative was a success and becomes used more commonly, sometimes for things other than ships. In other mercantile news, the Empire is now imposing tariffs on Greek merchants to discourage their activities in the country. Those that refuse have their goods confiscated, but this rarely happens.

-In the middle of the 660s', the Slflaplazeolo Guroinquisitios dol el Reinzta had begun to roll into a state of decline. As the causes are much disputed, many mainstream historians speculated it was because the Reinzta order finally achieved its goal of eliminating Catholic heresy for good, rendering the usefulness of the institution very much useless. Historians with more realistic views believe it was because the order later became victim to corruption and (alleged) unlawful interrogation methods, as well as the government fearing they were becoming too powerful beyond the scene politics and wealth. Whatever the reason, it would later fall into financial ruin and finally ceased to function sometime in 677. There would be no more attempts at reviving a holy order until much later in 703, with the creation of the Orden sagrada de los Weyzt (Holy Order of the Weyzt). Reflecting on the wrongdoings of the previous Orders, the position of Grand Master was established, acting as the formal and executive head of the Order.

-Three more dynasties would sit on the Witzerbien throne, the first of which was the House of Mücahit, beginning with Mehdi Iskandar Chukwuemeka Viola Mücahit (regally Mehdi Minücahit I) 650 and ending in 673 with Barthélémy Minücahit I. The second was the House of Halle with the crowning of Césaire Halle I in 673 and going defunct with Bassam Halle III in 709. And finally, the current House of Kunkel with the crowning of Florian Conrado Tiburtius Asad Kunkel (regally Conrad Kunkel I) in late 709.

-According to contemporary records, Conrad I proved to be widely unpopular with his subjects throughout his brief reign. He was tragically disposed of in a plot devised by his three sons and a close peer of his; Maxentius, Arend, Charpentier & Patricio in 712. His death immediately caused a rift within the group, as each one recognized themselves as a successor to Conrad, leading to the four vying for the throne. This erupted into a collective series of brief skirmishes and sieges categorized as the Primeiro tumulto (First turmoil, 712-713). Most of the conflict was a stalemate, save for a dramatic siege of Al-Cido Monts. The four reluctantly agreed to an uneasy peace, lasting only several months before war broke out again. During this period of peace, a council of nobles were elected as regents, but in reality held very little power given the stability of the state. The Segundo tumulto (Second turmoil, 713-715) began with Charpentier dishonouring the peace and laying siege to the capitol, then owned by Maxentius. Although he later broke off the siege after news of a relief army was on the march to lift it.

-Maxentius spent the next few weeks shadowing Charpentier's army. The two armies would finally meet in the Battle of Tozeur, resulting in a decisive victory for Charpentier. Maxemtius, having been injured during the battle, later died of his wounds (or assassinated, as some historians believe) a few days afterwards, leaving Charpentier with only the other two left to deal with. The reminder of 713 and early 714 saw largely indecisive offens-es for Chartpentier's faction, though. Dissatisfied, he sought to ally him-self with Patricio, and together the two laid siege to Arend's stronghold at Skhira, resulting in the fortress falling and Arend being killed. With another opponent eliminated, the duo agreed to a ceasefire for the remain-der of the year allowing time to absorb the remnants of Maxentius/Arend's factions.

-In April 715, the armies of Charpentier & Patricio fought in the ferocious Battle of Gafsa, resulting in a decisive victory for Charpentier. Patricio was captured after it ended and presented before Charpentier, pleading for his life. Charpentier responded he will let him go, reportedly stating " never set foot on the sacred soil of Wissbien never more, as you are a dis-grace before my very eyes and naught but a unkindly man." Patricio later fled to the courts of Europe, living and dying in exile as a poor, broken old man.

-With the end of the Turmoil wars, Charpentier did not crown himself gurji-yahh just yet. Instead, he quickly went to work on consolidating his hold-ings and eliminating potential rivals that might pose a future threat. As a showcase of his power, Charpentier hosted an elaborate ceremony proclaiming Witzerbien an empire, and crowning himself Urbenijar (emperor) "of Witzerbien and all of Africa." He manages to negotiate the acquisition of Libya from the Phoenicians and the creation of a defensive pact as well.

TurkeyFlag
Burinn – Unitied Turkish Kingdom
Capital: Istanbul (Not Constantinople)
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-A most interesting new device has come into common usage. In the past, one had to spin thread by dropping a spindle and spinning it whilst feeding the material in. Now, a clever chap decided to put the spindle onto a wooden frame and use a wheel to spin it around. Whilst slightly cumbersome in that it requires one hand to spin the wheel and the other to manage the spindle, it is an immensely useful invention and makes spinning thread a faster process. Thread production increased by a factor of 5 over this period, contributing to deflation of cloth and rag prices, and making clothes cheaper as well. The other effect that it had was to make paper much cheaper. With this, the price of books begins to collapse further, and the first purpose built bookstores appear along with libraries. Literacy also finally begins to climb as now there are many things worth reading, starting of course, with the bible. There are many who fear this however, demanding control on the presses in case unpopular views spread into the open. Looms also begin to improve steadily to take advantage of increased thread production, whilst cotton farms and sheep pasture becomes much more profitable. Many noblemen are starting to encroach on common pasture lands for their own animals or crops.

-Coordinating with the Egyptians, the army is mobilized and invades the Sassanid Empire after the Egyptians lure the Sassanid armies south and push down the coast towards their Egyptian friends in Jerusalem. They push on the Fertile Crescent and eventually capture most of the major cities there, toppling the old regime. Invasions from India and Turkic raids also cause problems for the Sassanid’s, helping to lead to their demise. The Turkic tribes speak of a horde to the east who drove them here, and that their unquenchable thirst for land may soon bring them to Persia. One of these tribes establishes itself in Persia as a new dynasty there.

-Watermills begin to pop up everywhere in the Empire, mostly for the purposes of assisting with industry and agriculture. Cast iron is introduced from the west by the Greeks, and at the tail end of this period the first foundries with the ability to cast iron are constructed. Most machinery at the moment however, is being used to grind corn, saw wood and stone, or more rarely, to power cranes and silk machinery. Since a law recently passed bans production of silk outside of Antioch, there is a high demand for labour among competing artisans, with the result that some end up building mills for the weaving of silk. Of course, these specialized machines do not travel far or become widely adopted, especially as silkworms and cloth are transported under armed guard. This makes Antioch incredibly wealthy however, which eventually uses their power to control much of the silk trade throughout the Kingdom, making immense profits. The Kingdom profits immensely as well, charging high prices for high quality silk. Some merchants, rather annoyed by these restrictions, try to circumvent them by going north into the Eurasian steppes or to India to find other silk weavers. Of course, the Turkish Kingdom also has access to a great deal of coal, which in later years turned out to be roughly 2.3 billion tons of the stuff, or 0.3% of the world’s total reserves. Whilst this isn’t exactly small, most of these areas are spread throughout Anatolia. There is by contrast, a much smaller amount of iron ore for extraction as well. 86 million tons in total, again in isolated areas not near to readily available rivers or good roads. Even when both are processed, moving them overland is also somewhat difficult as well.

-The Turkish King sees to it that Thracian land is ceded to the Greeks, (despite protests by the nobility). Istanbul is also made the capital of the Kingdom, although oddly it sits on the western side on the ruins of the ancient and defunct Empire of Daggers capital, even adopting a new flag to signify the importance of the event. Istanbul begins to see some life brought back into it, and a busy medieval city grows. Opposite Istanbul is the recently ceded Delian city of Lygos, and given close ties with the Delians and the problem of converting money in such an important trading centre, they (along with Egypt) adopt the same as them, and now mint Drachmas.

-In order to squeeze out more of these new drachmas (conversion carried problems in that now the Turks have to collect old coinage and reissue them, for the silver purity is lower), they introduce a new tax for people who don’t see the pope as head of the church (which can be avoided by conversion). Over a few decades, this helps with the official suppression of the less desirable religions. Manichaeism, the Coptic Church, and Zoroastrianism all suffer during this time.

WeeabooFlag
YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-With increased cross-cultural contact with China and increasing overseas trade and expansion, the compass had found ready use. A useful device that always points towards the poles; it can be used for navigation. Traders and whalers use it to aid in their travels throughout Asia and the Pacific. Eventually, most merchants in Asia from Japan to India are using it, and one even finds its way to the western edges of Hanajia into the grave of one of the (now named) Bakagajin.

-Hearing of the political crisis of the Ibolozi people, the Wapanese invade and subjugate them over a period of a hundred years. Many merchants and members of the Shinigami had explored the coastline beforehand, and assuming that these people were like the Ainu, decided to employ similar tactics. They set fire to homes, destroy food stocks, and otherwise cause problems. The conquest itself is long and difficult, and the Wapanese never truly succeed in wiping out the people or subjugating them. Part of the problem is food supply, for this far north; one cannot have an agrarian economy.

-Ibolozi on conquered territories are schooled in Wapanese and forced to convert to Waifuism. Many daymios claim Ibolozi land as colonies that live off whaling, fishing, hunting seals and forest wildlife for furs. Ibolozi themselves are (relatively) treated fairly, as long as they acknowledge Wapanese authority, follow Waifuism and don’t step out of line. Eventually, the island of Han-Nihon (the original name having been changed) has a castle built on the northern point. Control of the rest of the island is tenuous at best though.

-A university is built in Akihabara. The people of Konata build their own one shortly thereafter, possibly out of spite. The Akihabara University eventually becomes specialized in natural and medical sciences, while the Konata one specializes in economics and exact sciences. The Chinese language school now also teaches several other Asian languages, along with a small class dedicated to the Ibolozi language. The Great Book of Moe is translated into these languages as well. Preservation of the Ibolozi language is difficult however, due to the policy of teaching Waifuism and Wapanese.

-With increasing numbers of pilgrims now coming to the Pantsu Totem, many of which are from abroad, there are more frequent instances of Wai-fu occurring to people as a man. This sparks a major homosexuality debate, possibly the first in history. Major religious scholars and priests gathered in the Katawa Shoujo Ofisharu Tredu (KSOT) to discuss the issue, and split into two factions, both almost equally strong, with directly opposing views. The first one or the “Hasban-do faction” believes that Wai-fu in her omnipotence can choose to appear to people as a man and “we, mere mortals” are not the ones who should question her judgment. The other ones, the “conservative faction”, believe that this is a sign of Wai-fu’s displeasure and that such people are cursed and should be removed from society. The Moefaggu remain neutral on the question, praying to Wai-fu everyday asking for answer. Supreme Oneechan Utena I Moefaggu delivered a prophecy declaring that the answer would come in a hundred and one years. Meanwhile, Waifuists everywhere remain divided on the issue. In some provinces in Wapan homosexuals are treated as equals, while in others they are lynched, if not publicly and officially fed to the Earth.

-As a side effect, Waifuist women are now allowed to make the pilgrimage, with many lucky matches being found right there on the spot. The conservatives are not too happy about it, though.

-Another attempt at settlement at Carufonia is made, but without much success. The inhabitants are forced to leave after a bout of starvation and disease routs them, followed by native attack. Angered, the lord given this land goes there himself with a group of hardy monks, builds a shrine and fort, and then proceeds to capture one of the Bakagajin and holds him in front of their tribe. They sodomize him and then slit his throat, leaving his dead body as a warning. Eventually, settlers come to the fort and the Wapanese build a successful town, albeit plagued by all these calamities. Several more tiny forts and villages end up dotting the local area, although many people die. Most immigrants are the desperate and down on their luck types, and often young sons and orphans.

-The Wapanese also bring a great deal of animals and seeds with them. They bring pigs, horses, oxen, goats, sheep, rice, wheat, millet, along with a whole variety of other such plants and animals. However, due to the problems with tending the animals, it is discovered they tend to enjoy having sex and running away whenever they please. Due to the Wapanese colonists being completely inept, the Bakagajin end up catching or stealing loads of these animals and eating them. Eventually, they realize the potential of them, and end up domesticating them for their own purposes. Given that the people of Carufonia already practice agriculture and have access to bronze and some contact with trade routes, they eventually introduce most of these animals to Mexico. Unfortunately, the pigs fare poorly, and the Japanese end up adopting the collared peccary instead, alongside the pig. Horses meanwhile become popular, multiplying rapidly throughout the California valley. Diseases spread as well unfortunately, smallpox, measles, and influenza, to name a few. They devastate Mexico and spread north and south along trade routes.

-Missionaries continue to sail throughout Indonesia and Indochina, where they begin to finally have real success. The Taiwanese and Malays have both converted in large numbers, whilst the Srivijaya Empire officially adopts it as the state religion. Buddhism however, is a close second, and widely popular. The Mataram Kingdom also tolerates the presence of Waifuist missionaries, although it is hardly a major religion. Influence in the Chenla Kingdom is minimal. Some traders practice in India, but it does not readily take off. In order to solve this problem, the Wapanese arrange a royal marriage with the Kingdom of Anuradhapura in Ceylon. It is nominally successful; although it’s pretty clear the people of Ceylon don’t care about the religion.

-A disease returns, brought by the whalers (hence the name “The whalers disease”). It is horrifically nasty disease, spread by sexual contact. It devastates the Wapanese population, most badly afflicting the religious “celibates”. It kills a great number of people before it mutates into a less deadly form. Meanwhile it spreads into the rest of East Asia, killing millions.

-A natural philosopher from Akihabara travels to Ceylon to study the local wildlife. While in port, he encounters a Greek from the School of Athens studying Oriental culture. They meet and discuss various matters of science and philosophy and end up planning an exchange of knowledge between their respective academic institutions. They sail back home, gathering texts, trinkets, inventions, and other scholars to go with them back to Ceylon. They meet a few months later and trade this valuable information, with the Wapanese learning about recent Greek technologies (including printing presses), whilst the Greeks receive coking ovens and whaling ship designs.

MongoliaFlag
Sincleric – Mongolian Khanate
Capital: Avarga
Culture: Mongol (Altaic)
State Religion: Tengrism

-In the 8th century, the Gokturks of central Asia were facing severe problems with the Tang Chinese invading their state and trying to stamp out the restless hordes plaguing their borders. In what is now called Mongolia, live the various Turkic and Mongolian tribes who have spent centuries fighting each other or being ruled by a particularly successful tribe (such as the Gokturks). The arrival of the Tang is not well received by one tribe of Mongols, who politely tell the emissary to go away. He is later found dead in a ditch with his throat slit, and many Chinese delegates travelling in the area tend to end up in similar ditches and with similar slits on their throats.

-The Mongol tribe then proceeds to refuse to give fight to the Chinese, moving around and having raiding parties on weak points. Eventually, the Chinese are forced to make a strategic retreat back home in order to prepare for another invasion. However, before they can do so, the Mongols begin to snowball across the shattered remains of the Gokturks, and oddly enough, treating their former enemies’ well if they surrender and even giving them positions in government. They promise protection for all subjects of the Khan, and that only those who refuse will be harshly treated. It takes an entire lifetime for Temuge to unite the disparate Mongol and Turkic tribes, filling the vacuum left behind by the Gokturks. After he dies, his son Hasar takes up the mantle of power. Whilst losing to the Chinese army in an initial engagement, Hasar denies them strategic victory by cutting off their supply lines and murdering their scouts, before meeting them again in battle and crushing them. After this, he expands rapidly westwards, snowballing in the process and effectively making a regional power comparable to the old Gokturks.

-Many tribes escaping the Mongols migrate west, where they press on the borders of the ailing Sassanid Empire and indirectly assist the Egyptians and Western Turks in the destruction of the Empire.

ZuluFlag
Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-Through influence from traders, combined with some home-based scholars, various traders heading towards Somalia have reported that the people to the far north keep records, stories, and songs written on thin pieces of a type of cloth or dried reed. By giving a symbol to a sound, you can now record words, stories, and by extension, ideas and knowledge. Initially used by merchants, the so called “Phoenician script” is now being used by the Zulu civil service to keep tax records and record great poems.

-These traders also brought back a curious plant. Growing like a weed, merchants tell that if the plant is prepared properly, it can be set on fire, turned to smoke, and the smoke inhaled. It is said to bring on feelings of euphoria, as it enlightens the user with their own intelligence. It is named the Herbal Merchant, as a nod to its origin. In the future, it would be a common ritual for Zulu Kings to smoke alot of cannabis before making important decisions. Whilst not perhaps the wisest way, it does make the Zulu monarchy less belligerent, and they begin to demand tribute in the form of food, for they begin to feel hungry after taking the Herbal Merchant.

-Of course, this means no end to military expansion. The Zulu expand southwards, looting disobedient towns and villages, and distributing the spoils of war as per usual. The Zulu King oddly enough, wishes to see more expansion on the seas. Viewing the sea as inexhaustible, he pays a great deal of money to aid in the development of coastal villages. Ports are built up, fishing boat designs are spread, and there is general improvement in fishing. Of course, while technological advance is slow and fragmentary, with a few leaks from the Somaliland trading centre, great effort is made to spread these innovations.

-Finally, to help solidify control of Monkey Island, the Zulu send emissaries bearing gifts of the Herbal Merchant, gold, ivory, and other trinkets. They are well received, and both peoples agree to settle the island in relative peace. The west becomes heavily peopled by the Zulu, whilst the eastern portion of the island is covered in a network of villages that may or may not pay some tribute to the Zulu king.

New World

-The Classical Maya civilizations are facing political, agricultural, and economic distress. Local shortages inland are difficult to alleviate, and eventually as civil strife takes its toll, large scale depopulation occurs. Some cities are still powerful throughout this period, and even grow, but on the whole, there is general decline. Many of these people travel north and to the south to more prosperous polities, usually following the trade routes. The arrival of disease brings the death blow, depopulating many cities in Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Trade routes collapse and there is now a sudden lack of bronze and other varied trade goods as people make a move towards self-sufficiency. The advent and spread of iron is crucial in this, as now people in Mexico and much of North America are now adopting iron as they learn how to smelt it. An irons race eventually occurs when one group of Mexicans decide to invest heavily into iron by mass producing weaponry and armour, plus buying it abroad from merchants. After many wars, they eventually unite much of central Mexico.

-Pigs, horses, oxen, goats, sheep, rice, wheat, millet, along with a whole variety of other such plants and animals have been introduced to California, and by the end of this period, have made inroads into Mexico. The Carufonians end up catching or stealing loads of these animals and eating them. Eventually, they realize the potential of them, and end up domesticating them for their own purposes. Given that the people of Carufonia already practice agriculture and have access to bronze and some contact with trade routes, they eventually introduce most of these animals to Mexico. Unfortunately, the pigs fare poorly, and the Japanese end up adopting the collared peccary instead, alongside the pig. Horses meanwhile become popular, multiplying rapidly throughout the California valley. Diseases spread as well unfortunately, smallpox, measles, and influenza, to name a few. They devastate Mexico and spread north and south along trade routes, before spreading to the east. However, with expanding trade and improving agriculture, several polities are popping into existence along trade routes and fertile areas in North Hinajia, along the Mississippi and Ohio rivers.

-Xerxes and Kauppsia are now aware of each other, mostly through merchants meeting each other through trade. Whilst each was mostly rumoured, it is now well known that both places exist, and have real people with mundane lives. Turkeys, Muscovy ducks, Dogs, collared peccaries, wheels, iron, and a great deal of other innovations. A historian famous for covering this time period in his monumental doorstopper "An impartial history of Hanajia: A thousand years of inbreds in charge” sums up the period by saying “The Merchants were very easy to spot as they were fat and had a monstrous laugh that could be heard whenever they were counting the profits they had made from using poor people as fuel.

Flag unavailable
Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-Philosophers have existed here for quite a long time. In fact, one of them did something quite interesting during this time. He took a straightedge and practiced some geometry on a graph, and began to think about the nature of light. He notices that when light passes through the tiny gaps in wicker baskets, that they seem to project a very distorted and upside down picture. He tests further by taking a thin sheet of black cloth and piercing a hole in the middle, before putting it in a darkened room. He then noticed an inverted picture of the outside world. Fascinated, he commissions an artist to trace it, resulting in a very neat and near prefect representation of the original. (However as it did not use light sensitive chemicals, it does not classify as a photograph). Continuing his studies and eventually founding a school, this event is placed as the beginning of the science of optics in Kauppisia.

-A great and horrific epidemic arrives from the south. It covers a person in red sores, makes them deathly ill, and kills them. Of course, this is no proper or dignified way to die, and the dead bodies are treated with a great deal of respect, despite their numbers. Many centuries later, one of these pits is discovered when a sewer became damaged and drained into it.

-As the cities depopulate and people flee urban areas to escape the disease, many of the busy trading towns and cities shut down for business. Many merchants find it a distressing time, although some manage to make money by selling bowls of urine to people with the promise that it promotes good health. At the very least, it promotes good wealth for the doctor involved. Eventually, the farms are overgrown with weeds and poor weather along with nobody being around to repair these farms and buildings means that much later, it becomes difficult to repair the damage caused by the disease. There is evidence of damaged parts of buildings simply being pulled down and the material used to repair holes. One provincial official declares war on the sea for bringing forth the disease from overseas, and orders the sea to be branded with red hot irons and to be stabbed with swords.

-With the chaos of disease and civil unrest, the local nobles are trying to grab power for themselves. To prevent this, the oligarchy of merchants dismantles the old infrastructure and reforms government so as to finally root out major problems of administration. They begin by introducing a set of rigorous exams for people intending to enter government. The civil service is called the ' Virjamiesten ', filled by an educated class of scholar-officials who help to administrate the Republic. The subjects taken in school are the following:

Scholastic arts: arithmetic, writing, and general knowledge.
Militaristic: Strategy & Organization.

After studying these subjects for several years, they take exams called “palvelija testi”, which assesses them on their knowledge and abilities. Afterwards, they are appointed to various settlements or rural areas to administrate, involving themselves with both local projects, and national ones. They are also empowered to hire their own petty civil servants (for law, taxation, conscription, state run industry, etc). Being in the position is prestigious and powerful, plus good for one’s wealth.

-Under the wise rule of the Virkamiesten, many areas abandoned due to disease are reclaimed or at least prevented from decaying further. Many land grants are handed out, usually by the scholar officials to their appointees. Of course, there is a perennial problem of labour shortages, and many laws are passed to tie people to the land. These are not always effective however, and economic growth is poor. In fact, some wars of conquest are made into rich lands afflicted by the plague, whereby children are kidnapped and raised back home as slaves or serfs. There is good money to be made, and the merchant in the sky is willing to rub his hands whenever he hears a fetching price for a child.

XerxesTribalFlag
Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-The arrival of nasty foreign diseases, the collapse of long distance trade, and general reduction of population and access to materials is particularly troublesome for the people here. In fact, society has regressed massively in many aspects. Old buildings are no longer repaired, and cannibalized for building materials. Carefully tended irrigation channels and farms become silted up and overgrown with weeds. Even fancy bronze is no longer imported. To make up for this deficit, there is one crucial invention however, apparently from the far north. It is iron, and if smelted in a forge using charcoal, it can be shaped into a whole manner of tools, weapons and armour. With this, the former bronzesmiths set to work manufacturing iron tools and weapons. Of course, this demands a lot of charcoal, and thus begins a lot of deforestation and forestry management. Fields are tilled and even ploughed, marking a significant transition away from older methods of agriculture.

-With the mysterious plagues killing off their neighbours, the military decides that invading their rivals in such a weakened state would be a brilliant idea. Mobilizing the army, they are ready to march out. The deadly diseases strike however, decimating the population. The army suffers from a severe lack of manpower, resources begun scarce, farms shrink, and buildings fall down as society becomes less complex and less populated. The capital even temporarily reverts to a group of villages inside the great wall, before the arrival of young people later on in this period, who return with the intention of grabbing all of the unoccupied land.

-It takes years for the population to recover, but due to their access to trade routes and large reserves of material wealth, they have a head start over their crippled neighbours. The army sets out once more, taking boats into the Caribbean to raid and conquer the villages and towns scattered throughout them. Meanwhile, similar raids and wars of conquest go along the coastline as well. Much further to the east are uncivilized peoples who don’t even built walls around their villages (or do not possess the capabilities to do so). They are subdued and brought into the fold. To keep them in line, many prisoners have their teeth pulled out, and the dead ones have their bones made into flutes. Some boats are being made with reinforced prows as well, possibly in order to ram enemy vessels (although naval warfare doesn’t really exist as of yet).

-However, many people do surrender, especially the peaceful types. As a show of gratitude, they are given gifts in the form of copper knives (used as a type of money), peccaries, and various other trinkets. These people are also soon converted to Titus as well, with the new shrines being some of the most opulent and largest structures in each area. As the land is cleared and hoed, followed by being developed, the old way of life is dying out. One lord who dies has a lot of copper knives buried with him for the afterlife. There are also human sacrifices, although it later turns out that the copper knife deliveryman was accidentally sacrificed along with everybody else.

-Records (for whatever reason) are now being kept on clay tablets. Whilst people in the Yucatan Peninsula have moved forwards by using bark and cloth to write on, the residents of Xerxes seem to like using these cumbersome and long lasting records. Whatever the case, it’s a massive boon to archaeologists and historians in later years when it comes to reading records about life in those days. To help disseminate the knowledge of writing, the nobility are taught how to read and write. Whilst not especially important to them, it does put a veneer on top of this civilization to make it appear refined in contrast to their illiterate neighbours. To help keep it all together, prizes are given to people who manage to create or think about something quite interesting. For instance, one chap has made several important discoveries, including a new unit of measurement for ascertaining the distance jumped by a flea (a flea's foot, created from a minuscule imprint in wax), and the exact cause of the buzzing noise made by a gnat (its arse resembles a trumpet).

-Knowing that access to metals and other nice goods (such as tobacco, cocoa, chillies, and cotton) does well for paying off vassals, the King orders that trade routes with the Mexica and Maya to the north are to be re-established. Much later, when iron is slowly introduced, the king orders another route opened up, which follows the coastline up to the Mississippi, where at a large coastal town built on stilts and split logs is a major trading centre. Many buildings are owned by merchants from a land apparently composed entirely of merchants. After some talks, representatives of both peoples make a promise to trade for mutual benefit, with the town on the river as a meeting place and trading centre to conduct business. A type of new beer becomes popular, made by having women chew corn in their mouth and spitting the corn into a tank of water. Left to brew, it becomes a popular thirst quenching drink called “chicha”.

-With trade routes now re-established after the population begins to slowly recover, many new innovations, plants, and animals have been introduced or otherwise improved. Among them are the wheel, metalworking, currency, wild rice, writing, pottery manufacture, cotton, weaving, the turkey, sailing boats, plus a whole plethora of other lesser novelties. This period is dated to be the end of classical Xerxes civilization, and the start of their medium aevum (or middle age).

-In order to protect the growing concentrations of wealth, populations, and to cement power in far flung regions, copies of the capital wall begins to be built in other towns, usually troublesome or rich ones. Eventually, as living standards improve and more resources are available to use on public projects of lesser importance, walls, roads, the colloquially named “shit pits” and barracks are built. These are all to aid in long sieges, so large granaries and wells are also essential in helping a city to hold out until reinforcements arrive.

Turn 15: 750 to 875 CE

CreationofCenturiesTurn15PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 15

CreationofCenturiesTurn15CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 15

CreationofCenturiesTurn15ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 15

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=42503574&viewfull=1#post42503574


Turn quote: Socialist Workers Party holds meeting on “Laubergian Reich: First crisis in capitalism?” Party members get a curry and see a Julia Roberts movie instead.

Events of the years 750 to 875:

Europe

-Classical Latin and Greek languages have fallen completely out of use among the common people, save for conservative phrases and words.

-Increasing silver deficits is a constant problem. People are always buying and selling goods; with one result being that trade imbalances are becoming pretty noticeable. The first theorists of economic thought have begun to speculate that changes in the value of currency may be related to positive or negative inflows of silver. Thus, they suggest that if a country wishes to have enough hard currency to pay for their armies and needed goods, a silver surplus is necessary. A silver deficit means that stocks of silver are in decline, and may cause problems when a King needs to raise an army and suddenly finds he’s out of pocket.

-During this period, the Franks engage in long wars with the people settling Lesser Mann and the Aquitanians, and eventually convert to Christianity. They also manage to grab a great deal of land from the Aquitanians and eventually form an alliance with the Kingdom of Lombardy. They successively reduce the Aquitanians down into a Duchy and force it to convert to their “correct” form of Christianity.

-Spain and Portugal (along with the Iberian Phoenicians) have begun to explore down the African coastline. The Iberian Phoenicians are also under increasing strain from neighbouring Christians to convert, but remain generally steadfast. Cracks are appearing however, and churches have begun to be raised inside the country.

LaubergiaFlag
Zillamaster55 – Laubergian Reich
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-Adopting old ballista and bow technology, the Laubergians have managed to make the ballista smaller, yet still retain a powerful punch. Called a “crossbow”, it requires the user to pull on the string with both hands whilst holding down the other end with your foot in order to cock it. With a bolt in place, it is a formidable weapon. Not only is it powerful and accurate, but it requires very little training, and may be loaded in advance before a battle. It is rapidly adopted by people of all classes, although the church declares a ban on them (one which is ignored). Much later, some professional crossbowmen wear a large shield on their back to protect them whilst reloading, and many cities and fortifications have racks full of crossbows. Peasants can be trained to use them en masse, and the Laubergian military can take advantage of this to experiment with new tactics and much needed reforms.

-Taxes are slashed for people willing to be professional soldiers. These men prepare for war and initially make a living by protecting trade caravans, finding employment as watchmen and thief-takers, plus much later, mercenary service. Many young sons without ties to the land in the increasingly capitalist Kingdom are travelling out to make a living from professional warfare. Money is important, and they fight for all rulers, including opposing sides! Some of this money is sent back home to support their families, aiding in the establishment of a trade surplus in the Kingdom.

-The new Queen of Laubergia however, decides that reforms are necessary and that the old ways must be abandoned. She renames her lands “Lauberreich” and the Kingdom itself is known as “Laubergian Reich”. Inheritance laws have also been reformed so as to allow women to inherit on equal grounds with men, much to the annoyance of the slowly impoverished nobility. She also introduces more isolationist policies by cutting links with Romania and Italy, and only really engaging in the affairs of the Kingdom and that of trade and various philosophers and merchants who come to the Reich seeking a new life or money. Many of these merchants are from Phoenicia, and some become very influential, even intermarrying into the nobility and setting up banks.

-The Queen seeks to root out these usurers and money grubbers by breaking up the large banking institutions and removing the merchants from the Reich, embezzling their funds for herself. Unfortunately, she is still unable to prevent the decay of Feudalism and many old institutions in her lands. People are increasingly bewildered by these changes, seemingly unstoppable ones. The population continues to grow. To cover the shortage of silver, many new mines continue to be opened and the coinage is debased, although this starts to lead to modest inflation, forcing up prices. Understandably, people begin to spend their money more quickly, and to adopt money ever more as it becomes increasingly important.

-With agriculture becoming more competitive and a money maker, many old aristocratic families are falling into poverty as they are unable to maintain their expensive lifestyles with declining profits. They begin to borrow from the Queen, both parties fully knowing that they are unable to pay the other back. This does help prevent money falling into the merchants’ hands, but it is not possible to continue forever. The states revenues are slowly becoming unable to cover subsidizing the nobility. Eventually, they begin selling off their land to the lucky few nobles who figured out how to turn farming into a business, or their tenants. By this stage, all of the old feudal obligations have collapsed, and merchants are using their cash reserves to heavily intermarry with the nobility and to buy positions in government. Becoming bold enough, a petition is sent to the Queen of Laubergia, demanding the creation of a parliament. If she refuses, it is feared that the mercenaries will rise up, paid well by the merchants. The nobility meanwhile, are completely powerless to do anything, for their feudal levies have decayed away to nothing, and possess little wealth.

-A building boom is underway in Laubergia, and even aesthetics are changing. It is no longer the size of a house that is important, but the style of it, and what it contains. Banquets are no longer about the food, but how it is presented, how the table is laid. Books on table manners gradually shift from saying that spitting ones food out is acceptable, to gradually restricting the ways in which one could do that, until the practice is considered rude altogether. Money acquires a power in itself, and marriage begins to be done for money instead of land. Some merchants even begin dividing up tasks between unskilled workers, usually in order to take advantage of all the cheap labour. In this strange world borne in cosmopolitan centres, one can scarcely believe that these eccentric behaviours will result in the creation of a new world order.

MisiryabanFlag
KingArcher – Misiryaban Caliphate
Capital: Misiryaban
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Islam (Sunni)

-During this time, a scholar is left deeply disappointed with the work of Aristotle, who claimed that vacuums in nature are impossible. Water pumps consistently fail at the height of 10.3 metres, which leads the man on to study if different materials can only go up so far. He makes a thin glass tube and fills it with mercury, before upending it in a bowl of mercury and letting it drain. It creates the first man made vacuum. Working further, he uses the principle to develop a metal cylinder which uses the pressure of steam to force water out a pipe. It is installed for a fountain in the palace of the Caliph, where it keeps the fountain running smoothly.

-With the success in the wars of the last century and the expansion of the Caliphate, especially in Ireland, the Caliph declares war on the last of the old Celtic kingdoms in the rest of England. The last Kingdom to fall is that of Strathclyde, and with that, the Mannish isles are now dominated by several large political entities instead of petty kingdoms. To help assist the Emir with his troubles on the border with Arhonia, the Caliph sends engineers and soldiers to the border, where they construct a huge dyke with thorns planted in the sides. Several forts are built as well, with toll roads set up and traffic funnelled so as to help control the movement of Irish-Arhonians.

-The Caliph introduces a most curious set of new laws, seeking to change several noteworthy institutions. He starts by enacting a law for primogeniture inheritance, which means only the eldest son inherits. As a result of this, land consolidation is slowly happening among middle and large landowners, able to take advantage of the new laws by reinvesting into the land as it is assured to be kept within the family over generations. Laws tying people to the land are also practically eliminated, much to the annoyance of the nobility. Many ironmasters and merchants supported the laws, for it allowed workers to migrate to the towns and foundries where labour is always needed. To retain people to work the fields, landowners are forced to treat their tenants more nicely, before eventually being forced to pay them in money, and then increase their wages. The money economy roots itself permanently, and much of the same changes happening in Laubergia are now underway here. To complete the process, tenancy rights are more or less ignored, allowing for the landowners to throw the troublesome peasants demanding higher wages off their land and replacing them with animals such as sheep or cattle.

-With increasing volumes of trade and masses of unemployed people scattered around the country, uprooted by clearances and seeking opportunities, canal digging seems an attractive choice. This period sees canals dug all over the Caliphate, connecting rivers, lakes, seas, and even isolated areas. Water is supplied with wind or water powered machinery and diverted or dammed streams, and to make moving goods over short distances where canals cannot be used easier, more plateway roads are built. Friction is a problem, which is mitigated by the introduction of cast iron rails, whilst the wheels are made of iron as well. Some canals and plateways are built in poor places however, and whilst they make little to no profit, they do help stimulate tiny amounts of trade and travel in those parts, even if only by a little.

-With new agricultural ideas coming in, the spread of canals and plateways, the adoption of money, and devotion to the will of god, local schools and parents are increasingly unable to cover basic educational needs in an ever changing world. To solve this problem, the Caliph introduces a law which says that all private institutions and religious ones seeking to educate children had 5 years to build schools and enrol children before the state was to step at. At the end of this period, slightly under half of the country was under such a system, requiring the state to cover the other half and provide a bare minimum to those unable to attend school. Subjects taught include the alphabet, religious and moral conduct in accordance with Islamic principles, basic mathematics, reading and writing, plus trades. Many of these schools fund themselves by arranging for children to be apprenticed to craftsmen in the cities and foundries.

-With a semi-literate populace now growing, the printing press is finally starting to come into its own. Large posters are usually placed in villages to tell people of the news and achievements throughout the nation, including the latest in agricultural techniques and foreign or religious affairs. Imans often control the press in each village, and are often the only people allowed to operate one. They are required by the state to print out favourable news and to ensure the people of the country remain contented. As literacy rises, most people can identify and write their own names (to identify on legal documents) and tend to read the posters put up around. Eventually, cheap knockoff copies are made for sale to people, sometimes on a weekly basis. People become more educated about the world at large, and begin to make better choices. Most fields in the country are carefully tended to achieve maximum output, and the barges on canals become more frequent as more must be moved along them.

-Several imams travel into Asia along the Silk Road, eventually meeting the Mongol Khan himself. He is pleased by the arrival of these well-mannered foreigners, granting them access to copies of Chinese alchemical texts and astronomical instruments and charts as a visiting gift. They spent some time translating the texts into Arabic and Greek, two of the main languages of the western world. They return home, and mix a powder described in the book as “An explosive finding”. The Imans also travel many times over throughout the world, collecting information on the goings on of the Indus and in Greece. They try to preach the word of Allah to many, and meet little success save in India and in the court of the Khan. When they meet the Greeks, several textbooks are swapped and a deal is signed, in which the Misiryabanis will sell iron at below market prices to the Greeks in return for the importation of professional mathematicians and geographers. These academics would later help form the basis for the network of canals, plateways, and roads throughout the Mannish isles, using exact surveys to find the best routes and doing much for the economic wellbeing of the country.

-An alliance and personal union of the royal families between Ireland and Misiryaban is signed, both hoping for many fruitful years of prosperity and cooperation. The Irish population is still somewhat unruly, many of them hiding old religious practices or paying extra taxes and then hiding their money. Nonetheless, they are a dying breed. The Irish later send some troublemakers to Misiryaban to help with their colonial efforts abroad. Colonies are established or expanded throughout Iceland and the Faroes, whilst plantations in West Africa are expanded to meet the demand for sugar. It is noticed that some African Kings and merchants sense a good business opportunity, and have begun to set up sugar plantations in their own kingdoms for the production of sugar to sell to the Arabs. Existing plantations offshore are still profitable, but prices are dropping slowly. Increased contact with Greek whisky also encourages them to expand markets, and soon enough a lot of cheap staples are being processed and sold back home.

-With better education, transport, a slightly higher wage, and cheaper food, people can now finally afford to buy nice things. Alcohol is one problem, in that not only is it looked down on religiously, but it also acts as a chemical depressant. When cones of sugar and bags of coffee (a new delicacy from the Baltic) arrive, they are readily taken up. Stimulating and giving a high, these commodities are enjoyed by the wealthy and growing middle class, seeing it as a suitable alternative for alcohol. One Iman denounces the drink until he is given a cup himself to try, at which point he declares it absolutely delicious and blesses it. In memory of him, a type of coffee is named “Qahwa” in which the beans are finely roasted, ground, mixed with sugar, boiled, and then served in a cup where they are allowed to settle. Of course, people can’t get enough of the stuff, demanding ever more sugar and coffee. To try and satisfy demand, the Misiryabanis set up more trading posts in West Africa, where they set up plantations and subcontract labour from the local rulers. These rulers also set up their own plantations to cover increasing demand.

-Imans also travel to Lesser Mann, where after having success converting some people, they assist the motherland in the vassalizing of some of the more cooperative kings. Close trade links make the job easier, and rebellious types are quickly isolated and forced to submit or flee. The Franks eventually begin blackmailing the remaining ones there as the independence of the peoples there gradually evaporates, and within a century the peninsula has been divided up and thoroughly converted to the culture or religion of their new rulers. Meanwhile, the islands lying off Normandy are taken over as well, causing an eyesore to the French who resent the fact they are incompetent at naval warfare.

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Damian0358 – Kingdom of Bohemia
Capital: Praha
Culture: Bohemian (Slavic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-With the spread of discoveries from the far corners of the earth through the multi-ethnic and multi-religious Kingdom, quite a few alchemists have been able to capitalize on these discoveries. Soaps can be easily made by boiling wood ash and animal fats together, but such kitchen experiments have diversified in scope. Seeking to break everything down to the simplest possible form, a method of producing soaps from vegetable oils is made possible. Quite soon, rapeseed is incorporated into three field rotation, usually for the second crop. The advantage of it is that not only can it be used to make vegetable oil, but the meal of the plant is good for feeding animals with and limits nitrogen loss in the soil. Soap factories are appearing in the cities and the populace can now afford a great deal more soap. Most people keep their hands and face clean, and even men who use “their scent” in order to attract women are forced to begin using soap.

-A new basilica is built in the city of Velehrad and the basilicas in Titshin and Aquincum are rebuilt as cathedrals. The new buildings are built in a most impressive Gothic style, a recent innovation among architects. Utilizing high, pointed arches and making use of spacious interiors, the cathedrals and the basilica are among the tallest buildings in the world. Elated at this success, the King sends missionaries to the Franks to assist in their conversion to Aquinism. In the year 867, the King of the Franks was baptized and became a Christian, before then renaming his Kingdom “The Kingdom of France”.

-The king, one day, looked at his neighbours, seeing the Delian League with its extensive lands, as well as owning Mrvian territory. Whilst the King still holds bad feelings towards the Delians, due to ruining Velkij Donaljea, he knew he couldn't afford another war with them. He started to converse with their leader, in order to improve relations between the two nations. The king does, however, promises the Mrvian territories will come back under control of the Bohemian kingdom eventually through peaceful means. One such acquisition is that of a claypit on the border, more due to a cartographical error than anything else. Technologies are also swapped, where the Greeks are given medical textbooks and city administrators who know how to control the spread of disease and eventually eliminate them, whilst they receive coking ovens in return. The iron industry begins to quickly grow, although heavy competition from overseas limits most iron production for domestic use.

-News reaches the king as the Lugii say they have found the corpse of the last Velkij Donaljea Emperor, identified by his Imperial clothing. The corpse is brought to Bohemia and put in a mausoleum in Velehrad. However, his feet went missing, although it was later rediscovered by a monk who had been to Germany and claimed he had been given the feet by god. Another foot is found within the same time span, with one foot going to Titshin and two to Aquincum. The fact that he has four feet is claimed to be a miracle and evidence of the Emperors divine nature. Much later, pilgrims begin buying his toe bones, and several centuries later a researcher managed to catalogue all of the existing toe bones, discovering that about 2,958 such bones were accounted for in total.

-A large shipyard is built on the coast of Lugii and the village that grows around it is named “Lugiick” and later grows into a busy port that trades with the merchants of the Baltic Entente and the increasingly ambitious Norse. Expansion is also conducted by the Bohemians into the Vistula basin, where by setting up monasteries, blackmailing the Polish, using the army to put down rebellions, and promoting internal colonization, growth northwards is successfully conducted.

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Mackalda2k6 – The Delian Empire
Capital: Lygos
Culture: Greek (Hellenic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-With increased contact from the Far East over the Silk Road, the Greeks have managed to get their hands on a most odd weapon. Called the “fire spear”, it consists of a metal tube attached to a spear, spitting fire and a small lead or stone shot. The purpose of such a device is to fire them in volleys shortly before a charge. The Greeks are most impressed, and decide to scale it up. This is achieved by wrapping pieces of wrought iron into a barrel shape, then hammering it together and using loops to keep the iron barrel intact. Stuffed with powder and an iron dart, it is a horrifically inaccurate and crude weapon, often the barrel becoming damaged when the dart becomes stuck and the gases escape out of a split in the barrel. Tiny improvements compound over the years to see the dart replaced with a stone or lead shot, the barrel made stronger and smaller, plus crude carriages built for them at the tail end of this period. They are still much too bulky to be used effectively on ships however, and are mostly relegated to being half buried in a fort or the ground and used to batter a section of wall with. These weak and crude weapons are the forerunners of the next generation of guns that would revolutionize the world.

-New military reforms are being introduced now that new ideas from the east are being brought over and gradual change in military tactics has resulted in the pressing need for a modern army. A new elite unit is formed, dubbed the Spartans; they are trained from a young age in all aspects of war. Half of them serve as the Republican Guard in Lygos, and the other half are separate units within the individual armies, acting as shock units (leading charges for instance). Another gradual change is the widespread adoption of heavy chainmail hauberks, which horses have also begun to wear.

-The Greeks decide that an invasion of Italy would be in their best interests, mostly in order to grab more land. They arrange for the armies of the league to be brought to Palermo and Syracuse in Sicily after prolonged bombardments of the cities is done using a large number of traditional siege weaponry (bombarbs damage the ships hulls). After securing Sicily, another army invades Naples and waits for reinforcements to assist in the campaign for the rest of the peninsula. They are aided and replenished by Turkish armies and continue pressing into Northern Italy, going for Rome, Florence, and Milan. Eventually after several lengthy campaigns, the Greeks add all of Italy to their Empire, although religious and cultural differences cause extensive tensions, and rebellions are common. Many clergymen refuse to submit to the pope, and when a new prayer book is introduced by the Greeks, an Italian woman screams that it is foreign filth. She picks up a stool and throws it at the priest, before being joined by a mob which later rampages through the city of Ravenna, smashing icons and other rich decoration, before grabbing the bishop and nailing his fancy hat to his head. The rebellion is brutally put down.

-All of Italy is conquered, save for a tiny rump state holding onto Corsica and Sardinia that formed when a Duke went rogue and declared independence from Italy. It declares itself the Kingdom of Corscia.

-In an effort to rebuild the once strong friendship with Spain, the Delians offer to marry the son of a prominent Greek statesman to the Kings daughter. The son is sent to live in Spain and is given lots of money and resources to spread his Republican views to the middle classes. Unsurprisingly this backfires when the King hears about this.

-The Delian congress decides to adopt a new flag and name for the state, renaming itself the Delian Empire. The old days of the Greek cities are long gone by now, as more power is being decentralized and the Empire has to take the whole hordes of foreigners they now rule over into account. To appease the Mrvians, Bulgarians, and Italians, separate administrative states are formed, with these areas sending representatives to the congress. Many delegates are angry at the Greeks taking land from nobles and peasants alike, and turning it over to the usurers and businessmen who take the grain and turn it into unwholesome things such as whiskey. This whiskey is claimed to be causing moral and social decay within their societies. The building of iron foundries staffed by rough men who spend much of their wages on whiskey does not help matters either. Many nobles are also starting to become increasingly unable to fund their rich lifestyles and manage their estate, with them falling into the hands of usurers and merchants as they are unable to pay back debts. They demand pensions and loans from the government.

-Many farms and industries are being taken control of either by the state, or by Greek run companies. These set up increasingly larger mines, foundries, distilleries, and consolidated farmlands, seeking to produce more goods for export. In return, they sell the workers whiskey and manufactured goods, caring little about the complaints of the former rulers of those countries. To counteract the influence of Aquinist church schools, the Delians set up their own schools with the goal of mass education, teaching the children in the Greek tongue and about Greek history and geography. Some schools even punish the use of native languages, and this does little to help calm tensions between the conquered and conquerors.

-In the search for ever more iron, the Delians send a team of their best surveyors to Misiryaban, assisting them in the development of infrastructure. In return, the Misiryabanis will sell them iron at reduced rates. Similar activities happen with the Arhonians, although the Arhonians sell the Greeks the bulk of the iron required. This is mostly because of closer ties and somewhat higher political and diplomatic dependence on the Eastern alliance, which they eventually join (much to the reluctance of their own subjects).

-The Delians also make contact with the Mongolians, and besides exchanging ideas and innovations such as gunpowder and other Chinese innovations, ideas, and writings, they agree to positive relations between the two Empires, sending regular embassies (although the last one had the unfortunate problem of catching the plague). They manage to inform the Mongolians about European shipbuilding techniques, whilst the Mongolians manage to educate the Greeks about military strategy. “The Art of War” is one book that is translated and sent back to Greece at this time, with the contents of the book being analysed and the lessons from it taught widely.

-Settlers continue to set up large farming estates in the Pontic steppes, although they seem to be rather annoyed. The land they were promise was of poor quality, and they usually must work for a company or nobleman in their spare time. In a kind of neo-feudalism, they suffer very poor prospects. The only thing attracting settlers is the cheap availability of land, a welcome tonic to those who lost their land to encroaching noblemen, merchants, and clergymen.

-The Kingdom of Romania is asked to join the Delian Empire in return for protection from Italy. The King of Romania then clearly points out that not only has Italy ceased to exist, but that it was in fact the Greeks who conquered Italy, leading the Romanian King to ask why the Greeks would do such a thing. He then quietly begins to order the construction of a ring of forts throughout his Kingdom and quietly makes arrangements to meet the Mongolians.

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StaleRye – The Baltic Entente
Capital: Riga
Culture: Livonian (Baltic)
State Religion: Deism

-A most terrifying weapon has been developed in the Baltic, mostly from the insights of modern engineers, ancient textbooks and diagrams, plus the need for effective siege artillery. Mostly modelled on the ancient polybolos, it can fire many shots per minute with a high degree of accuracy. Of course, due to the complexity of the device, it must usually be kept stationary and well protected during sieges and occasional battles. It is very effective at denying ground to one part of the enemy forces, and can quickly drive defending forces from the walls. Unfortunately, due to the bulky nature of the design and lack of metalworking techniques, it is difficult to shrink down. Talks with the merchants of Misiryaban however, shows that they are willing to sell standardized iron parts for the machinery, allowing for it to become mobile and much easier to use, for a good price of course.

-Norse iron begins to be increasingly adopted by blacksmiths for production of specialized weaponry. The high iron purity is particularly advantageous, although in order to produce steel, one must take the metal when hot and work carbon into it through a lengthy process. It does give a most excellent steel weapon however, and with the adoption of Danish warriors into their ranks, a group of shock infantry armed with heavy armour and swords comes into being.

-Windmills continue to develop during this time, often with their funding paid for by the combination of the sovereign, local noble, merchants, and from the peasantry as well. This is mostly to take advantage of two recent developments. Firstly, with growing populations and intensified use of the land, people are farming in areas further from existing watermills and mills are not only grinding more grain than before, but also powering all other sorts of machinery. Secondly, is the development of the “tower mill” This is a small wooden box on a rotating pole which houses the machinery of the mill. Whenever the wind changes, one can simply rotate the building to face the wind. As a result, hundreds of these little buildings have begun to dominate the countryside, helping to provide cheap and sustainable energy.

-In the Wake of the Saxon Expulsion, The current Queen of the Entente seeks to give the people of the lands more freedom, and decides to reform the monarchy a bit. She achieves this by first splitting up the current lands of the crown into the four administrative divisions of Latvia, Estonia, Denmark, and combines the Baltic Islands into a single region. Every five years, each of these areas sends two representatives (usually a noble’s son or a lawyer of some kind, often both) to the court of the monarch, where they advise them on matters of state and engage in political intrigue. Laws and acts applying to one specific region are voted on by the people in that region, and laws and acts applying to the entire country are voted on by the representatives, with the ruling monarch having the final say in a tie. The fact that the number of essentials (eight) is rather small means that the monarch more often than not, lavishes gifts on these representatives in order to ensure their loyalty. In turn, the nobles which they represent usually use these gifts (land, money, political offices) to buy loyalty from the landholders who vote for them. Despite the tiny and easily corruptible legislative of 8, they do manage to at least pass a few sensible laws during this time (even if diluted them or otherwise delayed and lost in bureaucratic red tape). These reforms mostly involve land, tenancy, and protecting the rights of the nobility. Very slowly over time, this legislative (under a long period of peace and economic prosperity) gradually grows as the requirements for land ownership drop with inflation, and some marginal lands begin to accrue value from the discovery of resources (like coal) on them, and also due to acquisition of new land and population growth. The number of representatives eventually grows to seventeen. They also have begun to shift increasing control of the budget to themselves and the growing civil service.

-The roasted acorn coffee (cepta dzēriens) begins to spread gradually outside of the Kingdom, although the popularity of it is somewhat limited. Its main disadvantage is the lack of caffeine, which gives Ethiopian coffee the kick that people are looking for. Nonetheless, the ease of making it means that it remains popular in areas where coffee merchants have yet to penetrate or where prices are favourable for the acorn coffee. The Germans despairingly name it “Ersatz”, viewing it as a cheap substitute to Ethiopian coffee.

-Homesteading acts are introduced, although mostly neutered by the nobility. One of the problems is that most land is already owned by someone already, and the local nobleman generally tends to be that person. Since the nobility also tends to be in power in government, most people really just end up settling marginal lands that nobody wants. Farming is quite poor, so these people turn to activities such as fishing and crafts, although they pay smaller dues due to the fact they own that plot of land. Much later, these peoples would end up becoming servants and groundskeepers for people in country homes, and tended to be slightly wealthier and slightly more socially respectable than ordinary freemen who rented land from their lords. This is due in part to their trade contacts, allowing them to get in luxuries such as sugar and whiskey from abroad and using it to buy social influence in their local communities. One new invention introduced from abroad is to burn coal in an oven to produce coke, and some peasants have discovered their coal deposits are now quite valuable. The hapless owners are mostly thrown off the land by local nobles who collude with the village to gain some share of the profits for themselves, although some do relatively well. Other times, a village or nobleman buys the land instead of using nastier methods, and the former owner is able to comfortably retire on the cash.

-With the Danes now being roughly half the total population of the Entente, the crown in Riga seeks to please the once tribal Danes with protection, wealth, and a good deal of autonomy within the Entente. The Danes "liberated" during the Saxon expulsion seem happy enough, so the Entente pushed to peacefully annex the northern tip of the Jutland peninsula to bring the Danish into a united homeland, and secure the Ententes control of the Baltic. The rising power of the Swedes and Norwegians has put a bit of a damper on this plan though, as they see the Entente as trying to push the Norse out and eventually subdue them. The Entente itself expands into Latvia and Estonia some more, often engaging in bloody wars of attrition and raids with the tribes living there. The Latts and Ests are resilient, but even they one day must give in. Many nobles begin to join peacefully in return for securing “safe” seats in the legislative assembly.

-In chemical advance, trade links have spread outwards to cover a great deal of land. The Entente manages to sneak out the recipe for gunpowder from the Silk Road trading routes, whilst also heavily stepping up the importation of Swedish iron. This iron is refined into steel weaponry and armour, and is perhaps that of the highest quality in the world. Only those with superior techniques to work the metal can do better, for their iron is of poorer quality.

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Salricci – Kingdom of Arhonia
Capital: Kraskai
Culture: Arhonic (Germanic)
State Religion: Hutonism

-With increasing technical sophistication, more useful ways to work iron has come about. It is perhaps the last in the chain of developments, starting with increasing pig iron production, casting it, and now finally working it. Iron can be drawn out by putting it through rollers to flatten and stretch the metal, whilst at the same time improving the strength and reducing the brittleness. These rollers of course need to be rather large and heavy in order to work the iron, and so require driving by waterwheels as well. Unfortunately, there is a growing lack of sites suitable for waterwheels, meaning that windmills have begun to pop up in increasing numbers, dams built to make lakes and artificial rivers, plus the use of animal power. Large hammers are also being built to stamp iron ingots, where a giant press is lifted by a system of gears and pulleys. The rollers however are the most curious invention, as one can now manufacture long and thin but strong iron bars. Produced in that form, they can be transported with little difficulty and due to already being wrought, are often ready for use as soon as they arrive.

-Noticing the problems in the Irish part of Arhonia, the King decides to decentralize the area partially. He grants much of the border lands to nobles who are to spend most of their time training or otherwise ready for war. They are to support themselves with the land grants and kit themselves out in heavy armour, weaponry, and ride horses. They form an order and pledge allegiance to the king of Arhonia, promising to protect his Irish assets. No wars actually happen though, so most combat takes the form of small scale raids over the borders, nothing too serious although in one incident, a nobleman took refuge in his manor and refused to come out to fight. The knights do the sensible option of cutting off the hands and feet of his peasants. The noble remarks “I will have to get some new peasants, for these ones are broken”. The next raid sees his house set on fire, and strangely nobody in the village comes to help put out the fire.

-The navy undergoes reform, expanding during this time and introducing new ship types, mostly to deter piracy (although piracy is starting to die out anyways). Some expansion is made to the east along the rivers and wetlands of the Low Countries, mostly in order to acquire more land for coal, iron, and valuable land needed for agriculture and foundries. Unfortunately, all this drainage and land reclamation has led to the peaty soil shrinking as water is lost from it, causing the land to gradually depress over time. This process has only begun to accelerate as the demand for water has increased, with many areas now either lying close to sea level or even below it.

-The state also begins to heavily invest into the iron industry after nationalisation of it. It was not regarded to be in Greek national interests to own the foundries, so all of them were sold to the Arhonian government, in return for guaranteed low rates on iron and iron products. This investment, in combination with heavy demand from abroad (the Greeks and their allies tend to prefer buying from them, and due to economies of scale and pre-existing trade links, buy from them even if the Misiryabani merchants temporarily have lower prices).

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Mallow234 – Phoenician Federation
Capital: Mdina
Culture: Phoenician (Semitic)
State Religion: Canaanite

-A new type of sailing vessel has been introduced. Utilizing the longship prevalent in Northern Europe and closer to home designs, a new type of ship has come into common usage. Utilizing the same flat bottom, and light design, a cargo carrying version is developed. Shaped like a bowl and having small towers at each end, it is a large vessel that is not also incredibly economic, but versatile and simple to build and use, some requiring only 5 men to crew it. Named a cog, later models introduce decking and several “decks” built on top of one another, and as it grows larger, later developing into the “Holk”. Whilst useful for carrying large numbers of goods, it is restricted by the fact that it is squarely built and handles poorly in long distance sailing.

-In order to prevent semaphore messages being easily read by spies and people with unusually good eyesight, at pre-agreed times during the message, the meanings of the flags are to be swapped by an amount (Such as A becomes C). The message can shift meaning multiple times during the transmission, making the message much harder to decrypt. Of course, it makes it difficult to read as well, with some commands being difficult to interpret or make out. It takes a long time to teach the semaphore operators the new codes, and even longer to work out the bugs of the system and to change decryption codes. Many of these codes eventually end up leaking given enough years, requiring continual change.

-The Phoenician Coast Guard is founded as an extension of the navy. The service is funded by merchants who don't want to be cheated by smugglers. The mission of the coast guard is officially to conduct search and rescue operations, but it's mostly to capture smugglers. One of these ships is captured by the Turks during their war with the Romans, causing a great deal of annoyance and causing a diplomatic faux pas between the two states. The confiscated cargo on board is realized to be from a Turkish smuggler, and is given back to him, causing more problems.

-To continue with scientific endeavours, the Republican Scientific Society is founded, a place where scientists and philosophers can gather to discuss and publish their ideas. The place is to be as prestigious as possible, with scientists from initially within Phoenicia discussing and showing off their ideas, theories and experiments. Many new oddities such as thermometers, glasses, acids, phosphorous, calculus, theories of matter and motion, classifications of biological life, the establishment of botany and geology, plus many other fields of inquiry all have roots in the society. They also publish a scientific journal, although one of the early patrons blew all of the society’s money on a book about the history of trilobites. This in turn delayed the publishing of astronomers’ new theories, in which he claimed that the world went around the sun, and that all objects accelerate the same no matter the difference in mass.

-Funding the society heavily, the state commissions a geological and ordnance survey of all the lands owned by the Phoenicians. They travel around making detailed and careful measurements and records of the land and deposits of many interesting minerals. One oddity they find is several tar pits with a thick black fluid deposited in them. They find some tiny deposits of lead, gold, copper, coal, iron ore, and silver. There are plentiful amounts of limestone that can be utilized for cement production, and salt that can be used for food preservation and for use by alchemists. There is also some clay and sites suitable for quarrying as well.

-A famous explorer by the name of Paolo Cromstein goes on many travels throughout the world to the east, reaching Ethiopia and even visiting the Empire of the Mongolian Khans. He returns from his adventures with many new oddities, such as ice cream, pasta, gunpowder, and Ethiopian coffee. He is particularly fond of ice cream, but regrets that it can only be enjoyed if one has suitable access to an ice house. Gunpowder and coffee are both instant hits, with coffee plants being grown and the beans used to make a thick paste that is boiled into a type of soup. Gunpowder meanwhile is stuffed into tiny paper bags and put inside mines and cliffsides, where upon lighting it can fracture the rock and assist with excavation. Of course, gunpowder is highly dangerous to work with, and injuries are common, sometimes causing tunnels to cave in. Production is difficult as well, for saltpetre must be obtained by leaching the crystals from stale urine, a process which is lengthy, expensive, and smelly. Some people also weaponize it by using ballistas to throw pots full of the powder at enemy fortifications and lines, although the fuses used on them means they explode randomly and are unreliable.

-The Phoenician state sets up the Phoenician West India Company to utterly resemble the Greek’s eastern trading company in all but name, copying the surface details and business organization, then usually guessing or working out the rest. For all intents and purposes however, they are a business owned by the state in order to conduct trade and to produce goods for export. They begin with investment into mining, slavery, sugar, and shipbuilding, given that these give the highest returns. The introduction of cogs and holks has also meant that merchants can begin heavily competing with the Greeks again, taking advantage of lowered transport costs to begin undercutting competitors once more. They fail to dominate the sugar market however, as most European production is still handled in a limited number of places (typically islands) with the right climate and soil to permit sugar cane growing. Slaves are bought in some small numbers to provide labour, but due to the shortage of land, supplying demand is becoming more difficult.

-Finally, in order to acquire more land, the West India Company sends the Phoenician army to Morocco, where they conquer the country and quell the restless tribes and petty kings there. They begin to set up sugar plantations and much later, coffee plantations. Due to the presence of a lot of local people already, there is little need to buy many slaves in order to operate them, although the Christian Berbers are a troublesome lot and constantly demanding things like wages, land, bread, and for the recruits who went into service of the Phoenician army, to not be given 200 lashes for passing wind in presence of a superior.

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cis. joshb – Polochans
Capital: Polotsk
Culture: Polochan (Slavic)
State Religion: Slavic

-Praising the breeding of horses to achieve a whole manner of new breeds, the King himself sets up a royal stable for his own collection of horses. He also collects some various animal breeders to discuss the best ways of improving other animals as well. Together they come up with a crude idea of how animals acquire traits, and that by breeding animals with favourable traits, they will increase the chances of creating offspring with those same traits. Spreading such information takes time, and experimentation is difficult, but the first trials are now underway with pigs, cattle, and sheep. Over roughly a century, the size of these animals gradually increases, and they become much more profitable to keep. Many farmers are converting their lands to feed and care for these animals, and can salt the meat for the winter or otherwise export wool. The animals of the Polochans are famed throughout Europe for their immense size.

-Villages are encouraged to send a few of their best horses and men in return for favour from the Chief; these are used to form a personal guard for him. They participate in battles as the rear-guard, using to prevent enemy penetration of the main battle line. Some enemy charges are particularly hard to resist, and once a defence is broken, they easily force apart the flanks. Horses are encouraged to be used extensively, and the Chief promises a large gift in the form of grain to any village which is most capable on horseback. Ranged weapons are preferred, but feeding and training such a number of men is difficult. Most soldiers tend to be young males without land or dependents, who can devote most of their time to war. These men eventually become a professional force and take the place of most of the levies, leaving those unsuited for a life of war to stay at home to farm.

-A man from the Chief's personal court is sent to most settlements (usually a relative or close friend of the Chief), to act as the local magistrate. If the subordinate chief is found to be corrupt or intimidating nearby smaller settlements, a trial is to be held in Polotsk. If found guilty, the subordinate chief is deposed and replaced with a man elected by the people of his village, and land on the borders of that tribe will be given to other tribes, ensuring their loyalty (especially if a tried Chief attempts a revolt). In practice, this results in many villages blackmailing the magistrate and making him almost powerless, by threatening him with a list of crimes (some invented). This in turn results in many villages and towns becoming almost self-ruling, and they end up electing their own assemblies to run matters, forcing the chief to accept propositions they pass. They still pay taxes and provide levies, but this period sees decentralization and most people running their own affairs. Trade and agricultural production is improving, if at the cost of some of the monarchs’ power, who is more or less left to tending his personal estates and managing wars. Gradually over time, the position of subordinate chief becomes one that represents the landowners throughout the country, with him expected to work on behalf of the landowners to press for favourable legal changes. However, this position brings power and money, for many chiefs are given money and land for pressing their issues with the King, whilst voters usually tend to blackmail each other during the “elections” when a chief is replaced. Most chiefs tend to be the sons of powerful landowners, often providing free beer from the local tavern and promising to do the diametric opposite of their contender.

-The Polochans spread slowly, preferring to stay put instead of settling new lands. Much like the Laubergians, this results in higher population densities and increased focus on land development.

EasternTradingCompanyFlag
Eastern Trading Company
Capital: Lygos/Istanbul
Culture: Broadly Eastern Mediterranean
State Religion: Irreligion

-The company begins to operate independently of their parent countries. It begins by commissioning a large number of ships and putting bombards on them, although this experiment goes awry when many of these bombards require maintenance and are horribly unreliable and generally are summed up with an admirals famous one last words before one exploded and killed him.
“These are shit”.

-Knowing that the nobility is starting to fall into debt due to the nascent industrialization on-going in Europe, the company hires a great deal of these hapless people and sends them on ships to explore the African coast. One group of them sails to the Maldives via Egypt, where they quickly take control of the island and set to work growing sugar, cotton, and coffee. To provide the necessary labour, a lot of Indians are brought from overseas and paid some very low wages to assist in the cultivation of these goods. The trading posts on the African mainland, oddly enough, are handed over to the Phoenicians, possibly to apologize for the loss of the coastguard ship.

-A central bank is established in Lygos/Instanbul to cover the finances of the company, along with a stock exchange for people to invest into it. Secondary branches are established throughout most of Europe, with the western base in Cape Verde to handle West African trade and an eastern one to cover Asian trade. With their surplus of money, the ETC then begins to invest in the infrastructure of other countries, establishing projects to build roads, ports, factories, and other important structures. Primary recipients of this investment are the Misirybans, Ahronians, Laubergians, and Zulus. Of course, many merchants in these countries claim that the company is an intrusive foreign force and damaging to domestic trade, but only in Laubergia does the company have significant difficulty.

-Contact with the Zulu is established, and whilst trading goes well (the herbal merchant is a popular commodity), missionaries are ill received. The merchants stick to trade and don’t try to convert the population. Nonetheless, with trade routes well established over the world, the Zulu (and many other people) finally have access to the first cases of whiskey, bolts of silk, iron bars, steel goods, and cotton cloth. In the far east, the company is buying wootz steel, spices, porcelain, more silk, and lacquer to be sold back home in Europe. It’s a considerably profitable enterprise, especially as they are being supported by 3 rather large empires and therefore do not pay any tolls on shipping for much of their journey.

-During a routine expedition to Ghana, a fleet is blown off course and sights land to the west. They land and notice the presence of Brazilwood, a most interesting tree. The wood from it can be used to make dyes with. Some samples are brought back home, and the noble theorizes that the scientific mainstream got it all wrong. The earth isn’t around 25,000 miles, but a mere 20,000. He establishes this by sailing around in the North Sea with an astrolabe and incorrectly using it. He returns home and claims that the Earth is actually shaped like a pear. He is sent back to Brazil to gather more wood and he discovers a very friendly people who have no concept of land ownership, eat a lot of fresh fruit, hunt peccaries (they are in the process of domesticating them), and otherwise engage in petty wars over matters of honour. The nobleman repays their gifts and hospitality by killing half of them, enslaving the rest, and setting up a Brazilwood plantation. Many years later, he still hasn’t left, and has to contend with frequent raids. Some of these raiders are growing slowly more sophisticated, and they have even begun to wield bronze and iron weapons. One of these weapons is stamped with (later translated to be) “I have made the merchants happy”. Eventually though, the toehold begins to spread, and some explorers chart the coastlines, noting that more primitive peoples lived to the south, whilst farmers and traders tended to be settled to the north.

Afro-Asia

-In Tang China, a Chinese general is given command of practically half of the country to administer and rule over. Being given so much power and responsibility, he does what any sane general would do: declare himself Emperor. His failure to successfully wrest power from the existing Emperor and his own mental instability results in a civil war lasting years, killing millions of people and being the most destructive war in human history to date, along with disintegration of the Tang state and its conquest by the Mongols. Thanks An Lushan.

-Southeast Asia and Indonesia continue on a steady path of development. With Buddhist and Waifuist influences passing through the area along with traders, a weird myriad mix of cultures and religions is now underway. Growing populations, increasing volumes of trade, and improving agricultural technologies, and the ability to build and maintain larger armies allows for empire building to take place as well. Ceylon converts to Waifuism, which has now spread beyond Asia and is starting to make inroads in Africa.

-The Ghana Empire forms in West Africa. The development of trade with the Mediterranean is most interesting, with the coastal ports receiving the bulk of trade. The fact that one can levy tolls on traders is too tempting for Emperors to ignore, and the Ghanaian Emperors become exceedingly wealthy, using their money on various wars of conquest throughout West Africa and ultimately making them truly deserving of the title “Emperor”. The Kola nut is popularized by this empire, and consumption of it spreads outside of West Africa, reaching into Iberia and the Mediterranean. The Misiryabanis also have begun to buy sacks of kola nuts, even though they stain the teeth.

-A breakaway branch of Islam comes to the fore in Arabia, where the Shia sects have managed to take control and have reformed the religion to suit their own needs. The Muslims of Mann are in little position to complain, due to their extreme geographic displacement. In Arabia itself, the Shia conquers Yemen and converts it by the sword.

PtolemaicFlag
Gishatako – Ptolemaic Empire
Capital: Alexandria
Culture: Egyptian (Coptic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-Seeking to irrigate the fields of Egypt, new machinery for the pumping of water has been introduced. The only problem is that water can be pumped to a maximum height of 31 feet, and seemingly no further. This is mitigated by the introduction of many mechanical helpers, such as Archimedes screws, chain pumps, the giant waterwheel, canals, and aqueducts for the movement of water. Some are automated by wind and water power, plus the first tidal mills are constructed to take advantage of the untapped potential of the sea. All in all, many areas of desert have begun to be slowly reclaimed via careful land management. It eats up a lot of water though, requiring these networks to be extensively well maintained. Some oases are connected up to each other with canals as well, and the increases acreage of land allows for massive increases in agricultural production. Not only food, but cotton, silk, sugar, and even the first coffee plants outside of Ethiopia are grown.

-The Egyptian army is again reformed, adopting the new techniques of its allies, incorporating extremely heavy shock cavalry (mostly by armouring men and horses in chainmail armour and giving them heavy lances), and a more flexible heavy infantry (able to use spears and swords in equal measure). The Egyptians try to introduce the bombard onto their ships, but the primitive design of them means that they cause massive shock to the timber. Their tendency to burst and their abysmal range and accuracy means they are hardly used anyways. Existing siege weaponry can not only fire faster, but further, with more accuracy, and often with heavier shot.

-The Egyptians are little deterred however, and decide to add Axum to their Empire. This is achieved by extensive naval warfare, blockades, raids on shipping, and finally battering of the coastal defences using siege artillery onboard ships. The cities are taken through a long and bloody combination of sieges and brutal assaults. The interior takes a little more time, but eventually the Egyptians manage to conquer much of Aethiopia and put a governor in place to administer the land. This acquisition is particularly important, as it gives the Egyptians further control over much of the trade passing by Arabia, meaning extra opportunities to either tax it or get rid of the competition.

-A company is chartered to produce gunpowder for the Eastern Alliance. It sets itself up in villages and cities, collecting pots of urine, carts of dung, and other plant refuse. Put into giant pits to ferment into saltpetre, or the urine being poured into sand and then leached of the required minerals, the company has begun to mass produce nitrates on a large scale. Unfortunately, since gunpowder is hardly ever used, prices of the nitrate collapses, and it is mostly sold as a fertilizer. Near the end of this period, some early bombards have managed to shrink and become slightly stronger, allowing their increased deployment.

-Mills are being setup along the rivers and canals of Egypt to weave cotton into cloth. One of the big problems of course is that the demand for water is at an all-time high, restricting the areas where water powered mills can be built. Windmills are often used in lieu, but these are less reliable and not an adequate source of power either. To resolve this problem, most producers have set up large buildings where all the workers work together, trying to divide up tasks between workers and using a division of labour to achieve increased production. Whilst massively improving output, it unfortunately results in the workers becoming annoyed as it allows for the unskilled to be recruited en masse and trained to easily do the same jobs that a skilled worker could do. Some go on strikes but these are put down by the local police forces.

-Damascus smiths learn how to make steel weapons from wootz steel now being imported from India. These swords are produced solely in Damascus and then are exported, with their quality being among the best in the world. These swords are highly prized by noblemen, although barely any of them even make their way into the ownership of the common soldiery.

-The culture of the Egyptian Empire begins to take on a much more Hellenic character, and more Christian as well, although many minorities (especially Jews and Zoroastrians) are not too keen on assimilating as their rulers hope. Some missionaries are sent out to see if the good word of Brian can be spread further, and thus they travel on the ships of merchants into the Orient, trying to conduct missionary work in the Zulu and Indian kingdoms. They are met with some hostility in India, although a few groups of people do convert (mainly due to their earlier contact with Christians some centuries before). In the Zulu Kingdom, it is even worse. Most missionaries are crucified or even have Waifuist missionaries try to convert them. This backfires so much that a group of Waifuist scholars end up travelling to Egypt and set up a mission there, representing the first toehold of the Oriental religion in the western world.

-A survey is conducted to find the shortest distance between the Red and Mediterranean seas. The surveyors manage to not only chart this, but also the positions of the various lakes and low lying lands as well, along with existing ports and irrigation systems plus the availability of labour and resources.

TurkeyFlag
Burinn – United Turkish Kingdom
Capital: Istanbul
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Christianity (Iberian)

-With wrought iron being heavily imported from overseas, the Turks now have many bars of wrought iron to mass produce into steel. Existing methods of production are slow however, but eventually they develop a new process to work it into steel. Called cementation, it works by stacking iron and charcoal in layers inside a giant brick oven, where it is heated and the iron gains carbon atoms, turning it into a form of steel. This steel would then be worked by hand to make weapons and armour of consistently high quality. They are among the best such weapons and armour in the world, famed as much as the products from India, China, and the Baltic.

-The army begins to rebuild forts along the eastern borders of the Empire, taking in the new invention of “bombards” introduced by the Greeks. These forts are among the first built to hold gunloops and slots for bombards, with heavy wooden and straw blocks built to prevent the bombard from flying backwards or shattering the floor. They are horribly crude devices, built in the same way that barrels are, and having a tendency to split along weak points. Their main advantage is the fact that they can shoot a kind of shrapnel out of the walls to deter people from scaling them. The army has also introduced logistical reforms, mostly out of necessity as managing large armies over such a vast and wealthy empire is difficult. They assist the Delians in the famed war with the Kingdom of Italy, although mostly in a reinforcing role. The only Turkish commanders to fight of their own accord are those in the navy, raiding Italian shipping vessels. However, they do capture a Phoenician anti-smuggling coastguard ship during this time after being unable to recognize the design, and release the captives after the Phoenicians complain (but not before they embezzle the goods and give them to a known Turkish smuggler after he arranges for their transit).

-With improving agricultural production and transport, some areas have begun to specialize even further into their respective industries. The Turkish have funded the widespread digging and expansion of canals throughout their country, allowing for cargoes of Arhonian wrought iron to be quickly and efficiently brought to the foundries and smithies where they are needed. The first “gunsmith” appears as a small workshop alongside a canal, where the smith was a former cooper. He slowly makes bombards in the same way as he did barrels, after having been introduced to some from the Greeks. He also possesses a Mongolian fire spear, but has yet to successfully reproduce it.

-The Turks manage peaceful contact with the Persian Turks and Armenians, often using montery concessions to maintain good relations. Of course, the tax on non-Christians isn’t well appreciated by the Zoroastrians, many of them having started to emigrate east into Persia and north into Armenia and Khazaria. The Jews and Muslims have begun similar tactics as well, and a small brain drain begins when many intellectuals hear of the great Khan and his need for scholars and missionaries for his court.

-In other economic spheres, silk production is increasing once more, aided by the spread of canals and improvement of existing sericulture practices. Coal is starting to become a problem though, because with the increased use of coal and coke by people both in industry and domestically, the polluting smoke tends to cause havoc for silk weavers, who ban the use of coal nearby silk weaving centres. Coke instead must be brought, although it is somewhat more expensive and the city of Antioch has problems with supplying enough coke for all its residents, resulting in the population growth slowing in favour of the growing industrial areas elsewhere.

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YogiTheWise - The Weeaboo Empire
Capital: Akihabara
Culture: Wapanese (Japonic)
State Religion: Waifuism

-A new and most interesting method of keeping food preserved has come about. It is already known that pickling, salting, and other methods such as smoking work well, but make palatability difficult. Somebody has however, invented a way to keep fresh food itself a little fresher for longer. Snow is also already collected during winter and stored inside ice houses, and used to keep food cool. The latest innovation however, seems to be collecting ice from colder parts of the world and actually selling it. By using a saw to cut through ice in a lake, then by carrying huge cubes wrapped in straw, sawdust, and cloth, you can keep ice chilled for long enough to make transport feasible. The knowledge of the square cube law assists massively in this, and in order to make the best of it, ships are built increasingly larger in order to hold all of this frozen water. When sold in Wapan, it is initially treated with madness, plus the infrastructure does not exist to hold them. However, after many years of ice house construction, and establishment of ice house networks, fresh food is now an option available to many Wapanese people. The wealthy even have special stone cabinets with a slot for putting an ice cube into, helping to chill their food. On the return trip, these ships carry food and other supplies to the icemen collecting ice. The trade also begins to expand, but until ships grow, become faster and better ways of insulating ice made possible, the effective distance is rather limited.

-With Greek metalworking technologies having been recently introduced, the Wapanese invent various kinds of blades, naginatas, kanabo clubs, and other terrible maiming devices. The Shinigami come up with shuriken and blowing darts around the same time. Since indigenous Carufonians can’t stop being a nuisance, the Carufonu daimio asks the Emperor for help. He sends troops to round the locals up, killing and enslaving them, and using it as an excellent opportunity to test out all of the new fancy weaponry recently developed due to contact with the Greeks. The Carufonian colony also begins to slowly expand, using the rich agricultural land as a base for population growth. Very little external trade happens as of yet though, save for luxury good trading with the Mexicans. There are also demands for political concessions, for the Daimyo is understandably on another continent ruling over people with questionable loyalties and little ties to civilization.

-With syphilis being a major problem, the Emperor decrees that criminal’s dead bodies may be cut up for research purposes. Of course, finding fresh bodies is difficult, and some surgeons supplement their need for bodies by paying people to professionally rob graves or murder prostitutes in order to sell their bodies to further the cause of medical science. One such grave robber is sold after he dies, so that the effects of alcohol poisoning and liver damage can be closely studied.

-With many textiles being produced and imported, particularly felt, The Nice Guys now have proper fedoras. They can’t stop expressing how happy they are with their new hats, claiming that they make them feel “euphoric”. To secure supplies of luxury furs and felts, breeding programs are underway, with albino foxes being bred for their luxury fur. These are later exported, and the practice of wearing animal ears and tails begins to gradually shift as more realistic versions can be worn. It is a popular Wapanese fashion, eventually spreading throughout much of China, Indochina, and as far west as India.

-A peninsula north of Wapan is settled, and named “Kumato”, meaning “Bear Peninsula”. Understandably, whilst initially done so for whaling purposes, it is noticed that the ice lakes and bears are also of economic value, with bears being hunted for their furs and grease, whilst the ice is cut for domestic consumption.

-Coming into contact with the Zulu, the Wapanese try to spread Waifuism to them, but with a slightly different angle: seeing as they are warlike people they emphasize that Wai-fu likes good strong warriors and that a strong, honourable fighter is guaranteed an afterlife with his Wai-fu. Merchants seem to be mostly keen on this foreign religion, for it allows them to buy valuable Wapanese goods including silver (which the Zulu are short of) and they have a market for the Herbal merchant as well. The first cases of Herbal merchant arrive in Wapan several months later and are an instant hit, with demand for the herb rising. Zulu merchants demand payment in silver however.

-101 years after Supreme Oneechan Utena’s prophecy her great-great-grandson Bentam I Moefaggu was smoking Herbal Merchant in KSOT’s gardens. He was supposed to be the one who resolves the great question, which has divided the country for a century. This is, of course, a lot of pressure, so he resolved to herbal aids to ease the stress. In his state of altered psyche, he has seen two macaques copulating in the undergrowth. He recognized both of them, belonging to different High Priests, and knew that both of them were male. The sight mesmerized him so much, that he came to understand that pure love is beautiful, no matter the gender. After chilling out some more, he gathered a meeting, during which he, red-eyed and smiling, told them about the portent he saw and what it meant. This was an absolute victory for the Hasban-do faction. Some conservatives still remained stalwart in their convictions, and resettled to Rojin Island (OTL Kodiak Island), where they were allowed to continue their gay-bashing ways in an isolated environment. Homosexuals stop being persecuted and looked down upon, though some people outside of Kodiak are still disgusted by them. At least the dandy houses can be allowed to exist with some form of legal protection, and some homosexuals have enough power or power to maintain such a system within Wapan. They continue to push for some legislative change and reform within government for the tolerance of homosexuals.

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Sincleric – Mongolian Khanate
Capital: Avarga
Culture: Mongol (Altaic)
State Religion: Tengrism

-A most interesting new invention has made an appearance from the Mongolians exploiting their contacts with the Chinese. The Chinese have recently invented a strange device called a “fire spear”, composed of a hollow piece of bamboo stuck on the end of a spear and stuffed with black powder. It makes a loud boom and spurts smoke, shards of ceramics, and stones. It is more of a morale damaging weapon and a cheap one shot device. The Chinese would normally light them whilst preparing to charge or receive one, using the weapon to complement the shock and sometimes blind enemy soldiers. The Mongolians, after several decades of experimentation and development, replace the bamboo with a hollow metal tube, with it now firing a lead bullet (adapted from slings) as a suitable shot. Again, whilst mainly used as a shock weapon, it can be reloaded and has a slightly higher range and stopping power.

-An Lushan, an ambitious Chinese general, attempts a coup d’état to become emperor. This degrades into a massive war lasting eight years, with the country destroyed by the actions of both sides, and the situation becoming increasingly desperate. The Chinese Emperor asks for assistance from the Mongolians to help oust the general. They agree to do so, quickly coming down south and helping to crush An Lushan forces in a major battle near Lanzhou. The Mongolian-Chinese forces march to the west to destroy the last rebel army. However, on the eve of the battle, the Mongolians desert their allies, forcing the Chinese to fight the rebels by themselves. The Chinese force is victorious, but after setting up camp, the Mongolians raid during the night and completely eradicate the Chinese army and manage to kill the Emperor in the process. The next decade is the story of the utter collapse of the Chinese state, with the Mongolians subduing the north initially, but taking some more years to consolidate control. It takes decades and several more Khans to complete the conquest of the rest of China, which learned from the tricks of the Mongolians and were generally competent in battle. Unfortunately, the south gradually collapsed into warlordism as no one man could successfully claim to be the rightful Emperor. This fact was exploited by the Mongols until by the year 768, the last city in China surrendered to the Mongolians.

-The Mongols, in stark contrast to the former Chinese Emperors, are actually quite benevolent (most of the time). They demand that each city or representative governor or ruler of that part of the country surrender to them. The terms are that the old rulers remain autonomous, but pay tribute to the Khans. Cities which refuse are burned to the ground, their inhabitants killed, and the earth salted. Unsurprisingly, most cities tend to surrender after the Mongols give this treatment to a number of initial cities. To further help keep the multi-ethnic and multi-religious Empire together, religious tolerance is declared throughout the entirety of the empire, paving the way for flocks of Waifuist, Christian, Buddhist, and even Islamic and Hindu missionaries and scholars to travel here. The Khans tend to surround themselves with foreigners to assist in the administration of such a vast empire. Many of these people are lavished with gifts and have access to Chinese learning, and when they leave, they often bring back many interesting things with them. Most notably, when one dignitary agreed to eat a marmot (A Mongolian delicacy), the cooks neglected to properly treat it and notice it had infact, been recently bitten by fleas. The dignitary catches a horrible disease where his lymph nodes swell up and he start vomiting blood. He dies, and unfortunately, many people travelling down the silk roads managed to catch it from him. By 875, it has left Mongolia.

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Satansick – Zulu Kingdom
Capital: Bulawayo
Culture: Zulu (Bantu)
State Religion: Irreligion

-Increasing contact with the traders from India, Arabia, and Europe has led to the acquisition of new knowledge and resulted in the development of new technologies. One such curious innovation is use of the “Fibonacci” sequence of numbers. It is well known the sequence is created by adding one and zero, before adding the sum and previous number, repeating in the sequence (1+1, 2+1, 3+2, 5+3, etc). However, it is noticed that by also dividing the sum by the previous number (for instance, 144/89) one gradually gets closer to a constant value roughly around 1.6. This value is named the golden ratio, and is considered to be aesthetically pleasing. The ratio of 1:1.6 is incorporated into everything from architecture to calligraphy. It is also noticed that if one makes a rectangle with such a ratio, and then removes a square section from it, it leaves a rectangle with the same ratio as the previous one. Such removal can continue indefinitely.

-With their feared Zebra cavalry and the Impi, the armies of the Zulu push deeper into South Africa, pushing out the old people and establishing farming colonies intended to cultivate the land. More food and Zebra are needed for expansion; so understandably, linear expansion of the land is an obvious solution. The King gets wealthier and more powerful anyways, so it’s not that much big of an issue. However, there are only really a few coastal areas have been developed to the point where they can support large numbers of people.

-The resin from the Herbal merchant is extracted and pressed to form a strange smelling cube of greater potency. It is named spirit herb, and is soon being consumed by many people throughout the country. It is hypothesized that it was invented so that merchants could pack more of it into sacks for transport over long distances, thus reducing travel costs. On their way back, they carry strange crystals produced by a new method introduced by some Greek traders. By pouring stale urine over a mound of rotting plant matter and dung, then by leaching out crystals from it, one can produce saltpetre. This is an oxidizing chemical that can be used for fertilizers, and to help various items burn. The crystals themselves are exported overseas to presumably Greece, although a few stay at home. Some chaps came up with the idea of putting it in their herbal merchant blunts, hoping to maintain an even burn. Of course, accidents with regards to them burning the face happen, but it does not deter users. Investment into irrigation is also made, since dry weather can ruin a good harvest.

-The Malays of Monkey Island pledge vassalage to the Zulu King, on the condition they be left relatively autonomous. Cross-cultural contact has resulted in the Zulus being able to adopt the boat design of the Malays, and to skirt coastlines with it. Some explorers are using it to travel along the South African cape, and as far north as the Red sea and Persian Gulf. The Greeks contact the representatives of the Zulu Kung (reputed to be a rich man with a throne made of solid gold and ivory, with over 600 wives) after meeting his merchants, and offer to assist in the improvement of his soldiers and army at large, using rather outdated tactics and equipment. Of course, Christians are strictly controlled, and to prevent them spreading their religion among the Zulu, anybody found guilty of preaching the word is put to death, via crucifixion. Waifuism seems to be somewhat exempt, or at least not aware of yet, as several merchants convert to it. They cite improved relations with Wapanese traders, whom eagerly buy herbal merchant and pay with good silver. Such silver may be useful for the Zulu King, for hard currency is accepted by Greek merchants and can be used to purchase the latest in military equipment.

-A lot of inventions and cultural developments during this era can be credited to the use of the Herbal merchant and spread of writing. Zulu poets invent a new musical genre named “rapping” by rhyming over a beat made by drum instruments. Such songs are known as “Annoying the authorities”, “Armed combat with the powerful”, “Disregarding women and acquiring ivory”, “The beauty of large backsides”, and “Intertribal conflict.”

New World

-Biological mayhem continues in Hanajia. Whilst many countries have lost a great number of people, the decline has finally come to an end. The chaos has caused a lot of people to pack up and move around, or try to meet other countries to see if they have any ideas on how to fix these common problems. One result is the adoption of the potato, rice, and chickens. Goats, sheep, and horses are also spreading, although as late as the 840s they have yet to penetrate into Mexico or east of the Mississippi. Horses are wildly successful in the Great Plains, rapidly multiplying in number. They are adopted by many tribes and traders begin to tame them, before they work out how to breed them. The Mexicans begin to see use of the horse seeping into their society, along with widespread adoption of wheeled vehicles. Chariots are introduced as well, and a transport revolution is now underway as it is economically feasible to construct roads now.

-The Wapanese colony in Carufonia, whilst suffering many setbacks and difficulties, is now practically irremovable. The introduction of many new plants and animals has allowed them to shape the world around them to their needs. Of course, their neighbours are unable to adapt to such a rapidly new world so easily, and whilst many have died, the rest usually leave. A new political order is now rising to take advantage of this, using iron, animals, and other Wapanese innovations to build their own powerful society.

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Ruskie – Valittu kauppias mailla
Capital: Juutalainen kaupunki
Culture: Taputtaailainen
State Religion: Palvonta ja sitä hampurilainen, kauppias, vapaus ja taputus

-Although diseases such as smallpox are a perennial problem, the population decline comes to a stop during this time as resistant people appear and the disease mutates to prevent killing off all of its hosts. Exchanging wealth is difficult, but with massive price deflation and with the former owners of precious metals now dead, exchanging things using solid pieces of gold and silver is more common. The state notices this behaviour and decides to mint their own coins, complete with a picture of the sovereign on the front. This is perhaps the first civilization in Hanajia to adopt metal coins as a means of exchange, and it goes a long way towards aiding economic development.

-With the population reduced, it’s difficult to keep people tied to the land. Higher wages are being offered in other parts of the Empire, and many lords keep raising wages to retain workers as they inevitably abandon the land to seek better opportunities elsewhere. Punitive laws to tie people to the land were initially tried, but during this time, they are finally abandoned. From this point on, workers owe no obligations to their lords, meaning they can travel to wherever they like. Inevitably this leads to inflation, increased demand for goods as the workers have more money to spend, with farms and manufactories being forced to increase output to cover this. The old system is dead, and in this uncertain world, the quest for money is becoming nearly as important, if not more important than gaining land.

-Old ideals and institutions of the Empire have decayed slowly. So slowly in fact, that many contemporaries are unable to see them taking place. Timekeeping and records are ever more important, with vast water clocks being built and calendars being written for merchants. Trade is increasingly taking on an international and long distance character as well, with crude and bulky ships crawling down the coasts, although rarely straying far from the coastlines. Several trading posts and fortifications are built down the coastline, whilst much the same happens along the Ohio River. The recovery of plant life comes to an end in the late 9th century once the population begins to steadily grow once more, stimulated by the availability of cheap food, land, and credit.

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Crossu88 – Xerxes
Capital: Ulysses
Culture: Xerxes
State Religion: Titus

-Facing heavy population decline and problems maintaining sanitation, it is noticed that fields with refuse dumped in their side ditches tend to have better crops. The idea is taken further by the state forming a national shit collection service, where they collect refuse and then spread it over fields. Of course, new ones are always being looked at for use. Guano deposits in the rest of South America, plus crystals formed from pee kept stale in heaps of earth are found to be useful. Along with lime used to treat acidity in the soil, the general wellbeing of plants is massively improved, and along with it, output of staples. During this time the first chickens, rice, potatoes, and tomatoes are introduced or otherwise cultivated in sufficient numbers. Chickens are a most curious import, having been one of the few animals introduced by the Wapanese to prosper in Mesoamerica.

-With expansion of overseas trade and expansion into the Caribbean islands, the navy has begun to steadily grow in size, adopting shipbuilding techniques from the merchants of the north and setting up many ports along the coasts or in Caribbean islands. These islands, whilst gradually trending towards centralized kingdoms with a strong agricultural base, are still much incapable of driving off foreigners. Xerxes adds even more land, clearcutting the forests and tilling the soil. Even if they are temporarily driven off, by changing the local environment they make it impossible for the old inhabitants to recover. Naval battles are also becoming more intense, as the strategy now is to row a ship with a sharp prow into the side of another, causing damage and possibly causing the vessel to take on water and sink.

-With the adoption of iron, it is lucky that the Northern end of the continent has access to a great deal of iron ore. Tiny amounts of coal are found as well, although it isn’t very well suited for the production of iron. Smelting the ore is difficult however, and so a great deal of forest must be cleared and turned into charcoal for their production. Gradually, with increasing pressure on the land, silviculture comes into use as a means of maintaining adequate supplies for iron production. Even then, more timber must be imported from abroad, and some people are starting to adopt mud brick or stone housing more. Some make bricks from baked clay as well, using coal in dirty brickmakers on the edges of towns.

-Seeing the problems in the Maya city states, Xerxes gives them an offer they can’t refuse. Offering good wages for workers to rebuild infrastructure and to redevelop farmland, they prevent the complete collapse of the Maya civilization. Whilst a great majority of the population has vanished due to disease and general decline, this trend is not only reversed, but the urban centres are maintained throughout this period and never go into abandonment. Chichen Itza, with significant help from Xerxes, maintains itself as a diverse city, helping to keep the trade routes open. Eventually, under political pressure from Xerxes, these cities end up gradually amalgamating into a single political union.

-With growing power, the King declares he wishes to have an ambassador from every noteworthy country come for a meeting so they have full knowledge of the world to them. The Zapotec, Maya, Tairona, Muisca, Sican, Huari, and Tiwanaku all sent representatives of some kind for the general meeting. All are discussing matters such as the recent diseases and arrival of a strange yellow people from the far west. They are hypothesized to have brought the disease. They have also brought a multitude of strange plants and animals, the most popular in adoption being the chicken, goats, sheep, and horses. All excepting the chicken have yet to leave “Carufonia” and much of the surrounding lands however. The delegates agree to open up trade routes and to send military help in the instance that these foreigners bring harm to their respective countries. One interesting thing to come about as a result is the potato. Some plants are brought as a gift, and when brought back by delegates, are planted and quickly become a staple crop.

Turn 16: 875 to 950 CE

J. S. Bach - The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080 - T. Koopman and T01:15:24

J. S. Bach - The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080 - T. Koopman and T. Mathot

Turn music

CreationofCenturiesTurn16PoliticalMap

Political map of Turn 16

CreationofCenturiesTurn16CulturalMap

Cultural map of Turn 16

CreationofCenturiesTurn16ReligiousMap

Religious map of Turn 16

Post link: http://facepunch.com/showthread.php?t=1292997&p=42664237&viewfull=1#post42664237


Turn quote: Plague, and fire: Religious zealots look smug.

Events of the years 875 to 950:

Europe

-A new and horrible disease spreads throughout the whole world, afflicting all of the great civilizations, culling roughly 30% of the total population and overall causing a great deal of pain, suffering, and misery. Out of the bodies would rise a new world full of uncertainty, as many old institutions have either died or been shocked thoroughly by this calamity. Named the Black Death, many historians have argued that the aftermath of this pandemic can be seen as the birth of the modern world. However, nobody at the time realized it, and an Italian diarist summed it up much like this:

“There appeared certain swellings in the groin and under the armpit, the victims spat blood, and in three days they were dead. The Lombards attribute this to the Mrvians, the Italians to the Phoenicians, the Germans to the Greeks, and everybody blames the Jews.”

-The Spanish and Portuguese begin to get involved with overseas trade and exploration much more, even exploring the coasts of the New World and setting up trading posts in Africa. This is exceedingly annoying to the Greeks, wishing to possess a monopoly on this sort of trade.

-Waifuism spreads into Europe via Egypt, and while it makes few inroads, it does most successfully in Bohemia, due to the state not actively seeking to supress foreign religions.

-Finland forms in Scandinavia as an independent country, having good relations with the Baltic Entente through trade and being one of the few places to survive the plague.

LaubergiaFlag
Zillamaster55 – Laubergian Reich
Capital: Viikuru
Culture: Laubergian (Germanic)
State Religion: Christianity (Aquinism)

-A biologist has a tough old time in Laubergia. He attends university where the bodies of criminals are cut up to learn about anatomy initially, but he finds it disgusting and leaves later. He dropped out and decided to join the merchant marine, becoming the botanist for the Greek survey ship “Seagull” which sails to South Hanajia to survey the coastline. He catalogues many different plants and animals, and had a great deal of fun riding the llamas when he was in the Andes. However, the most important discovery was that made when he travelled to Misiryaban. He noticed that the moths there were a distinctive black colour, whereas in other countries, they tended to be white. He postulated that these black moths stood a better chance of surviving natural predation. He went throughout books and then discovered that in the past, Misiryaban moths used to be white until quite recently. Somehow, they changed colour. Over time, he gradually develops a theory in his book “Entstehung der Arten”, which theorized that these moths, once on a black surface, stuck out and were easily eaten by predators. The moths which were of a darker colour were more likely to survive, and thus the number of dark moths would increase over time relative to lighter moths. He then began to extrapolate this theory to all life on earth, a rather dangerous contention, as some religious and political leaders hate the theory for it implies that humans could have gradually evolved from other forms of life.

-Unfortunately, just as the theory begins to spread out of Laubergia, the excited discussion on it is interrupted by the plague, scything through the land and killing many in its path. The army (which by this point is backwards, underfunded, and decrepit) is told to go home. Practically the entire army deserts and were it not for the plague, the country would be utterly defenceless. Even after the plague clears, it’s hardly competent, for most drills have been banned by nearby towns due to the noise it makes. Horse races are common between noblemen in the army along with gamblers betting in the barracks and parade grounds. Meanwhile, homeless people sleep in the prisons, and one prison guard says “anybody who doesn’t escape from the prison is lazy”, as he lies back before smoking a pipe and playing chess with one of the prisoners.

-A most curious doctor set himself up in Viikuru, and soon developed a burgeoning business. He promises that his own special treatment for the plague is better than the treatments used by people elsewhere (disparaging foreign doctors who go into the streets of the capital city, trying to sell ineffective and often dangerous medicines). His treatment is wholly different. The treatment is take a red hot poker and burst the buboes in the armpits, before cutting a pigeon in half and tying it to the wound.

-To cover the severe depopulation and to boost agricultural production, the Queen borrows a lot of money to try and pay workers to farm the land. Unfortunately, this does not prevent land being abandoned, so the state is now legally entitled to seize land from plague victims and to join up the plots. These plots are then worked on by state paid farmers. Normally, this would produce a lot of problems but for now agricultural production does not decline too much. A lot of plots are joined together and large ploughs are used to work the land, whilst vast fields and pastures are used for crop rotation. Unfortunately, the treasurer reports a large deficit, and so they are forced to convert a lot of former cropland to pasture (such as sheep and cattle) to reduce labour costs. The experiment is a success, but transporting live animals is costly (along with their meat). Wool is popular though, and part of the economic revival is marked by the growth of villages spinning and weaving wool.

-The Laubergians open up their ports to trade indefinitely (save for plague), and abolish tariffs on trade. This has the impact of boosting coastal trade, albeit at the cost of massively reducing income for the state. Whilst in the long run this massively improves trade and industry in the Reich, initially it’s a great way for the Greeks and other foreigners to buy goods at low prices and sell their own goods here. Many manufactured goods flow into Laubergia and many farmers can be seen with fancy new steel tools, new animal breeds, and a lot of money in their pockets. They spend much of this cash on the improvement and construction of toll roads along with some of the first canals in Laubergia (built by Misiryabani engineers).

MisiryabanFlag
KingArcher – Misiryaban Caliphate
Capital: Misiryaban
Culture: Turkish (Altaic)
State Religion: Islam (Sunni)

-Engineers are still intrigued by the steam pump and the ability of steam to do work. One engineer is given a model to repair, and realizes that in actual fact, it’s pretty shit. He decides to create a separate chamber for steam to condense in and then scales up the model. Continual improvements along with patents eventually result in a large beam engine powered by low pressure steam. Initially, very few people are interested in it, save for mine owners. To try and make it more popular, he spends a great deal of time and money inventing a crankshaft mechanism in order to turn a wheel, so as to drive various machines. This enterprise fails as well, until an unexpected visitor arrives. The plague kills so many labourers that many factories and mines are desperate for an automated source of energy which only requires two men and a lad (there’s always a lad). The inventor did not live to reap his rewards however, as he died due to complications arising from taking a plague cure. His steam engines however, are the first spark in a revolution that will sweep away the old order and introduce the age of machine. For now however, very few of his engines see widespread use until the mid-10th century, at which point increasing labour costs brings about their advent.

-On a plateway, one mad engineer comes up with a brilliantly strange idea. He suggests that by laying iron pipes sealed with leather, then using steam pumps to create vacuums in the tubes, one could cause wagons to move under their own power along them. The idea is excitingly funded by the Misiryabani state, despite high costs and a large number of initial setbacks. Firstly, the pipes crack under the pressure, so new casting methods and leather must be used to seal the gap. Several engines explode or are too weak or ill placed, resulting in more modification. The rats tend to enjoy eating the leather, but eventually, an 800 metre stretch of track is completed to move goods from a foundry to a port. It continues with such problems throughout its life, leading the company to operate at a near loss. However, a ship from the far west brings back a new material that could be the answer to the solution. Called “rubber”, if heated with sulphur, it can produce a strong and durable material for the atmospheric railway that is not only suitable to replace leather with, but is not very tasty for rats to eat. Rubber imports grow, and soon the company manages to reduce operating costs. Some other people are interested in the enterprise, building atmospheric railways in low numbers over the country, usually upgrading the most heavily used plateways. The Misiryaban state however, regulates that barring geographic considerations, that 7 foot wide railways are to be used in all cases. This allows for large wheels to be fixed to the sides of wagons, reducing the height, air friction, and exploiting the square cube law in order to hold more cargo. By the mid-10th century, several of these railways exist, but changing the rolling stock and upgrading, building, and maintaining lines is difficult due to the inherent problems with using pressurized pipes. Some collieries and individual industrial areas adopt these on a smaller scale, or even use stationary engines to pulls wagons with chains instead. On a test run, the land speed record is set at 46kmph.

-The plague arrives in Misiryaban, and unfortunately, it hits just as hard as everywhere else. Whilst they did have some information from the Bohemians about the incoming disease, little could prepare them for the actual thing. Arriving via shipborne trade, it initially spreads throughout the urban areas before spreading out into the countryside. The authorities are terrified and have little idea of how to react to something so devastatingly awful, attempting punitive attempts at quarantine that took several years to isolate the disease in its entirety. For the already infected there is hope with the doctors prowling the streets and preaching their cures, for a most curious doctor set himself up in Misiryaban, and soon developed a burgeoning business. He promised that his own special treatment for the plague is better than the treatments used by people elsewhere (disparaging foreign doctors who go into the streets of the capital city, trying to sell ineffective and often dangerous medicines). His treatment is wholly different. The treatment is take sulphur powder and grain flour, before mixing it with goat droppings and rosemary before applying the mixture to the wound. Three million people die.

-An attempt was also made to utilize steam power for ships, firstly with the construction of the smallest yet most powerful steam engine made to date. It is fitted into a rather weird wooden ship, which is not only incredibly unstable and must be heavily reinforced with thick wood, but is slow and unwieldy. Large modified waterwheel paddles are fixed to the sides of the ship, and most curiously, can be operated independently of each other, meaning it is possible for the ship to spin in place. The first launch goes horrifically wrong when the ship capsizes at launch. It requires salvaging the costly engine and improvement of the ship body to make it stable, if difficult to steer. The first test run goes well in the North Sea, and the ship makes its way to Arhonia to dock at their main port. Unfortunately, due to an inability to steer it, the ship crashed into the main pier and completely shattered it, along with destroying several warehouses. The ship is so utterly beset by failure that it takes up new life as a mobile artillery platform for siege engines, and even then, requires towing by smaller sailing boats or to use masts most of the time.

-The Misiryabanis (with assistance from their Irish allies) invade Wales, subjugating the area considerably quickly. Cross cultural influence was already pretty strong, with many Imans operating in the country. Politically